Te 848: Methods of Writing Instruction




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TE 848: Methods of Writing Instruction

Spring 2005, Michigan State University


Professor Mary M. Juzwik Tuesdays, 6:10-9 pm

308 Erickson 111 Berkey Hall



mmjuzwik@msu.edu (email) 517.432.4840 (office telephone) http://www.msu.edu/~mmjuzwik (link to course web page) 517.579.3003 (home telephone)

Office hours by appointment

Course Description

This course provides students with a point of entry into the complex work of writing and writing instruction. Students will read and examine contemporary theories about writing, the rhetorical tradition as a historical framework for current issues in writing instruction, and various issues facing writing teachers and researchers today. These issues include such questions as: How do contemporary children and youth develop as writers? What is the significance of multimodality for writing and writing instruction? What does and should writing instruction involve? What aspects of classroom environments are important in supporting students as they learn to write? What is the place of writing in and beyond the language arts curriculum? What do writing teachers need to know about standardization and dialect? What is the significance of writing and writing instruction in a culturally and linguistically diverse society? What challenges face writing teachers at the beginning of the 21st century?

As this list of questions may suggest, I will take a broad view of writing in this class, not limiting our inquiry to school-based definitions, genres, and practices alone. We will also consider writing across the lifespan, from the early pre-school years to the post-secondary and adult years, since the majority of recent research on composition and writing instruction has focused on post-secondary and adult participants. This class will place post-secondary writing research, along with a growing body of research on the writing of children and youth, into conversation with our own particular experiences and interests in K-12 schooling and students.

I am assuming that since this is an elective course, you all have various motivations for choosing to take it. Consequently, you will identify a substantive project (a piece of writing) through which to pursue your interests as the semester unfolds. Several other assignments will allow you to explore the course content in greater depth.


Required Texts

Dyson, A. Haas. (2003). The brothers and sisters learn to write. New York: Teachers College

Press.

Lindemann, E. (2001). A rhetoric for writing teachers. New York: Oxford University Press.



Course Reader: Location TBA
Recommended Texts: See Appendix

I will at times refer to texts beyond the required course readings: I have tried to identify where these texts fit into the syllabus by noting “Recommended readings” for most class periods. An * before the citation indicates highly recommended readings. You will find these sources listed with full references on the Recommended Reading List (see Appendix) which should provide a useful springboard for reading more deeply about topics of special interest to you.


Assignments

1. Three “conversation starters” (10%): rotating responsibility requiring you to write a brief and thought-provoking response or musing about one of our readings, typed and photocopied to distribute to all members of the class. You will choose 2 readings about which to write a conversation starter and everyone will write one in preparation for Anne Dyson’s class visit on 4/26 (aim for 250 words or less: definitely limit yourself to one side of a single page).
2. Teaching presentation on “Special Topics” (20%): This assignment focuses on instructional materials, assignments, and/or assessments of writing that one is likely to see in K-12 classrooms. You will prepare a 45-minute presentation to teach the class about a chosen special topic in writing instruction with a group of your colleagues.
3. A style exercise (10%), DUE 3/15: This written assignment offers you to put into practice a rhetorical understanding of writing. More detail forthcoming.
4. A piece of writing for a Final Project (50%)


  • Final Project Proposal, DUE 1/25 (5%)

  • Draft 1 or Portfolio Part I, DUE 3/29 (15%): a complete and thoughtful draft.

  • Final Draft, DUE 4/26 (30%)

For this assignment, you will animate and extend the content of this course for purposes of your own work. In preparing for this project, you should conduct extensive research in order to write knowledgeably about a topic of particular interest to you. You should meticulously follow APA conventions for writing this project (more information forthcoming). Options for this final piece of writing include (but are not necessarily limited to):

a) A “practice of writing instruction” portfolio. This recommended option will allow you to design an innovative unit of writing instruction and to document student learning and engagement as your unit unfolds. A framework for expectations as well as some instructional scaffolding in support of this project will be provided throughout the semester, unlike the other options. Course areas you may choose among – organized under thematic headings -- include:




I. Multimodality

a) The relationship between oral and written language

b) Writing and technology

c) The relationship between reading and writing


II. Identity and writing

a) Writing development

b) Writing in and out of school

III. Writing and instruction

a) Explicit or implicit writing instruction?

