|The Election of 1824:
There were four presidential candidates:
Andrew Jackson – of Tennessee
Henry Clay – of Kentucky
William H. Crawford – of Georgia
John Quincy Adams – of Massachusetts
Jackson had the strongest personal appeal – especially in the West.
No one won a majority and the vote went to the House of Reps.
Henry Clay was Speaker of the House – and very influential.
Clay swung the vote for Adams – and Adams made Clay his Secretary of State.
The Corrupt Bargain:
Jacksonians raised the roar of “Corrupt Bargain.”
Jackson condemned Clay as the “Judas of the West.”
The Puritan Misfit in the Presidential Chair:
John Quincy Adams was even more frigidly austere than his father.
He ranks as one of the most successful Secretaries of State – yet one of the least successful Presidents.
He declined to oust efficient officeholders for political supporters.
The Tariff of Abominations:
In 1824 Monroe had boosted the tariff to 37%.
Jacksonites rigged a bill to push the duties as high as 45%, and to impose a heavy tariff on wool.
But the New Englanders were anxious to continue the principle of protection.
The Tariff was passed in 1828.
Southern hotheads branded it the “Black Tariff” or the “Tariff of Abominations.”
Why did the South, especially South Carolina, react so angrily against the tariff?
The Old South was the least flourishing of all the sections.
She was seeking a scapegoat, and the tariff proved to be a convenient and plausible one.
The South Carolina Exposition and Nullification:
South Carolina’s legislature published in 1828 “the South Carolina Exposition.”
It was written by Vice-President – John C. Calhoun.
It proposed that the states should nullify the tariff within their boarders.
Trying to protect the South from the “tyranny of the majority” he felt nullification preserved the Union and prevented secession.
The Election of 1828:
Republicans ran John Quincy Adams.
Democrats ran Andrew Jackson
Mudslinging reached a disgraceful level.
Adams would not stoop to gutter tactics, but many of his backers did.
They described Jackson’s mother as a prostitute and him as an adulterer.
Rachel Jackson was crushed by the charges of bigamy and adultery.
She died before she could become First Lady.
President Adams was accused of purchasing “gaming tables” and “gambling furniture” for the “presidential palace” and for being a “pimp.”
Jackson won 178 to 83 in the electoral count.
Support for Jackson was mainly from the West and South.
John Quincy Adams – The Man 1767 – 1848
Presidential Term 1825- 1829
The Advent of “Old Hickory:”
The first President from the West, he had risen from the masses.
Essentially a frontier aristocrat, he owned many slaves, and lived in one of the finest mansions in America – the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tennessee.
While President, he ignored the Supreme Court of several occasions.
He defied or dominated Congress as few Presidents have done.
“King Andrew the First”
Symbolized the newly won ascendancy of the masses.
The masses turned it into the “inaugural brawl” and conservatives felt “King Mob” reigned.
Jackson and the Spoils System:
The Spoils System – rewarding political supporters with public office.
“To the victor belongs the spoils of the enemy.”
Jackson felt, “Every man is as good as his neighbor” and rotation of office allowed him to reward his numerous followers.
Alertness and new blood were good for government.
Samuel Swartwout was the first man to steal a million dollars from the Washington government.
Jackson’s Cabinet was mediocre except for Secretary of State – Martin Van Buren of New York.
He was known to Jackson as “Matty” and to his enemies as the “Little Magician.
Jackson’s informal advisors became known as the “Kitchen Cabinet.”
The Peggy Eaton Scandal:
Secretary of War – Eaton married the daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper, Peggy O’Neal.
She was snubbed by the ladies of Jackson’s official family, especially Mrs. Calhoun.
The Eaton scandal played into the hands of Van Buren, a widower.
Calhoun resigned the Vice-Presidency in 1832 and entered the Senate and a champion of South Carolina.
He gradually abandoned his weakening nationalism and became an inflexible defender of Southern sectionalism.
The Webster – Hayne Debate:
New England introduced a resolution designed to curb the sale of public lands.
The South, seeking sectional allies promptly sided with the West.
Robert Y. Hayne – of South Carolina – acclaimed Calhoun’s doctrine of nullification – to safeguard the minority interests of his section.
Daniel Webster was the spokesman for New England.
He insisted that the people and not the states had framed the Constitution.
“Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”
“Our Union: It must be preserved!”
Calhoun replied, “The Union, next to our liberty, most dear!”
