The readings include an exploration of how api's with disabilities have accessed or not accessed vocational rehabilitation. In 2-3 pages and using the resource readings

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The readings include an exploration of how API's with disabilities have

accessed or not accessed vocational rehabilitation.  In 2-3 pages and

using the resource readings, describe why you think API's may have had

difficulty utilizing VR services and what you think could be changed

that may increase their utilization of VR.
Disabilities and Asian Pacific Islander Americans
As with many socioeconomic indicators, the incidence and prevalence of disability reported among APIA’s has often been lower than other ethnic/racial populations and sometimes the majority population as well. There are a number of reasons why these figures require a second look.
First, about the only national data available regarding disability among APIA’s are found in the U.S. Census. Census data is self reported data. APIA’s may not see themselves as having disability and APIA’s who do use English as a second language may not understand the specific questions. Associated with this is the issue related to underreporting of APIA’s by Census workers. Other disability data are found in surveys such as the Health Interview Survey but while groups such as Blacks and Hispanics have been oversampled to ensure generalization, APIA’s have not been and thus data are unreliable and of little use in understanding disability.
Second, APIA data are often presented as aggregated data as total numbers of APIA’s are still relatively small in comparison with Blacks and Hispanic Americans. As noted earlier, APIA’s include many different populations with different immigration patterns and history in the U.S. Differences between 5th generation Japanese Americans and 1st generation southeast Asian immigrant may easily be masked when data for both are grouped together in aggregate fashion.


“Diverse Communities, Diverse Experiences: The Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the U.S.” Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum
Disability within APIA communities is viewed or perceived in many different ways. Generally, the perceptions of disabilities are negative and often influenced by cultural/religious values that disabilities occur as result of behaviors or sins of other family members. Because of these negative perceptions associated with disability, disabilities are not something that the individual or family feels proud of and because it may reflect negatively on the family they are not to be kept open but rather something that should not be made public.
Important Variables

in working with APIA’s

  • History – of country of origin, relationships with the U.S., etc.

  • Immigration patterns – how long in the U.S., communities, refugee status, etc.

  • Generational status – how many in U.S., differences in perception, etc.

  • Age – individual age at immigration, developmental processes,

  • Gender – male/females differences, roles, responsibilities, etc.

  • Acculturation – degree of, language, values, traditions

  • Between group differences – origin, specific history

  • Individuals


Chapters on Asian populations in Stone(ed) (2004) Culture and Disability, Sage Publications
Jeong, Alex (1999) A Handicapped Korean in America (pp. 690-74)

In Min, P.G. and Kim, R. (eds) Struggle for Ethnic Identity

Alta Mira Press, Walnut Creek, CA

chapter on Asian Americans

Purnell, L.D. and B.J. Paulanka (2003) Transcultural Health Care F.A. Davis: Philadelphia

Chapters 7, 9, 14, 16

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