b) Rhetoric and writing instruction

c) Genre approaches to writing instruction

d) Assessing, evaluating, & responding to student writing

e) History of writing instruction


IV. Writing and Curriculum

a) Writing across the Curriculum/Writing to Learn

b) Place of writing in the Language Arts curriculum

c) Talk & writing in classrooms


V. Writing education in a culturally diverse society

a) Standardization and writing

b) Dialect and writing


b) An originally researched essay or article about a problem in writing or writing instruction that has captured your interest. I encourage those who choose this option to write toward publication in a journal such as Language Arts, English Journal, The Michigan English Teacher or The Language Arts Journal of Michigan.

c) A writing curriculum and/or instructional materials to be used in your school or classroom

d) A manual about writing for your students to use

5. Writing group reflection paper (10%). This 2-paged paper (single-spaced, approximately 1000 words) will reflect on your semester-long participation in a writing group. You may attach appendices to supplement your discussion in the paper. In this group, you are encouraged to: a) set writing goals, b) report regularly on how these goals are progressing, c) request and receive specific feedback on your writing from other group members (you will be expected to arrange to provide drafts for group members to read, either through emailing or photocopying), d) talk through your developing ideas, interpretations, and plans for writing, e) provide supportive and critical feedback on the writing work of your colleagues. You will have 5-10 minutes per week to meet with your group at the beginning of each class, and you will also be assigned to meet five times during the semester for longer periods of time both in and out of class.


Course Policies

1. Attendance. Attendance and punctuality is required. You may miss one class without penalty. Beyond that, your grade will be reduced by one letter for each absence. Tardies count as half an absence. Please email or telephone me in advance if you know you will need to miss a class.

2. Assignments. Hard copies of all assignments must be turned in on the due date. In case of emergency, you should contact me in writing at least 24 hours in advance to request an extension. Without an agreement in advance, I do not accept late work.

3. Readings. You are expected to have completed the required readings listed for each class meeting. To facilitate stimulating and meaningful class discussions, you are further expected to come prepared with two or three talking points for each reading.
Course Schedule
1/11 Introduction, Method, Student Interests, Policies, Why writing?

Readings: Recommended: Berthoff, 1982 (“Method”); Pressley & Juzwik, in press;

National Commission on Writing, 2003.
Part I: Cognitition & the Writing Process
1/18 Conceptualizing Writing and the Writing Process

Questions & Issues: What is writing? What is the relationship among composing, thought, and

language (Berthoff’s “curioius triangle”)? What is involved in conceptualizing writing as “process”? What have been the practical implications and critiques of process approaches to teaching writing?

Readings: Berthoff, Theory and practice

Lindemann, ch 1-3

Graves, An examination of the writing processes of seven year old children



Recommended: Applebee, 1986; Atwell,1998; Emig, 1971

1/25 Writing and thinking

Questions & Issues: What facets define the relationship between writing and thinking? How

does writing mediate thinking? How does thinking mediate writing? What instructional practices and contexts flow from & complicate these insights?

Readings: Hayes, A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing

Wong & Berninger, Cognitive processes of teachers in implementing composition

research in elementary, middle, and high school

Recommended: Flower & Hayes, 1981 (in Villanueva, 1997); Hayes & Flower,

1980; Olson, 1995 (In Cushman et al., 2001), *Vygotsky, 1968 (ch 5)

Assignments: Special Topics presentation: Cognitive Strategies instruction

DUE: Final Project Proposal (one copy for me, one for each member of

your writing group)

Activity: Writing Group Meeting #1


Part II: Multimodality and Writing
2/1 Oral and written language

Questions/Issues: How has the relationship between spoken and written language been

understood in basic research on literacy? What are the pedagogical implications of this literacy/orality “debate”? What issues are raised for writing teachers by emerging understandings of “multimodality”?

Readings: Olson, From Utterance to Text

Heath, Protean shapes in literacy events

Shaughnessy, Diving in: An introduction to basic writing



Recommended: Britton, 1990

Assignment: Special Topics presentation: Daily oral language

2/8 No Class: “Writing research in the Making,” Conference at University of

California-Santa Barbara (It may be too late to get a reasonable plane fare, but I do recommend that you consider attending this conference if you are interested in learning more about the “state of the field” in writing research and education!)
Writing Group Meeting #2 out of class time, to discuss, plan, and provide feedback on developing final projects. You may want to go ahead and meet during the scheduled class time: you should plan for an ample amount of time (approximately the length of a full class meeting – enough to allow 30-45 minutes to discuss each person’s work).
2/15 Reading and writing; Multiliteracies

Questions/Issues: How are the practices of reading and writing related to one another? What

are “multiliteracies” and what issues does this conceptualization raise for teachers of writing? How does writing figure into social contexts in and beyond the classroom?

