THE PUBLISHER’S WORD
In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful
All praise is due to Allah Whose mercy is not desponded and forgiveness is not despaired of. The best blessings and peace be upon the keeper of His revelation, the seal of His messengers, the foreteller of His mercy, and the warner against His punishment—the Prophet Mohammed. The blessings and peace be, too, upon his family and household through whom the right has regained its proper place and the wrong has been overthrown. Curse be on their enemies among the people of disagreement and hypocrisy who have brought to themselves the sins and made themselves the subject of Hell.
The Imamite Shia are still known of their faithful loyalty to the Prophet’s household, peace be upon them all, since the glorious Prophet had unearthed his immortal mission to mankind. He, however, kept on giving credit to the lofty standings and the qualities by which the Shia should be characterized. In view of that, they were the matter of the glorious Prophet’s glad tidings that he (s) carried. He said:
The Shia of Ali will be the true winners.1
O Ali, Allah has forgiven you, your progeny, your sons, your household, your Shia –adherents-, and the adorers of your Shia.2
These three books —namely, al-Mawaaizh, Sifat ush-Shia, and Fadhaa’il ush-Shia— that are at the hands of the dear reader are indeed precious moral gems presented to the adherents of the Prophet’s household. They are the works of the master Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah have mercy upon him, who compiled them in different times.
The translator has depended, in his work, on the copy that is published by Al-Maarif Al-Islamiyya Foundation – Qum, and revised by Mr. Mahmoud Al-Badri who exerted remarkable efforts for advancing these precious compilations in such a noteworthy form.
In addition to the original texts of the books, most of the information, notes, and comments that the reviser has added are translated for the purpose of expanding the scope of information and making the contents more understandable and more accessible to all. Furthermore, a brief biography of the compiler Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah may have mercy upon him, is added so as to introduce this unique personality to the readers.
Ansariyan Publications, undertaking the mission of propagandizing for the sect of Ahl ul-Bayt (a) and publicizing the precious immortal works of the master scholars of Shiism, is pleased to advance these three precious works, all in one book, to the dear readers and the seekers of the truth.
We hope the dear reader would find this work convenient and guide to the human perfection and we implore to Allah, Exalted is He, to grant us success to keep on offering the dear readers with the valuable gems of the Islamic heritage.
Ansariyan Publications, 2001.
THE REVISER’S WORD
All praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds. All blessings and peace be upon Mohammed and his family—the pure and immaculate. All mercy and content be upon all their adorers and adherents. The content of Allah be upon the Prophet’s companions who honestly followed him.
It is well known that Shiism, as a sect and belief, was not the fruit of the political circumstances that took place after the death of the glorious Prophet (s) when some people usurped the leadership from its legal master in the Saqifa of the Banu Saaida. It was also not the product of the political circumstances that came about during the reign of Imam Ali (a) when the Prophet’s widow (Aisha) mutinied, calling for the revenge on those who shed the blood of the killed caliph after she had provoked all people against that very killed caliph in his lifetime, and history has kept her famous call, ‘Kill Naathat1, for he has converted to atheism.’
Shiism, also, was not the product of the political circumstances that occurred when Muawiya mutinied, carrying the shirt of Othman2 and calling for the revenge on his killers. That event, however, was the reason beyond the founding of the Khawarij3 one of whose members killed Amir ul-Mu'minin (a) while he was offering a prayer in his mihrab.
Shiism, too, is not the product of the political circumstances that the Muslims had to encounter after the savage massacre of Karbala, which was committed against the Prophet’s household (a) at the hands of the Umayyad ruling authorities.
