The Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the Republic of Uzbekistan
The Uzbek State University of World Languages
Translation Theory and
Q U A L I F I C A T I O N P A P E R
Shukhrillo “The Buried without Shroud”
(Ellipsis in Translation)
(pp. 255 – 305)
Written by: the student of the group 411
Scientific Advisor: Senior Teacher
Reviewer: Senior Teacher
Tashkent – 2011
Chapter I. Translation of the extract of the book “The Buried without Shroud” (pp. 255-305) by Shukhrillo ………………………………………….5
Chapter II. The Analysis of the Scientific topic – Ellipsis in Translation.
2.1 Theoretical Problem of Ellipsis ………………………………………….47
2.2 The Definition of Ellipsis …………………………………………………49
2.3 Collection of Ellipsis ………………………………………………………54
2.4 The Structural and Semantic Analysis of Words Expressing Insult from the extract of the book « The Buried without Shroud » written by Shukhrillo from Uzbek into English. …………………………………………………………56
2.5 The Ways of Translation of Ellipsis……………………………………….58
2.6 The Difficulties in the Translation of Ellipsis ……………………………..62
At present in the Republic of Uzbekistan the question about educational and scientific developments assumes the great importance. The president of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, speaking about the role of the science by preparation of the harmoniously developed young generation, underlines the following: « In present conditions it is impossible to speak about the progress in isolation from the question of scientific developments. Today with a view of the development the most perspective scientific researches and prospecting works, being at the center of attention of scientific community of the developed states, it is necessary to create new laboratories in the system of The Academy of Sciences and institutes of higher education, to adjust their effective cooperation with leading foreign centers of science. Time dictates that this point of the question was considered by us as one of the most actual ».1
The qualification paper entitled "Translation of the novel (255-305 pages) “The Buried without Shroud” written by Shukhrillo and Ellipsis in Translation” deals with translation skills from Uzbek into English and analysis the Ellipsis used in the context.
The actuality of the Work. To translate something requests some difficulties, especially, translation from Uzbek into English. It requests more experienced ability and tightly attention with delightful patient. That's why, while translating, translator should take into consideration three requirements: source text, target text and the reader. Each interpreter may obviously pay more attention to the reader and who must be occupied the interior of translator’s attention. This work is a new one, because it was not done before. Insult words are used widely in every speech. Translation of Ellipsis from Uzbek, defining and showing the difficulties is actuality of the work.
The aim of the paper is to seek out the translation problems of Ellipsis in the novel, compare it between both languages, to discover and display the translation difficulties, ways and some problems.
The tasks of the paper are the followings:
to study widely theoretical grammar and translation theory;
to study the opinions of scientists related to Ellipsis;
to determine the Ellipsis in the translated text;
to compare the Ellipsis in both languages;
to analyze the translation problems of them and so on
The theoretical importance of the work. Studying translation problems of Ellipsis shows the fact that equivalence is crucial and be encountered by the translator. This work helps to enrich or to build a basis to develop translation theory. While translating Uzbek novel into English to determine Ellipsis in respect of theoretical is important part of the work.
The practical value of the Paper. This work can be used in all kinds of lectures, seminars and conferences. This work before had not been done, so that, which can be used not only in translation theory may be in each conference of literary theory.
The structure of the Work. The work consists of an Introduction, two chapters, conclusion and the list of used literature.
Introduction highlights actuality, aim, tasks, theoretical and practical values and others.
The first chapter consists of translation of the novel from Uzbek into English.
The second chapter discusses the analyzing scientific topic and translation analysis of the topic which had been used in the translated extract of the book
Conclusion draws the results, which are the outcome of the whole work. Bibliography includes all the sources we want to use.
Chapter I. Translation of the extract of the book “Buried without Shroud” (pp. 255-305) by Shukhrillo
After coming back from Satarov Ubaydulla was trying to print a newspaper named “Sadoi Turkistan” in the Uzbek language. So he was waiting for governor’s permission. His friends talk was a hint for hit.
How can I change?
Not “Sadoi Turkistan” it would be clearer if you can change it into “Sadoi Qullar”?
And it was a joke, of course.