Jackson would stand for no back talk from the states.
The Tariff of Abominations of 1828 and S. Carolina:
In 1832 a new tariff lowered the rate to 35%.
Nullifiers in S. Carolina declared the tariff null and void in S. Carolina and began to set up military preparations.
They threatened to take S. Carolina out of the Union if the Federal Government tried to collect the tax by force.
Jackson dispatched modest naval and military forces to S. Carolina.
Henry Clay came up with a compromise bill to reduce the 1832 tariff by 10% over a period of 8 years, down to 20 – 25%.
The Force Bill authorized the President to use the army and navy if necessary to collect federal tariff duties.
South Carolina then nullified the Force Bill.
Ultimately South Carolina emerged victorious.
Jackson and the Bank of the United States:
Jackson favored wildcat banks, or state banks.
Henry Clay pushed for a premature re-chartering of the Bank in 1832.
If Jackson signed it – he would alienate the West.
If he vetoed it he would alienate the wealthy, influential East.
Jackson said: “The Banks is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.”
Nicholas Biddle was the banks president.
Charges of corruption against the Bank:
Biddle cleverly lent funds where they would make influential friends.
At one time Daniel Webster was director, chief paid counsel and its debtor in the sum of thousands of dollars, and a member of the Senate.
Judicious loans by Biddle to newspaper editors likewise insured a “good press.”
Benefits of the Bank:
It was an eminently sound organization.
It kept Western banks under control, reducing bank failures and issuing sound Bank notes.
It was a safe depository for the funds of the Washington government.
Jackson won the election 219 to 49.
Jackson pulled Federal funds out of the Bank of the United States and deposited them into “State Banks” or “Pet Banks.”
Jackson and the Indian Problem:
On three separate occasions the Supreme Court had upheld the rights of the Indians over the state of Georgia.
Jackson said: “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”
Jackson forcibly uprooted more than 100,000 Indians.
Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw.
Many died on the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma.
Texas Fights for Independence from Mexico:
In 1823 the Mexican government granted a huge tract of land to Stephen F. Austin to bring in 300 American families.
They were to become Roman Catholic and properly Mexicanized.
Friction increased over the issue of slavery, immigration, and local rights.
In 1836 the Texans declared independence and unfurled their Lone Star flag.
Sam Houston was commander-in-chief.
Santa Anna, with 6,000 men moved into Texas.
At the Alamo in San Antonio, 200 Texans were wiped out.
At Goliad, the band of 400 Texans threw down their arms and surrendered.
The Mexicans butchered everyone of them as “pirates.”
Many Americans rushed to aid their relatives in Texas.
On April 21, 1836 Houston with a band of 900 men captured the Mexican army of 1300 near San Jacinto.
The Mexican government let the U.S. know that if we were to annex Texas that would be considered an act of war against them – as Texas was a state in revolt and not viewed as independent by Mexico.
Texas asked to become a state in the Union, but was denied by Uncle Sam because of the slavery issue.
It would not be for another 9 years that Texas would be admitted.
Andrew Jackson – The Man – 1767 – 1845
Presidential Term 1829-1837
The Election of 1836:
The newly created Whig party’s leading candidate was General William Henry Harrison of Ohio.
Martin Van Buren was chosen by the Democratic Party.
He was Jackson’s hand-picked successor.
Van Buren won 170 to 73 in the Electoral College.
The Panic of 1837:
Due to Jackson’s killing the Bank, Specie Circular, and over speculation, in 1837, a panic and depression took place.
American banks collapsed carrying down millions in government funds.
The Election of 1840:
Van Buren was renominated by the Democrats.
The Whigs turn again to General Harrison.
He was notable for the Battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames.
“Old Tippecanoe and Tyler too.”
While being a Western aristocrat, we has portrayed as a poor log cabin farmer drinking hard cider.
Harrison won by 234 to 60.
Martin Van Buren – The Man 1782 – 1862
Presidential Term 1837-1841
The real leaders of the Whig Party regarded “Old Tippecanoe” as little more than an impressive figurehead.
Unluckily for Clay and Webster, the President came down with pneumonia and died after only four weeks in the White House.
His was the shortest Presidential administration in U.S. history.
William Henry Harrison – The Man – 1773 – 1841
Presidential Term 1841
“Keep the ball rolling”
Not only was Harrison the oldest President to be elected up to this time, but we was the first to die in office.