Table S1: Life cycle and host plant associations of Brachycaudus




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Table S1: Life cycle and host plant associations of Brachycaudus species from [22, 57]. Species included in our phylogenetic reconstructions are in bold character and are preceded with a *.




Life cycle

Host association

Subgenus Brachycaudus van der Goot, 1913

B. divaricatellus Shaposhnikov, 1956

Life cycle unknown, monoecious on ligneous or heteroecious

Prunus divaricata Ledeb.(Rosaceae)

*B. helichrysi (Kaltenbach, 1843)

Heteroecious with some anholocyclic populations

Primary host: Prunus spp. (Rosaceae), polyphagous on secondary hosts, mostly Asteraceae and Boraginaceae

*B. salicinae Börner, 1939

Monoecious on herbs

Inula spp. especially Inula salicina L. (Asteraceae)

B. shaposhnikovi Narzikulov, 1949

Monoecious on ligneous

Atraphaxis pyrifolia Bunge (Polygonaceae)

*B. spiraeae Börner, 1932

Monoecious on ligneous

Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae)

Subgenus Acaudus van der Goot, 1913

*B. aconiti (Mordvilko, 1928)

Monoecious on herbs

Aconitum spp. and Delphinium spp. (Ranunculaceae)

B. almatinus (Nevsky, 1951)

Life cycle unknown, monoecious on ligneous or heteroecious

Prunus sp. Pyrus sp. (Rosaceae)

*B. ballotae (Passerini, 1860)

Monoecious on herbs

Ballota nigra L. (Lamiaceae)

*B. cardui (Linnaeus, 1758)

Heteroecious

Primary host: Prunus spp. mostly P. domestica L. (Rosaceae), main secondary hosts in Asteraceae and Boraginaceae

*B. cerasicola (Mordvilko, 1929)

Heteroecious

Primary host: various Prunus spp. (Rosaceae), secondary hosts: various species of Lamiaceae

*B. divaricatae Shaposhnikov, 1956

Monoecious on ligneous [62] or heteroecious [63]

Primary host or sole host: Prunus sp. (Rosaceae), with facultative alternation on Silene spp. (Caryophyllaceae)

B. gentianae Daniyarova, 1990

Probably monoecious on herbs [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Gentiana olgae Rgl. et Schmalh. (Gentianaceae)

B. iranicus Davatchi & Remaudière, 1953

Monoecious on herbs

Anchusa azurea Mill., Anchusa strigosa Labill. (Boraginaceae)

*B. jacobi Stroyan, 1957

Monoecious on herbs

Myosotis and Pulmonaria spp. (Boraginaceae)

*B. klugkisti (Börner, 1942)

Monoecious on herbs

Reported on various Silene spp. (Caryophyllaceae), especially S. dioica (L.) Clairv. and S. latifolia (L.) Clairv. [14]

*B. lamii (Koch, 1854)

Monoecious on herbs

Lamium spp. especially L. album L. (Lamiaceae)

*B. lateralis (Walker, 1848)

Mainly anholocyclic but occasionally heteroecious (with a sexual phase on Prunus sp.)

Polyphagous with main hosts in Asteraceae

*B. linariae Stroyan, 1950

Probably monoecious on herbs a [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Linaria spp. (Scrophulariaceae)

*B. lucifugus F.P. Müller, 1952

Monoecious on herbs

Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae)

*B. lychnicola Hille Ris Lambers, 1966

Monoecious on herbs

Reported on various Silene spp., especially S. flos-cuculi L. and S. dioica (L.) Clairv. (Caryophyllaceae)[14]

*B. lychnidis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Monoecious on herbs

Reported on various Silene spp., especially S. dioica (L.) Clairv. and S. latifolia Poiret (Caryophyllaceae)[14]

*B. malvae Shaposhnikov, 1964

Probably Monoecious on herbs [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Malva spp. (Malvaceae)

*B. mordvilkoi Hille Ris Lambers, 1931

Monoecious on herbs

Several Boraginaceae (Anchusa, Echium)

*B. napelli (Schrank 1801)

Monoecious on herbs

Aconitum spp. (especially A. napellus L.) and occasionally Delphinium spp. (Ranunculaceae).