Ubaydulla said smiling:
In fact, it must be like that, but they don’t agree to print it under that name. Besides, it is very democratic, bitter truth. But it is very obvious, naked! Nakedness doesn’t fit to Oriental ethics – saying he turned in into joke.
But, in fact Ubaydulla’s purpose from printing this newspaper was the same. But they didn’t exact whether the government permits or not “Sadoi Qullar”. After all, Ubatdulla was considered as a dangerous man for a tsar government. Especially he was suspected in a close connecting with Bolsheviks. The government started being in dough which could publicize an idea of Bolsheviks. At that time Turkistan Confidential offices and military governors began writing letters with a fear to the center, to the tsar government offices in order to know why these “sarts” need to print a newspaper in such kind of chaos in Russia, what do they aim at? What will they write about?
In 1913, November 1, a military governor of Sirdarya sent a secret letter to the minister of Confidential department of Turkistan as follows.
Most respectfull Sir, I would like to inform you that Ubaydulla Asadullayevich Hujayev who was a “sart” of Tashkent, living in street Romanovskiy, house 16, wrote an application asking permission for printing a newspaper called “Sadoi Turkistan” in the native language of Muslim people in Tashkent.
accept colonel for
Ubaydulla was very nervous and infuriated as they didn’t permit soon. But anger and wratch can fade. And this contempt in heart will be unforgetable. When it is recalled hatred changes in to anger. It makes anger stronger.
Seeing Asadulla Mahsum his condition said:
You tell me “I fight” – It is necessary to fight! But what about results? Do you know, what is a fight? Do you have any idea about it?
Yes, I have. Fight is – vicroty – answered Ubaydulla.
You are right! But what is winning! While Ubaydulla was finding an answer, his father said:
How will you win? What does victory consist of? – he went on.
To win is to get the victory.
What does is consist of? Is it to take captive or to kill? Perhaps, it is to forgive?
All of them.
Do you agree to die? – asked Asadulla Mahsum getting angry with his son’s answer.
But Ubaydulla didn’t get angry and he didn’t want to make his father angry and said seriously:
Someone who is insulted or even humiliated wont start fighting! Insulted and humiliated person doesn’t afraid of death. Will he escape the death, no never!
Hearing his son’s answer, the father found out that he couldn’t stop him from this way and believed that everything depend on his son’s fate. While they were arguing his brother Bashrillo came and sat at the corner and started listening to their discussion. Ubaydulla looked at his brother Bashrillo, there was a hope in his eyes, he wanted to know his opinion on this case, but Bashrillo kept silent. While they were solving such kind of serious problems his brother was sitting light-hearted. Ubaydulla was irritated from it. But he didn’t aware that Bashrillo was feeling what kind of danger and displeasures in his heart at that moment. But now Bashrillo is not a child anymore. He knew about forthcoming trouble and suffering of his brother and knew that he couldn’t avoid it as well, because they had a common thing to do. By all means Bashrillo participated in organizing the organization called “Umid” (Hope). “Sadoi Turkistan” is the newspaper of this organization. It wasn’t in vain to permit printing the newspaper “Sadoi Turkistan” by the secret political police of Turkistan. It was aimed at using newspaper as a trap. Because the members of the organization and its chief need concrete evidence for punishing Ubaydulla. And it might be carried out just through the newspaper. The government announced the arrest of Ubaydulla, but they were not against his freedom. There wasn’t any way and other causes except arrest of such, the most irreterate and dangerous enemy Ubaydulla for tsar Russia. It was the main source that made Bashrillo thinks over. Vadim Chaykin also thought that now it is was not a time to print a newspaper (it was dangerous) at the time of world war, it was dangerous. When Bashrillo told his all suffers and sorrows his brother Ubaydulla suddenly burst out of laugh.
Ubaydulla knew that such kind of things happened. For what did he live in a harsh Russia in vain far from his own native land in deprivation? He thought about hidden organizations activities, crime in the view of government as well as what measures, answers and reasons can be taken against these activities. He thought in advance what was necessary to write in a newspaper and the ways of exposing tsar policy.