It is quite true that Shiism was not the product of any of the previous circumstances, as some please to say. Shiism came to light and appeared on the theater of the political and religious life since the first sparks of the Islamic history. The embracers of Shiism raised the slogan of the love and loyalty to the Prophet’s household, peace be upon them all, adopted their goals, and believed purely that they are the most meritorious of taking the position of the Prophet (s). They also believed that Imam Ali bin Abi Talib —Amir ul-Mu'minin, the head of the religion, the leader of the white-forheaded honorables, the husband of the pure lady, the father of the two grandsons (of the Prophet) al-Hasan and al-Hussein— is the true successor of the Prophet (s) the door to the city of his knowledge, and the keeper of his wisdom. They also believed that the immaculate Imams are the true successors of the Prophet (s) the leaders of his community, and the conveyers of his divine mission.
The dawn of Shiism broke since the first days of the blessed prophetic mission. It was the Prophet (s) who planted this blessed seed, cultivated, and supervised it all over the stages of his noble lifetime. This can be proved through the many hadiths that attached the quality of Shiism to the followers of Imam Ali (a) praised them, and revealed to them the glad tidings of having the highest ranks in the Supreme Paradise.
The Prophet (s) said:
O Ali, you, as well as your Shia, will join me on the Divine Pool.1
O Ali, your Shia and you will come to Allah with content and pleasure. Your enemies will come with anger and will be unable to bend their heads to find their ways.1
On the Day of Resurrection, Ali and his Shia will be the winners.2
O Ali, Allah has forgiven you, your progeny, your sons, your household, your Shia, and the adorers of your Shia.3
The Shia of Ali will be the true winners.4
Moreover, the hadith that is called ‘Hadith ud-Dar’ is one of the strongest irrefutable evidences on our claim.
((At-Tabari, in his book of history, records that Ibn Abbas narrated that Ali bin Abi Talib (a) said:
After the revelation of the Verse, “And warn your nearest relations,” the Prophet (s) summoned me and said: “O Ali, Allah had ordered me to warn my near relatives, but I was unable to bear this order because I knew that they would show me detestable things if I would approach such a matter with them. I therefore kept it secret until the Archangel Gabriel came to me and said that my Lord would punish me if I would shun that order. Now, I want you to make some food with meat of a ewe and bring a jar of milk for us, then gather the sons of Abdul-Muttalib so that I will speak to them and convey the matter that I was ordered to convey.”
I did as he asked me and invited them. They were about forty men among whom there were his uncles—Abu Talib, Hamza, al-Abbas and Abu Lahab. When they all attended, he asked me to fetch that food and I did. When I put it before them, the Prophet (s) took a piece of the meat, tore it with his teeth, threw its pieces around the bowl, then said: “Here you are, by the Name of Allah.” Each one of them took his sufficiency completely and I could see only the places of their hands. I swear by Allah, each one of them ate the quantity that I served to all of them. The Prophet (s) then asked me to serve milk to them. I fetched that jar and they all drank from it. By Allah I swear, each one of them drank the quantity that I served to all of them.
When the Prophet (s) tried to speak, Abu Lahab overtook and prevented him from speaking. He said: “This man has bewitched you.” Hence, they left without letting the Prophet (s) speak to them.
On the next day, the Prophet said to me: “O Ali, that man overtook me and said the statement that you had heard. They left before I could speak to them. Make for us food like that which you did then gather them to me.”
I did and invited them all. He then asked me to serve them the food. I served it for them and he repeated the same thing that he had done the previous day. Each one of them had his sufficiency completely. He then asked me to serve them with the milk. I fetched the same jar and they all drank from it to their sufficiency. Then, the Prophet (s) spoke:
“O sons of Abdul-Muttalib, I do not know any young Arab man who has brought to his people a thing that is better than that which I have brought to you. I have brought to you the goodness of this world as well as the world to come. Allah, Exalted is He, has ordered me to call you to accept this matter. Which one of you will support me in this regard and he will be my brother, successor, and representative among you?”
They all kept silent except me. I said, while I was the youngest among them, “O the Prophet of Allah, I will be your supporter in this matter.” I repeated this statement three times.
The Prophet (s) then took me from the neck and said: “This is my brother, successor, and representative among you. You thus should listen to and obey him.”
