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Table of Contents

Title 28

EDUCATION

Part CXXXVII. Bulletin 125—Standards for Educational Leaders in Louisiana

Chapter 1. Purpose 1

§101. Introduction 1

Chapter 3. Standards 1

§301. Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders 1

§303. Performance Expectation 1 1

§305. Performance Expectation 2 2

§307. Performance Expectation 3 3

§309. Performance Expectation 4 4

§311. Performance Expectation 5 5

§313. Performance Expectation 6: The Education System 6

Chapter 5. Glossary 7

§501. Definitions 7



Title 28

EDUCATION

Part CXXXVII. Bulletin 125—Standards for Educational Leaders in Louisiana

Chapter 1. Purpose

§101. Introduction

A. A critical component to ensuring that the goals of the state's School and District Accountability System are achieved is the placement of effective administrators at every school. In order for this to be attained, attention must be focused on building leadership capacity at both the school and district levels. Utilizing the standards for educational leaders, educational leaders are strongly encouraged to examine organizational structures, their enacted roles, and day-to-day operations to ensure they are leading the way for school success by keeping the focus on enhanced student achievement.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1335 (July 2007), amended LR 36:2244 (October 2010), repromulgated LR 37:861 (March 2011).

Chapter 3. Standards

§301. Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders

A. In 2008, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) State Consortium on Educational Leadership revised the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards for educational leaders and renamed them Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders. The Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders represent consensus among state education agency policy leaders about the most important actions required of K-12 education leaders to improve teaching and learning. The main purpose of the Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders is to provide a resource for policymakers and educators in states, districts, and programs to analyze and prioritize expectations of education leaders in various roles and strategic stages in their careers. Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders is also intended to support national, state, and local dialogue about how to improve leadership.

B. The state has adopted the Performance Expectations and Indicators for Educational Leaders as the Louisiana state standards for educational leaders.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1335 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:861 (March 2011).

§303. Performance Expectation 1

A. Vision, Mission, and Goals

1. Education leaders ensure the achievement of all students by guiding the development and implementation of a shared vision of learning, strong organizational mission, and high expectations for every student.

a. Dispositions Exemplified in Expectation 1. Education leaders believe in, value, and are committed to:

i. every student learning;

ii. collaboration with all stakeholders;

iii. high expectations for all;

iv. examining assumptions and beliefs;

v. continuous improvement using evidence.

B. Narrative

1. Education leaders are accountable and have unique responsibilities for developing and implementing a vision of learning to guide organizational decisions and actions. Education leaders guide a process for developing and revising a shared vision, strong mission, and goals that are high and achievable for every student when provided with appropriate, effective learning opportunities.

2. The vision, mission, and goals represent what the community intends for students to achieve, informed by the broader social and policy environment and including policy requirements about specific outcomes and continuous improvement. The vision, mission, and goals become the touchstone for decisions, strategic planning, and change processes. They are regularly reviewed and adjusted, using varied sources of information and ongoing data analysis.

3. Leaders engage the community to reach consensus about vision, mission, and goals. To be effective, processes of establishing vision, mission, and goals should incorporate diverse perspectives in the broader school community and create consensus to which all can commit. While leaders engage others in developing and implementing the vision, mission, and goals, it is undeniably their responsibility to advocate for and act to increase equity and social justice.

C. Element A—High Expectations for All. The vision and goals establish high, measurable expectations for all students and educators.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. uses varied sources of information and analyzes data about current practices and outcomes to shape a vision, mission, and goals with high, measurable expectations for all students and educators;

b. aligns the vision, mission, and goals to school, district, state, and federal policies (such as content standards and achievement targets);

c. incorporates diverse perspectives and crafts consensus about vision, mission, and goals that are high and achievable for every student when provided with appropriate, effective learning opportunities;

d. advocates for a specific vision of learning in which every student has equitable, appropriate, and effective learning opportunities and achieves at high levels.