Although Ubaydulla was considered to be one of the most dangerous enemies of tsar government, its efforts were in vain due to his much knowledge in the sphere of law. He was very practical and obstinate to get his aim. Ubaydulla will begin exposing or plundering policy of Russia with a great skill in initial printed articles of the newspaper “Sadoi Turkistan” which he organized himself and became its chief editor. And then even the most merciless fraud tsar gendarme cannot find a chance putting him into a trap and blaming. He will use “Malehulqabih” which was used in the East and which he has heard from his father. Although it seems as a praising, in fact the target is to explore drawbacks.
In 1915 Russian people begin preparing to celebrate ceremony of 50th anniversary. Ubaydulla won’t skip this ceremony. He called his article “A preparation for the anniversary” which was written in 1994, May 25, devoted to the anniversary.
It begins like that:
In 1915, July 15, it will be 50 years to the conquest of Tashkent city by the government of Russia. (Not for joining, but for seizing conquering). The main purpose of writing the article is not joining to the people willingly but to mention about its occupation.
In the next lines of the article:
There isn’t any suspect that our Russian compatriots (not Uzbek people) are taking part in this anniversary with the great happiness and joy undoubtedly they will carry out donations and charity works.
Muslim people, what will we do in that case?
Ubaydulla didn’t put this question to Muslim people in vain. He was only going to ask how were they going to celebrate a ceremony with people who conquered them, pillaged their wealth and considered them as a dog. There was not any other purpose besides that. Of course, this question makes think everyone, who suffered from oppression.
In the next lines of the article:
They are winners who occupied the city (Russian people) so it fits to them making a great happiness. But we are defeated people who gave our native town. Will we gawp saying that we need an offence instead of satisfaction? Every person who suffered from the press of colony had to think about this question. Ubaydulla realized very well how a person who has lost his native place and freedom, might answer that question, of course. If he didn’t know about his people’s hatred against conquers he wouldn’t put this question. He wouldn’t write this article also! Never!
Ubaydulla’s article turned into the best party for Uzbek scholars but not a real ceremony. There was written odes and was read eulogies for the newspaper and its honour in response.
A praising (congratulation) letter for the newspaper “Sadoi Turkistan” which was created by the honourable Ubaydullahuja Asadullahujayev and printed in Tashkent.
Praising words which were said for Ubaydulla’s honour reflected how much he was prestigious among the people and how many people loved him. But although such kind of eulogies and odes were real, it wasn’t for Ubaydulla’s profit. Most of readers and scholars understanding the ideas of the article accepted it with a great happiness, tsar officials realized it in the same way and hated strongly. Because like “was occupied” and “people who conquered the city” words were a real fact for prohibiting to print the newspaper and punishing all members of the editorship.
The rest of the article was written with a great skill that they had to keep silent.
If you tell him who picked up a sword against you throw his sword he may think “perhaps he is going to disarm me”. Instead of throwing his sword, oppositely he tries to attack you with a fear. Instead of the word “throw away”, perhaps if he says “stop” what will he say? Perhaps, he would put his sword to its sheath for a moment understanding his capitulatory.
Ubaydulla uses such a way towards tsar government.
The rest parts of the article:
Russian government conquered our city and took away our control, our right! How is it possible to express much more and more frankly the tsar government’s oppression? If the article considered of saying such kind of things undoubtly the author would be worth of punishment.
But in the next lines of the article there is expressed with a great skill:
“The tsar government has brought a telephone, built railways, set up hospitals and trade centers and called us to development”.
Owing to these officials (governors) were forced to keep back themselves from punishing him. Ubaydulla was very intelligent man and he could solve any problems in a logical way. And he was known as a famous lawyer not only in regions of Turkistan, but in Russia as well. That’s why he was considered of a dangerous man for that government. Most of famous poets and scholars such as Kamiy, Behbudiy, Tavallo, Fitrat, Hamza, Chulpon, a devotee patriot as Sadriddinhon A’lam, many educated rich men and enlighteners as Saidnosir Mirjalol ugli couldn’t find any way to shout everywhere about their suffers. But the creation of this newspaper made them all happy. For somebody it became a great holiday and for the rest it became happiness. Unfortunately, nobody knows about the ending of this happiness and who will face up pains and depressions. The newspaper turned into a center which Uzbek educated people can meet and discuss till the morning there. They don’t only discuss having a cup of tea there. Even the river’s water isn’t enough for switching the blazed hearts’ flames off. Everybody comes there with a wail as a poor that hast lost everything which was the dearest for them. Kamiy entered the room reading his poem and Sadriddinhon A’lam came into the room saying the insults of Ivanov who was the governor of Fergana.