They left him laughing and saying to Abu Talib: “He has ordered you to listen to and obey your son!”))1
A deep look in this holy hadith proves that the Prophet (s) asked his near relatives, according to the order of Allah, to confess of the oneness of Allah the Exalted and his divine mission, and then ordered them to listen to and obey his brother, successor, and representative Ali bin Abi Talib (a). In other words, the Prophet (s) ordered them to follow and comply with Ali—to be his Shia. The meaning of Shiism is to listen to, obey, and follow.
As a result, the seed of Shiism and the seed of Islam were planted on the same day in the same time at the same hand. All the Muslims who were with the Prophet (s) believed in his prophesy and mission, committed themselves to that which he ordered, listened to him, obeyed him, and listened to and obeyed the one whom he ordered to obey. That one was his cousin, brother, successor, and representative Ali bin Abi Talib (a).
They were considered as listeners and obedient to the Prophet (s) only when they carried out his order of listening to and obeying Ali (a). It was the same order that Allah gave. Consequently, their compliance with the order of the Prophet means their adherence, i.e. Shiism, to Ali, because Shiism means to listen to, obey, and follow.
The light of Shiism, then, glared along with the light of Islam in the Arab Peninsula. The grand companions who believed in the oneness of Allah and the divine message of the Prophet accepted, in the same time, the obligatory loyalty to Ali. Meanwhile, others, among those who turned on their backs just after the death of the Prophet, stood against him.
This work is in fact three books whose topics are connected to each other. One of them, namely Sifat ush-Shia, focuses the lights on the qualities that the Shia should have within their moralities. Without such qualities, the Shia would not have won such abundant merits to which the second book, namely Fadhaa’il ush-Shia, refers. The third book, namely al-Mawaaizh, compiles the maxims and words of wisdom that are said by the Prophet and the Imams, peace be upon them all, on various occasions. It is necessary for the Shiite, before others, to apply such maxims to himself, because they are surely great masterpieces and moral principals.
A deep look into these maxims and qualities proves the fact that the embracement of Shiism is not mere words that everyone can say or ordinary love for Amir ul-Mu'minin, as some think. The true Shiite is only he who commits himself to those qualities and applies them to his conducts. The true Shiite is only that whom Imam al-Baqir (a) describes in the following words:
“O Jabir, do you think that it is sufficient for those who claim being Shia to say that they cherish us; the Prophet’s household?
By Allah I swear, our adherents –Shia- are only those who fear and obey Allah. Their signs are modesty, submission, fulfillment of the trusts, very much reference to Allah, fasting, offering prayers, piety to (their) parents, aiding the neighbors especially the poor, the destitute, the indebted, and the orphans, truth, reciting the Quran, and avoiding mentioning people except for praising. In addition, they are the most trustful of the people of their tribes.
Do not misunderstand the matter. It is enough for a man to claim that he loves and follows Ali (a). As a matter of fact, if he claims that he loves the Prophet (s) who is preferable to Ali (a) but he does not follow the Prophet’s traditions and does not act upon his instructions, such claim of love will be definitely useless. Hence, you should fear Allah and work for the cause of obtaining that which He has in possession. There is no relation between Allah and anybody. The most favorable and honorable servants of Allah are the most God-fearing and the most pious.
O Jabir, the only means through which a servant seeks to gain Allah’s favor is the obedience to Him. We –the Prophet’s household- do not carry a patent for saving from Hell. Likewise, none of you has a claim against Allah. He whoever obeys Allah is only our disciple and whoever disobeys Him is our enemy. The loyalty to us cannot be gained except by means of diligent work and piety.”
O Allah, make my life copy the lives of Mohammed and his family. When You seize my soul, make me carry the same beliefs that Mohammed and his family carried. Make me a true adherent of Amir ul-Mu'minin. I, also, implore to You to record for me success, for the efforts that I have exerted in this regard, and reward on the Day of Judgment. I implore to You to save us from the pursuance of passions and the making of errors and endow upon us with righteousness and appositeness.
All praise is due to Allah, Who guided us to this. Without his guidance, we would not have been right.
Mahmoud al-Badri, 2000.