D. Element B—Shared Commitments to Implement the Vision, Mission, and Goals. The process of creating and sustaining the vision, mission, and goals is inclusive, building common understandings and genuine commitment among all stakeholders.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. establishes, conducts, and evaluates processes used to engage staff and community in a shared vision, mission, and goals;

b. engages diverse stakeholders, including those with conflicting perspectives, in ways that build shared understanding and commitment to vision, mission, and goals;

c. develops shared commitments and responsibilities that are distributed among staff and the community for making decisions and evaluating actions and outcomes;

d. communicates and acts from shared vision, mission, and goals so educators and the community understand, support, and act on them consistently;

e. advocates for and acts on commitments in the vision, mission, and goals to provide equitable, appropriate, and effective learning opportunities for every student.

E. Element C—Continuous Improvement Toward the Vision, Mission, and Goals. Education leaders ensure the achievement of all students by guiding the development and implementation of a shared vision of learning, strong organizational mission, and high expectations for every student.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. uses or develops data systems and other sources of information (e.g., test scores, teacher reports, student work samples) to identify unique strengths and needs of students, gaps between current outcomes and goals, and areas for improvement;

b. makes decisions informed by data, research, and best practices to shape plans, programs, and activities and regularly review their effects;

c. uses data to determine effective change strategies, engaging staff and community stakeholders in planning and carrying out changes in programs and activities;

d. identifies and removes barriers to achieving the vision, mission, and goals;

e. incorporates the vision and goals into planning (e.g., strategic plan, school improvement plan), change strategies, and instructional programs;

f. obtains and aligns resources (such as learning technologies, staff, time, funding, materials, training, and so on) to achieve the vision, mission, and goals;

g revises plans, programs, and activities based on systematic evidence and reviews of progress toward the vision, mission, and goals.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1335 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:862 (March 2011).

§305. Performance Expectation 2

A. Teaching and Learning

1. Education Leaders ensure achievement and success of all students by monitoring and continuously improving teaching and learning.

a. Dispositions Exemplified in Expectation 2. Education leaders believe in, value, and are committed to:

i. learning as the fundamental purpose of school;

ii. diversity as an asset;

iii. continuous professional growth and development;

iv. lifelong learning;

v. collaboration with all stakeholders;

vi. high expectations for all;

vii. student learning.

B. Narrative

1. A strong, positive, professional culture fosters learning by all educators and students. In a strong professional culture, leaders share and distribute responsibilities to provide quality, effectiveness, and coherence across all components of the instructional system (such as curriculum, instructional materials, pedagogy, and student assessment). Leaders are responsible for a professional culture in which learning opportunities are targeted to the vision and goals and differentiated appropriately to meet the needs of every student. Leaders need knowledge, skills, and beliefs that provide equitable differentiation of instruction and curriculum materials to be effective with a range of student characteristics, needs, and achievement.

2. A strong professional culture includes reflection, timely and specific feedback that improves practice, and support for continuous improvement toward vision and goals for student learning. Educators plan their own professional learning strategically, building their own capacities on the job. Leaders engage in continuous inquiry about effectiveness of curricula and instructional practices and work collaboratively to make appropriate changes that improve results.

C. Element A—Strong Professional Culture. A strong professional culture supports teacher learning and shared commitments to the vision and goals.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. develops shared understanding, capacities, and commitment to high expectations for all students and closing achievement gaps;

b. guides and supports job-embedded, standards-based professional development that improves teaching and learning and meets diverse learning needs of every student;

c. models openness to change and collaboration that improves practices and student outcomes;

d. develops time and resources to build a professional culture of openness and collaboration, engaging teachers in sharing information, analyzing outcomes, and planning improvement;

e. provides support, time, and resources for leaders and staff to examine their own beliefs, values, and practices in relation to the vision and goals for teaching and learning;

f. provides ongoing feedback using data, assessments, and evaluation methods that improve practice;

g. guides and monitors individual professional development plans and progress for continuous improvement of teaching and learning.