He says: “Thousand of sarts are not worth to the heel of a Russian soldier’s boot”.
Should we tolerate this? We are the ancestors of Amir Temur the great.
Surely can’t we find any way to avoid it?
All people came there with a wail and they looked at the newspaper as a protector.
“It is prohibited to enter the garden sarts and dogs (animals)”.
These words were written on the portal of a garden which was built in Samarkand by the governor Abramov. One of the rich men in Turkistan was informed about this script. He was Saidnosir Mirjalil ugli. He was the best friend of Ubaydulla and he spent some money for printing the newspaper.
Reading about this script and hearing such kind of insults, how can we wait any honestly from them? Isn’t it enough for us to decide any conclusion? Oh my God! How much can we become patient? – Came with such sword. The youngest man among them was Chulpon. He was from Andijan but studied in Tashkent. When he was studying in Tashkent, he became closer to the scholars of Tashkent and he knew well Russian and world literature among Uzbek people at that time. He made friends with Ubaydulla and began to write poems. Not only Uzbek people, but all Turkish people who depends on Russia had an aversion for the oppression of Russia. He reads a poem which had written by a Tatar port Abdulla Tuqay. He called Russia police as “An angel of Death” and servants of padishakh as “a group of brutal”. He was listening to his all friends sorrows and was thinking about it. When he heard the poem of Tuqay which was read by Chulpon, Ubzydulla began to applaud turning red from the exite. Because it wasn’t only about Tatar people, it was the sorrows of Turkish people, Ubaydulla resolved a difficult problem independently owing to this poem. At those years Bolsheviks began to fight against the tsar government by the under leadering of Lenin. They started to propagate among Russian workers in Turkistan for organizing a proletariat government. Bolshevoy’s such activiries made Ubaydulla think over it. He understood that these activities were a form of fighting for ruling the country, not for freedom to Turkistan. Russian Mensheviks-socialist revolutionaries were wanting to set a bourgeoisie government up instead of padishakh whom should we supply in this fight.
Ubaydulla had a clear idea on this issue. He was against to Bolshovoys, Mensheviks-socialist revolutionaries also. He believed that both of them hadn’t any purpose about liberating them from the oppression of tsar government and the establishing of peace. He only wanted to restore a free and independent country, Great Turan. He was absolutely sured that Turkish Muslims who lived on the banks (sea shore) of the Black sea till the Ural as Tatars, Yakeets, Kazakhs and Krims people.
Ubaydulla’s first aim was to comment these issues in his newspaper. A consentaneity and in Abdulla Tuqay’s poem was the cause for Ubaydulla’s endless happiness. If Turkish people didn’t unite they would not achieve their freedom.
But it is a pity!
This fleeting world is full of unexpected and logical accidents. Owing to the God’s will we may suddenly be happy or we may loose everything our hopes also. Suddenly said Kamolhon entered the room with a bad news over their conversation. This bad news has improved Ubaydulla and his friends’ sorrows. Ubaydulla got angry with insult and oppress. Said Kamolhon was an enlightener, orientalist and a great scolar and he was sent to Peterburg by the Russian padishakh Nikolai II’s invitation. He taught the Turkish, the Persian and the Arabic languages at Peterburg University. He didn’t teach only at the University he also taught daughter of Nikolai II Eastern people’s customs and traditions, culture, history and the weather and he was their own teacher. They became spiritually rich teacher our culture and history to their children. We poor people, had not any chance for opening a school in order to teach our children.
Why did they need to study the history of Turkistan? Because, we are slaves and their children are owners of slaves. Their children should learn such kind of colony’s customs and traditions, their characters, geography and history in order to ruling of them in the future. They have bad intentions. They didn’t want to set free the people of Turkistan.