Readings: Dyson, Introduction & ch 1

New London Group, A pedagogy of multiliteracies

Brandt, The sacred and the profane: Reading versus writing in popular

memory

Assignment: Special topics presentation: Writing workshop


Part III: Identity and Writing
2/22 Writing and Development; Writing in and out of school

Questions/Issues: What is the relationship between writing and development? How can writing

development be tracked? What do children’s out-of-school experiences with print text have to do with their writing practices and development in school? What roles does culture play in writing and writing development?

Readings: Dyson, ch 2 & 3

Purcell-Gates, Other people’s words

Recommended: Hull & Schultz, 2002

Activities: Mid-course evaluation



Writing Group Meeting #3
Part IV: Writing and Instruction

3/1 Rhetoric and writing instruction

Questions/Issues: What is rhetoric and what does it have to do with writing and writing

instruction? What place could rhetorical theory and practice have in K-12 education?

Readings: Lindemann, ch 4

Lunsford & Glenn, Rhetorical theory and the teaching of writing

Juzwik, A vision of the possible: How adolescents built a rhetoric about

place.


Recommended: *Burke, 1968; Corbett & Connor, 1999; Fulkerson, 1996
3/7-3/11 No Class: Spring Break

3/15 Technology & Writing Instruction (Class meeting in 133 Erickson)

Questions/Issues: How are technological developments changing the face of writing and

writing instruction? What are teachers to do in times of rapidly shifting technologies of writing?

Readings: Lindemann, ch 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 (skim these chapters enough to familiarize

yourself with their contents)

Lindemann, ch 16

Additional reading TBA

Assignments: Special Topics Presentation: The Big 6

DUE: Style Exercise

Activity: Visiting writing researcher: Jennifer C. Stone, University of Washington

3/22 Genre and Writing Instruction; Assessing, responding to, & evaluating writing

Questions/Issues: What is “genre”? How can “genre-based” approaches shape writing

instruction and assessment? What are the differences among assessing, responding to, and evaluating students’ writing?

Readings: Cooper, What we know about genres and how it can help us assign and

evaluate writing

Cope & Kalantzis, Introduction: How a genre approach to writing can transform

the way writing is taught.

Lindemann, ch 14

Recommended: Bakhtin, 1986; Sommers, 1982

Assignment: Special Topics Presentation: Six Traits of Writing


Part V: Writing and Curriculum
3/29 Writing in the Language Arts Curriculum; Talk and writing in

classrooms

Questions/Issues: What is the place of writing at various points in the K-12 curriculum? How

might current developments (e.g., a “writing” section on the ACT and SAT tests) influence writing in the K-12 curriculum? What is the relationship between talk and writing in classroom spaces?

Readings: Dyson, ch 4

Britton, Spectator role and the beginnings of writing

Recommended: Britton, 1969; Cazden, 2001; Nystrand, 1982.

Activity: Writing Group Meeting #4

Assignment: DUE: Draft of Final Project or Part I of Portfolio

4/5 Writing across the curriculum & writing to learn; Collaboration and



writing

Questions/Issues: What are some of the characteristics of the “writing to learn” movement?

What is the promise of writing to learn, and what does research show about this promise?

Readings: Dyson, ch 5, 6

Emig, Writing as a mode of learning

Ede & Lunsford, New beginnings



Recommended: Applebee, 1996


Part VI: Writing education in a diverse society
4/12 No Class: American Educational Research Association annual meeting in

Montreal, Quebec
Writing Group Meeting #5 outside of class (you are welcome to go ahead and meet during the scheduled class time), to provide critical feedback on what should by now be the final push in the writing for your final projects. As before, you should meet for an ample amount of time (approximately the length of a full class meeting – enough to allow 30-45 minutes to discuss each person’s work).
4/19 Standardization, dialect, and writing education

Questions/Issues: How do processes of language standardization work? What is the importance

of dialect in teaching writing? What problems are raised for teachers by linguistically rich and complex understandings of dialect and standardization processes?

Readings: Dyson, ch 7 & 8

Students’ right to their own language (available through a search using the title on

NCTE’s web site, http://www.ncte.org/

Delpit, Skills and other dilemmas of a progressive black educator

Recommended: Baugh, 1999; *Hillocks & Smith, 2001, Lindemann, ch 5

Assignment: DUE: Writing group reflection paper
4/26 Writing, recontextualization, and the complex social negotiations of children

learning to write

Activities: A book discussion about The brothers and sisters learn to write with

writing researcher and scholar, Anne Haas Dyson

Course Evaluations

Assignment: DUE: Final Project, Conversation starter
5/3 Final Class Meeting: Location TBA

Appendix


Recommended Readings on Writing and Writing Education
Applebee, A. N. (1986). Problems in process approaches: Toward a reconceptualization

of process instruction. In A. R. Petrosky & D. Bartholomae (Eds.), The teaching of writing, Eighty-fifth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (pp. 95-113). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Applebee, A. N. (1996) Curriculum as conversation. Chicago: University of Chicago

Press.