D. Element B—Rigorous Curriculum and Instruction. Improving achievement of all student requires all educators to know and use rigorous curriculum and effective instructional practices, individualized for success of every student.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. develops shared understanding of rigorous curriculum and standards-based instructional programs, working with teams to analyze student work, monitor student progress, and redesign curricular and instructional programs to meet diverse needs;

b. provides coherent, effective guidance of rigorous curriculum and instruction, aligning content standards, curriculum, teaching, assessments, professional development, assessments, and evaluation methods;

c. provides and monitors effects of differentiated teaching strategies, curricular materials, educational technologies, and other resources appropriate to address diverse student populations, including students with disabilities, cultural and linguistic differences, gifted and talented, disadvantaged social economic backgrounds, or other factors affecting learning;

d. identifies and uses high-quality research and data-based strategies and practices that are appropriate in the local context to increase learning for every student.

E. Element C—Assessment and Accountability. Improving achievement and closing achievement gaps require that leaders make appropriate, sound use of assessments, performance management, and accountability strategies to achieve vision, mission, and goals.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. develops and appropriately uses aligned, standards-based accountability data to improve the quality of teaching and learning;

b. uses varied sources and kinds of information and assessments (such as test scores, work samples, and teacher judgment) to evaluate student learning, effective teaching, and program quality;

c. guides regular analyses and disaggregation of data about all students to improve instructional programs;

d. uses effective data-based technologies and performance management systems to monitor and analyze assessment results for accountability reporting and to guide continuous improvement;

e. interprets data and communicates progress toward vision, mission, and goals for educators, the school community, and other stakeholders.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1336 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:863 (March 2011).

§307. Performance Expectation 3

A. Managing Organizational Systems and Safety

1. Education leaders ensure the success of all students by managing organizational systems and resources for a safe, high-performing learning environment.

a. Dispositions Exemplified in Expectation 3. The education leader believes in, values, and is committed to:

i. a safe and supportive learning environment;

ii. collaboration with all stakeholders;

iii. equitable distribution of resources;

iv. operating efficiently and effectively;

v. management in service of staff and student learning.

B. Narrative

1. Traditionally, school leaders focused on the management of a school or school district. A well-run school where buses run on time, the facility is clean, and the halls are orderly and quiet used to be the mark of an effective school leader. With the shift to leadership for learning, maintaining an orderly environment is necessary but not sufficient to meet the expectations and accountability requirements facing educators today.

2. Education leaders need a systems approach in complex organizations of schools and districts. In order to ensure the success of all students and provide a high-performing learning environment, education leaders manage daily operations and environments through efficiently and effectively aligning resources with vision and goals. Valuable resources include financial, human, time, materials, technology, physical plant, and other system components.

3. Leaders identify and allocate resources equitably to address the unique academic, physical, and mental health needs of all students. Leaders address any conditions that might impede student and staff learning, and they implement laws and policies that protect safety of students and staff. They promote and maintain a trustworthy, professional work environment by fulfilling their legal responsibilities, enacting appropriate policies, supporting due process, and protecting civil and human rights of all.

C. Element A—Effective Operational Systems. Leaders distribute leadership responsibilities and supervise daily, ongoing management structures and practices to enhance teaching and learning.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. uses effective tools such as problem-solving skills and knowledge of strategic, long-range, and operational planning to continuously improve the operational system;

b. maintains the physical plant for safety, ADA requirements, and other access issues to support learning of every student;

c. develops and facilitates communication and data systems that assure the timely flow of information;

d. oversees acquisition and maintenance of equipment and effective technologies, particularly to support teaching and learning;

e. distributes and oversees responsibilities for leadership of operational systems;

f. evaluates and revises processes to continuously improve the operational system.

D. Element B—Aligned Fiscal and Human Resources. Leaders establish an infrastructure for finance and personnel that operates in support of teaching and learning.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. operates within budget and fiscal guidelines and directs them effectively toward teaching and learning;

b. allocates funds based on student needs within the framework of federal and state rules;

c. aligns resources (such as time, people, space, and money) to achieve the vision and goals;

d. implements practices to recruit and retain highly qualified personnel;

e. assigns personnel to address diverse student needs, legal requirements, and equity goals;

f. conducts personnel evaluation processes that enhance professional practice, in keeping with district and state policies;

g. seeks and secures additional resources needed to accomplish the vision and goals.