B. pallidus Andreev, 1990

Probably monoecious on herbs [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllaceae)

*B. persicae (Passerini 1860)

Monoecious on ligneous or heteroecious, depending on the study

Primary host or sole host: Prunus spp.(Rosaceae) especially P. spinosa L. with facultative alternation on various Scrophulariaceae [14]

B. plantaginis Holman & Szelegiewicz, 1975

Probably monoecious on herbs [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Plantago depressa Willd., P. major L. (Plantaginaceae)r

*B. populi (del Guercio, 1911)

Monoecious on herbs

Reported on various Silene spp., especially S. vulgaris (Moench.) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) [14]

B. rinariatus Andreev, 1982

Probably monoecious on herbs [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Linaria vulgaris Miller (Scrophulariaceae)

B. rociadae (T.D.A. Cockerell, 1903)

Monoecious on herbs

Delphinium spp. (Ranunculaceae)

B. virgatus Shaposhnikov, 1964

Probably monoecious on herbs [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Anchusa sp. Symphytum sp. (Boraginaceae), Senecio fluviatilis Wallr. (Asteraceae)

Subgenus Appelia Börner, 1930

*B. cerinthis Bozhko, 1961

Monoecious on herbs

Cerinthis spp. (Boraginaceae)

*B. prunicola (Kaltenbach, 1843)

Facultatively heteroecious

Primary host or sole host: Prunus spp. (Rosaceae), potential secondary hosts: Tragopogon spp. (Asteraceae)

*B. schwartzi (Börner, 1931)

Monoecious on ligneous

Prunus persicae (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae)

*B. tragopogonis (Kaltenbach, 1843)

Monoecious on herbs

Tragopogon spp. (Asteraceae)

Subgenus Mordvilkomenor Shaposhnikov, 1950

*B. pilosus (Mordvilko, 1929)

Monoecious on ligneous or heteroecious, depending on the study (this species has been often confused with B. cerasicola)

Primary host or sole host: Prunus spp.(Rosaceae), with facultative alternation on secondary hosts of the Lamiaceae family

Subgenus Nevskyaphis Shaposhnikov, 1950

*B. bicolor (Nevsky, 1929)

Probably monoecious on herbs a [sexual morphs unrecorded]

Various species in several genera of Boraginaceae, also reported on a few species of Asteraceae

Subgenus Thuleaphis Hille Ris Lambers, 1960

B. acaudatus (Hille Ris Lambers, 1960)

Monoecious on herbs

Persicaria viviparum (L.) Ronse Decr.

*B. amygdalinus (Schouteden, 1905)

Heteroecious and sometimes anholocyclic on Polygonaceae

Primary host: Prunus amygdalus Batsch (Rosaceae)., secondary hosts: Polygonum spp., Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray, Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn (Polygonaceae)

B. brevirostratus Pashtshenko, 1988


Probably monoecious on herbs (possibly a synonym of B. rumexicolens [48])

Polygonum spp. (Polygonaceae)

B. eurotiae (Mamontova, 1968)

Probably monoecious on ligneous

Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst. (Chenopodiaceae)

*B. rumexicolens (Patch, 1917)

Monoecious on herbs

Rumex acetosella L. and sometimes other Polygonaceae (Fagopyrum, Polygonum)

*B. sedi (Jacob, 1964)

Monoecious on herbs

Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae)

*B. sp.

Unknown

Athraphaxis spp. (Polygonaceae)- ligneous host

a Though the life cycle of these species is unknown, as sexuals have not been found, it seems unlikely that they are heteroecious, or at least that they use Prunus as a host during their life cycle as we have sampled extensively on many Prunus species in the distribution range of these species in France and Kazakhstan during the course of this study and have not found them on any Prunus.


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