Atwell, N.  (1998).  In the middle:  New understanding about writing, reading, and

learning.  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton/Cook.

Bakthin, M. M. (1986).  Speech genres and other late essays.  Austin:  University of

Texas Press.

Baugh, J.  (1999).  Out of the mouths of slaves:  African American language and



educational malpractice.  Austin:  University of Texas Press.

Berthoff, A.  (1981).  The making of meaning:  Metaphors, models, and maxims for



writing teachers.  Upper Montclair, NJ:  Boynton/Cook.

Brandt, D.  (2001).  Literacy in American lives.  Cambridge, UK:  Cambridge University

Press.

Britton, J.  (1990).  Language and learning:  The importance of speech in children’s



development.  London:  Penguin.  (Original work published 1970).

Burke, K. (1966). Terministic screens. In Language as symbolic action: Essays on life,



literature, and method (pp. 44-62). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Calkins, L. (1986). The art of teaching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Canagarajah, S.  (1999).  Resisting linguistic imperialism in the teaching of English. 

Oxford, UK:  Oxford University Press.

Cazden, C.  (2001).  Classroom discourse:  The language of teaching and learning. 

Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

Christian, S.  (1997).  Exchanging lives:  Middle school writers online.  Urbana, IL: 

National Council of Teachers of English Press.

Coe, R., Lingard, L, & Teslenko, T. (Eds.), (2002). The rhetoric & ideology of

genre. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press

Cooper, C. R. & Odell, L., (Eds.). (1999). Evaluating writing: The role of teachers’ knowledge



about text, learning, and culture. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Cope, B. & M. Kalantzis (Eds.). (1993).  The powers of literacy:  A genre approach to



teaching writing.  Pittsburgh:  University of Pittsburgh Press.

Corbett, E. P. J. & Connors, R. (1999). Classical rhetoric for the modern student. New

York: Oxford University Press.

Cushman, E., E. R. Kintgen, B. M. Kroll, & M. Rose (Eds.).  (2001).  Literacy:  A critical



sourcebook.  Boston:  Bedford

Delpit, L.  (1995).  Other people’s children:  Cultural conflict in the classroom.  New

York:  New Press.

Dyson, A. Haas. (1993). Social worlds of children learning to write. New York:

Teachers College Press.

Emig, J. (1971). The composing processes of twelfth graders. Urbana, IL: National

Council of Teachers of English.

Fulkerson, R.  (1996).  Teaching the argument in writing.  Urbana, IL:  NCTE.


Graves, D. H. (1983). Writing: Teachers and children at work. Portsmouth, NH:

Heinemann.

Haas, C. (1996). Writing technology: Studies on the materiality of literacy. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hayes, J. R. & Flower, L. S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes.

In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum & Associates.

Hillocks, G. Jr., & Smith, M. W. (2001). Grammars and literacy learning. In V.

Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching, Fourth edition (pp. 721-737). Washington DC: American Educational Research Association.

Hull, G. & Schultz, K.  (eds.).  (2002).  School's out! Bridging out-of-school literacies

with classroom practice.  New York:  Teachers College Press.

Moffett, J. (1968). Teaching the universe of discourse. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Murphy, J. (ed.) (2001).  A short history of writing instruction from ancient Greece to

modern America.  2nd ed.  Davis, CA:  Hermagorus.

National Commission on Writing in America’s Schools and Colleges (2003). The



neglected R: The need for a writing revolution. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Available on-line: http://www.writingcommission.org/prod_downloads/writingcom/neglectedr.pdf

Nystrand, M. (Ed.). (1982). What writers know: The language, process, and structure



of written discourse. New York: Academic.

Pressley, G. M. & Juzwik, M. M. (in press). Writing. In Pressley, G. M., Reading



instruction that works: A case for balanced teaching, 3rd ed. New York: Guilford.

Schmandt-Besserat, D. (1996). How writing came about. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Shaughnessy, M. (1977). Errors and expectations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sommers, N. (1982). Responding to student writers. College Composition and



Communication, 33, 148-56.

Sperling, M. (1996). Revisiting the writing-speaking connections: Challenges for

research on writing and writing instruction. Review of Educational Research, 66, 53-86.