E. Element C—Protecting the Welfare and Safety of Students and Staff. Leaders ensure a safe environment by addressing real and potential challenges to the physical and emotional safety and security of students and staff that interfere with teaching and learning.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. advocates for and creates collaborative systems and distributed leadership responsibilities that support student and staff learning and well-being;

b. involves parents, teachers, and students in developing, implementing, and monitoring guidelines and norms for accountable behavior;

c. develops and monitors a comprehensive safety and security plan.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1336 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:864 (March 2011).

§309. Performance Expectation 4

A. Collaborating with Families and Stakeholders

1. Education leaders ensure the success of all students by collaborating with families and stakeholders who represent diverse community interests and needs and mobilizing community resources that improve teaching and learning.

a. Dispositions exemplified in Expectation 4. The education leader believes in, values, and is committed to:

i. high standards for all;

ii. including family and community as partners;

iii. respect for the diversity of family composition;

iv. continuous learning and improvement for all.

B. Narrative

1. In order to educate students effectively for participation in a diverse, democratic society, leaders incorporate participation and views of families and stakeholders for important decisions and activities of schools and districts. Key stakeholders include educators, students, community members, and organizations that serve families and children.

2. Leaders recognize that diversity enriches and strengthens the education system and a participatory democracy. Leaders regard diverse communities as a resource and work to engage all members in collaboration and partnerships that support teaching and learning. Leaders help teachers communicate positively with families and make sure families understand how to support their children’s learning. In communicating with parents and the community, leaders invite feedback and questions so that communities can be partners in providing the best education for every student.

C. Element A—Collaboration with Families and Community Members. Leaders extend educational relationships to families and community members to add programs, services, and staff outreach and provide what every student needs to succeed in school and life.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. brings together the resources of schools, family members, and community to positively affect student and adult learning, including parents and others who provide care for children;

b. involves families in decision making about their children's education;

c. uses effective public information strategies to communicate with families and community members (such as email, night meetings, and written materials in multiple languages);

d. applies communication and collaboration strategies to develop family and local community partnerships;

e. develops comprehensive strategies for positive community and media relations.

D. Element B—Community Interests and Needs. Leaders respond and contribute to community interests and needs in providing the best possible education for their children.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. identifies key stakeholders and is actively involved within the community, including working with community members and groups that have competing or conflicting perspectives about education;

b. uses appropriate assessment strategies and research methods to understand and accommodate diverse student and community conditions and dynamics;

c. seeks out and collaborates with community programs serving students with special needs;

d. capitalizes on diversity (such as cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and special interest groups) as an asset of the school community to strengthen educational programs;

e. demonstrates cultural competence in sharing responsibilities with communities to improve teaching and learning.

E. Element C—Building on Community Resources. Leaders maximize shared resources among schools, districts, and communities that provide key social structures and gathering places, in conjunction with other organizations and agencies that provide critical resources for children and families.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. links to and collaborates with community agencies for health, social, and other services to families and children;

b. develops mutually beneficial relationships with business, religious, political, and service organizations to share school and community resources (such as buildings, playing fields, parks, medical clinics, and so on);

c. uses public resources and funds appropriately and effectively;

d. secures community support to sustain existing resources and add new resources that address emerging student needs.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1337 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:864 (March 2011).

§311. Performance Expectation 5

A. Ethics and Integrity

1. Education leaders ensure the success of all students by being ethical and acting with integrity.

a. Dispositions Exemplified in Expectation 5. The education leader believes in, values, and is committed to:

i. the common good over personal interests;

ii. taking responsibility for actions;

iii. ethical principles in all relationships and decisions;

iv. modeling high expectations;

v. continuously improving knowledge and skills.

B. Narrative

1. Local and state education agencies and professional organizations hold educators to codes of ethics, with attention to personal conduct, fiscal responsibilities, and other types of ethical requirements. The performance expectations build on concepts of professional ethics and integrity and add an emphasis on responsibilities of leaders for educational equity and social justice in a democratic society. Education is the primary socializing institution, conferring unique benefits or deficits across diverse constituents.