Russian people are going to announce a fight against to German in recent days. It is evidence to the starting of world war, isn’t it? Only God knows about its results. Hearing this information people surprised and kept silent for a moment. All of a sudden what could they say? But one of them who concluded (came to the conclusion) about this war, said:
This is a compliment (kindness) of God for us! A Godsence!
Verdicting in advance is haste, isn’t it? A white dog or a black dog is a dog, isn’t it?
If it doesn’t trouble us, what shall we do?
It was very difficult to come an exact conclusion about the effects of beginning world war to the people of Turkistan. But everybody who has heard this news was thinking over about the future of Turkistan! Their mind was busy with this question!
What can they have except freedom, nation and native land!
Let’s beg for God that they won’t win the victory!
It is true! How much it becomes stronger and powerful it will range for people. Their oppression will so grow for us. Because they won’t afraid of anybody and think themselves the best.
If will German win the victory?
My dear friends who will be winner and who will be loser? It isn’t interesting for us. There isn’t any profit for us. Great countries, perhaps great invaders (it may be correct if we call them great) never strive toward the benefit of small states. If a great country occupy other small states and exterminate the whole population another great state will not protect them, never! They try to flee. Because they are afraid of breaking-up relations between them.
Pharang people occupied a lot of Arabic countries. But which great country did say if it was unfairness and plundering? No one asked:
Don’t you afraid of God?
English people killed people in order to occupy to our neighbor Afghanistan and what about you on Russians? – who did ask so?
Why will you rule the country before me?
Munavvar Qori was glad of Ubaydulla’s conclusion. Because he realized this problem very well and answered philosophical with nimbleness. Munavar Qori said:
We should think much more about tsar government attitude toward us during the beginning war instead of thinking about the results (ending) of war. At this moment this is our important task. We should be more attentively!
What will they do? Will they become more closer us in a fear of other colonies rebellion or will they grow their oppression for us?
Many things depend on it.
It’s a pity that our attitude is clearly known?
Because purpose is to fight for independence. And tsar officials and other people of padishakh knew about it. They always controlled our activities our every steps, our aims and printing newspaper and journals and checked them all. This is a proof of their suspect to us.
Who did complain of evil deeds of Russian official, governor and gendarmes in Turkistan! He was Ubaydullahuja! Wasn’t he Ubaydullahuja? His complaints were not orally. He complained about the pranks of local Russian officials, tyrannies in suppressing rebellions by the pained people of Turkistan to the Duma (state court) in Petrograd with his colleague a Russian journalist Vadim Chaykin. Who did organize this secret organization “Umid” (Hope) and who was the leader of it?
Who could organize a newspaper “Sadoi Turkistan” and could expose about tsar governments oppression policy and their brutal conquer of Turkistan in his articles? Was he Ubaydulla? Ubaydulla’s such kind of activities against to the government were known not only to the Russian secret office, but to the people of padishakh’s palace. When Russia began fighting with a great and terrible enemt as German he didn’t let to Ubaydulla and his friends to be free.
Usually it was prohibited every organization’s and parties’ activities during the war. Due to this reason leaders were jailed (taken to the jail, prison), not only their editions. It was clear that Ubaydulla could face with such kind of dangers. Ubaydulla has felt that this war brought such unexpected troubles to the people of Turkistan and to him.
At the moment of presently world war we should think much more to protect ourselves and to find any chance of not being a victom to the enemies instead of how to fight for the independence of the future of Turkistan.
My dear friends! Perhaps you can live for 50 or 100 years!
What about living with a suffer in 100 years and what about escaping from these sorrows in a moment? At once he wanted to shout with a high voice:
Being homeless is more difficult than becoming a victim on this way!
It is time to revolt for freedom and liberation, isn’t it?
Who will be a winner, German or Russian? It is not time for dreaming of it. Ubaydulla stared at people who were sitting near to him. He couldn’t notice it. It was his last word at that day. In 1914, April 19, Ubaydulla was taken to the prison shackled his hands at midnight.