Villanueva, V., (Ed.). (1997). Cross-Talk in comp theory: A reader. Urbana, IL:

National Council of Teachers of English.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language. MIT Press. 

Weaver, C.  (1996).  Teaching grammar in context.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

 

Professional Journals:  College Composition and Communication, English Education, English Journal, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Journal of Literacy Research, Language Arts, Linguistics and Education, Research in the Teaching of English, Voices from the Middle, Written Communication


Required Readings: Course Reader for TE 848

(In order of assignment and with a few strongly recommended readings also included*)


1/18/05

Berthoff, A. (1982). Theory and practice. In The making of meaning (pp. 14-60).

Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Graves, D. H. (1975). An examination of the writing processes of seven year old

children. Research in the Teaching of English 9 (3), 227-241.

1/25/05


Hayes, J. (1996). A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing.

In M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications (pp. 1-27). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wong, B. Y. L. & Berninger, V. W. (2004). Cognitive processes of teachers in

implementing composition research in elementary, middle, and high school classrooms. In C. A. Stone, E. R. Silliman, B. J. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (pp. 600-624). New York: Guilford.

2/1/05

Olson, D. R. (1977). From utterance to text: The bias of language in speech and writing.



Harvard Educational Review 47 (3) 257-281.

Heath, S. B. (2001). Protean shapes in literacy events: Ever-shifting oral and literate

traditions. In Cushman, E., Kintgen, E. R., Kroll, B. M., & Rose, M. (Eds.) Literacy: A critical sourcebook (443-466). Boston: Bedford St. Martins. (Original published 1982).

Shaughnessy, M. (1997) Diving in: An introduction to basic writing. In Villanueva, V.

(Ed.) Cross-talk in comp theory: A reader (pp. 289-295). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (Original published 1976).

2/15/05


The New London Group (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social

futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66, pp 60-92.

Brandt, D. (2001). The sacred and the profane: Reading versus writing in popular

Memory. In Literacy in American lives (pp. 146-168)Cambridge, UK: 

Cambridge University Press.

2/22/05


Purcell-Gates, V. (2001). A world without print. In Cushman, E., Kintgen, E. R., Kroll,

B. M., & Rose, M. (Eds.) Literacy: A critical sourcebook (402-417). Boston: Bedford St. Martins. (Original published 1997).

3/1/05

Lunsford, A. & Glenn, C. (1990). Rhetorical theory and the teaching of writing. In



Hawisher, G. E. & A. Soter (Eds.) On literacy and its teaching: Issues in English education (pp. 174-189). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Juzwik, M. M. (1999). A vision of the possible: How adolescents built a rhetoric about

place. Ohio Journal of the English Language Arts 40 (1), pp. 46-58.

*Burke, K. (1966). Terministic screens. In Language as symbolic action: Essays on life,



literature, and method (pp. 44-62). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
3/22/05

Cope, B. & M. Kalantzis. (1993).  Introduction: How a genre approach to literacy can

transform the way writing is taught. In Cope, B. & M. Kalantzis (Eds.). The powers of literacy:  A genre approach to teaching writing 1-21.  Pittsburgh:  University of Pittsburgh Press.

Cooper, C. R. (1999). What we know about genres and how it can help us assign and

evaluate writing. In Cooper, C. R. & Odell, L., (Eds.), Evaluating writing: The role of teachers’ knowledge about text, learning, and culture (pp. 23-52). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

3/29/05


Britton, J. (1997). Spectator role and the beginnings of writing. In Villanueva, V.

(Ed.) Cross-talk in comp theory: A reader (pp. 129-151). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (Original published 1982).

*Britton, J. (1969). Talking to learn. In D. Barnes (Ed), Language, the learner, and the

school. London: Penguin.

4/5/05


Emig, J. (1977). Writing as a mode of learning. College Composition and

Communication 28, 122-128.

Ede, L. & Lunsford, A. (1990). New Beginnings. In Singular Texts/Plural Authors:

Perspectives on Collaborative Writing (pp. 130-143). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

4/19/05


Students’ right to their own language. (1974). College Composition and Communication,

25, 1-18. (available through a search using the title on NCTE’s web site, http://www.ncte.org/)

Delpit, L. (1995). Skills and other dilemmas of a progressive black educator. In Other

people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom (pp. 11-20). New York: New Press. (Original published 1986).

*Hillocks, G. Jr., & Smith, M. W. (2001). Grammars and literacy learning. In V.



Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching, Fourth edition (pp. 721-737). Washington DC: American Educational Research Association.




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