Telegraph distortion




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Rec. ITU-R F.345

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R F.345*

TELEGRAPH DISTORTION
(1953-1956-1959-1963)

Rec. ITU-R F.345

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,


considering

that the definitions applying to telegraph distortion and to the mutilation of telegraphic signals, which appear in Section 33, Part I, of the List of Definitions of Essential Telecommunication Terms, published by the International Telecommunication Union, give an answer to Question 18 (Stockholm, 1948), which required a general definition of telegraph distortion capable of being usefully applied to the cause of radiotelegraphy,


recommends

that the following definitions, contained in Section 33 of the above-mentioned List of Definitions of Essential Telecommunication Terms, should be applied to radiotelegraphy:



Perfect modulation (or restitution) (Definition 33.01 of the List)

Modulation (or restitution) such that all the significant intervals are associated with correct significant conditions and conform accurately to their theoretical durations.


Modulation (or restitution) containing one or more elements, the significant condition of which differs from that corresponding to the kind prescribed by the code.

Telegraph distortion (of a modulation or a restitution) (Definition 33.04 of the List)

(a) A modulation (or restitution) suffers from telegraph distortion, when the significant intervals have not all exactly their theoretical durations.

(b) A modulation (or restitution) is affected by telegraph distortion, when significant instants do not coincide with the corresponding theoretical instants.

Transmitter distortion (Definition 33.059 of the 1st Supplement to the List)

A signal transmitted by an apparatus (or a signal at the output of a local line with its termination) is affected by telegraph distortion, when the significant intervals of this signal have not exactly their theoretical durations.



Degree of individual distortion of a particular significant instant (of a modulation or of a restitution) (Definition 33.06 of the List)

Ratio to the unit interval of the displacement, expressed algebraically, of this significant instant from an ideal instant.

This displacement is considered positive when the significant instant occurs after the ideal instant.

The degree of individual distortion is usually expressed as a percentage.



Degree of isochronous distortion (Definition 33.07 of the 1st Supplement to the List)

(a) Ratio to the unit interval of the maximum measured difference, irrespective of sign, between the actual and the theoretical intervals separating any two significant instants of modulation (or of restitution), these instants being not necessarily consecutive.

(b) Algebraical difference between the highest and lowest value of individual distortion affecting the significant instants of an isochronous modulation. (The difference is independent of the choice of the reference ideal instant.)

The degree of distortion (of an isochronous modulation or restitution) is usually expressed as a percentage.



Note. – The result of the measurement should be completed by an indication of the period, usually limited, of the observation.

For a prolonged modulation (or restitution), it will be appropriate to consider the probability that an assigned value of the degree of distortion will be exceeded.



Degree of start-stop distortion (Definition 33.08 of the 1st Supplement to the List)

(a) Ratio to the unit interval of the maximum measured difference, irrespective of sign, between the actual and theoretical intervals separating any significant instant of modulation (or of restitution) from the significant instant of the start element immediately preceding it.

(b) The highest absolute value of individual distortion affecting the significant instants of a start-stop modulation.

The degree of distortion of a start-stop modulation (or restitution) is usually expressed as a percentage.



Note 1. – See Note to Definition 33.07.

Note 2. – Distinction can be made between the degree of late (or positive) distortion and the degree of early (or negative) distortion.

Degree of gross start-stop distortion (Definition 33.09 of the List)

Degree of distortion determined when the unit interval and the theoretical intervals assumed are exactly those appropriate to the standardized modulation rate.



Note. – See Note to Definition 33.07.

Degree of synchronous start-stop distortion (i.e. at the actual mean modulation rate) (Definition 33.10 of the List)

Degree of distortion determined when the unit interval and the theoretical intervals assumed are those appropriate to the actual mean rate of modulation (or of restitution).



Note 1. – See Note to Definition 33.07.

Note 2. – For the determination of the actual mean modulation rate, account is only taken of those significant instants of modulation (or restitution), which correspond to a change of condition in the same sense as that occurring at the beginning of the start element.

Characteristic distortion (Definition 33.15 of the List)

Distortion caused by transients which, as a result of the modulation, are present in the transmission channel and depend on its transmission qualities.



Fortuitous distortion (Definition 33.16 of the List)

Distortion resulting from causes generally subject to random laws (accidental irregularities in the operation of the apparatus and of the moving parts, disturbances affecting the transmission channel, etc.).



Bias distortion, asymmetrical distortion (Definition 33.17 of the List)

Distortion affecting a two-condition (or binary) modulation (or restitution), in which all the significant intervals corresponding to one of the two significant conditions have longer or shorter durations than the corresponding theoretical durations.



Character error rate* of a telegraph communication (Definition 33.19 of the 1st Supplement to the List)

Ratio of the number of alphabetic signals of a message incorrectly received (after automatic translation, where applicable), to the number of alphabetic signals of the message, the keying being correct.



Note 1. – A telegraph communication may have a different error rate for the two directions of transmission.

Note 2. – The notion of character error rate could be applied to any operation taking place in a telegraph communication (e.g. keying, translation, etc.).

Note 3. – The statement of the error rate will be accompanied by that of the time interval, generally limited, during which the observation was made. For a communication established for a sufficiently lont time, the probability of exceeding an assigned value of error rate could be considered.

Note 4.Faulty translation, resulting from a previous error in functional control (such as shift, line feed, synchronism, etc.), is not counted in calculating a character error rate; in such a case, the error in the functional control signal is alone counted and is counted only once.

Element error rate*

The ratio of the number of elements incorrectly received to the total number of elements sent.



Efficiency factor in time (of a telegraph communication with automatic repetition for the correction of errors) (Definition 33.23 of the List).

Ratio of the time necessary to transmit a text automatically without repetition, at a specified modulation rate, to the time actually taken to receive the same text with a given error rate.



Note 1. – The whole of the apparatus comprising the communication is assumed to be in the normal conditions of adjustment and operation.

Note 2. – A telegraph communication may have a different efficiency factor in time for the two directions of transmission.

Note 3. – The actual conditions in which the measurement is made should be specified, in particular the duration of the measurement.

Mutilation (Definition 33.24 of the List)

A transmission defect in which a signal element becomes changed from one significant condition to another.



Transposition (Definition 33.25 of the List) (See also Annex II, Part 2, definition k of Recommendation ITU-R F.342)

A transmission defect in which, during one character period, one or more signal elements are changed from one significant condition to the other, and an equal number of elements are changed in the opposite sense.





*Radiocommunication Study Group 9 made editorial amendments to this Recommendation in 2000 in accordance with Resolution ITU-R 44.

*Note by the ITU-R Secretariat. – The ITU-T uses the English term “error ratio” instead of “error rate” in ITU-T Recommen­dation G.702: Vocabulary of PCM and digital transmission terms.


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