2. Leaders recognize that there are existing inequities in current distribution of high-quality educational resources among students. Leaders remove barriers to high-quality education that derive from economic, social, cultural, linguistic, physical, gender, or other sources of discrimination and disadvantage. They hold high expectations of every student and assure that all students have what they need to learn what is expected. Further, leaders are responsible for distributing the unique benefits of education more equitably, expanding future opportunities of less-advantaged students and families and increasing social justice across a highly diverse population.

3. Current policy environments with high-stakes accountability in education require that leaders are responsible for positive and negative consequences of their interpretations and implementation of policies as they affect students, educators, communities, and their own positions. Politically skilled, well-informed leaders understand and negotiate complex policies (such as high-stakes accountability), avoiding potential harm to students, educators, or communities that result from ineffective or insufficient approaches.

4. Ethics and integrity mean leading from a position of caring, modeling care and belonging in educational settings, personally in their behavior and professionally in concern about students, their learning, and their lives. Leaders demonstrate and sustain a culture of trust, openness, and reflection about values and beliefs in education. They model openness about how to improve learning of every student. They engage others to share decisions and monitor consequences of decisions and actions on students, educators, and communities.

C. Element A—Ethical and Legal Standards. Leaders demonstrate appropriate ethical and legal behavior expected by the profession.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. models personal and professional ethics, integrity, justice, and fairness and expects the same of others;

b. protects the rights and appropriate confidentiality of students and staff;

c. behaves in a trustworthy manner, using professional influence and authority to enhance education and the common good.

D. Element B—Examining Personal Values and Beliefs. Leaders demonstrate their commitment to examine personal assumptions, values, beliefs, and practices in service of a shared vision and goals for student learning.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. demonstrates respect for the inherent dignity and worth of each individual;

b. models respect for diverse community stakeholders and treats them equitably;

c. demonstrates respect for diversity by developing cultural competency skills and equitable practices;

d. assesses own personal assumptions, values, beliefs, and practices that guide improvement of student learning;

e. uses a variety of strategies to lead others in safely examining deeply held assumptions and beliefs that may conflict with vision and goals;

f. respectfully challenges and works to change assumptions and beliefs that negatively affect students, educational environments, and every student learning.

E. Element C—Maintaining High Standards for Self and Others. Leaders perform the work required for high levels of personal and organizational performance, including acquiring new capacities needed to fulfill responsibilities, particularly for high-stakes accountability.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. reflects on own work, analyzes strengths and weaknesses, and establishes goals for professional growth;

b. models lifelong learning by continually deepening understanding and practice related to content, standards, assessment, data, teacher support, evaluation, and professional development strategies;

c. develops and uses understanding of educational policies such as accountability to avoid expedient, inequitable, or unproven approaches that meet short-term goals (such as raising test scores);

d. helps educators and the community understand and focus on vision and goals for students within political conflicts over educational purposes and methods;

e. sustains personal motivation, optimism, commitment, energy, and health by balancing professional and personal responsibilities and encouraging similar actions for others.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1337 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:865 (March 2011).

§313. Performance Expectation 6: The Education System

A. Education leaders ensure the success of all students by influencing interrelated systems of political, social, economic, legal, and cultural contexts affecting education to advocate for their teachers' and students' needs.

1. Dispositions Exemplified in Expectation 6. The education leader believes in, values, and is committed to:

a. advocate for children and education;

b. influence policies;

c. uphold and improve laws and regulations;

d. eliminate barriers to achievement;

e. build on diverse social and cultural assets.

B. Narrative

1. Leaders understand that public schools belong to the public and contribute to the public good. They see schools and districts as part of larger local, state, and federal systems that support success of every student, while increasing equity and social justice. Leaders see education as an open system in which policies, goals, resources, and ownership cross traditional ideas about organizational boundaries of schools or districts. Education leaders advocate for education and students in professional, social, political, economic, and other arenas. They recognize how principles and structures of governance affect federal, state, and local policies and work to influence and interpret changing norms and policies to benefit all students.

2. Professional relationships with a range of stakeholders and policymakers enable leaders to identify, respond to, and influence issues, public awareness, and policies. For example, local elections affect education boards and bond results, in turn affecting approaches and resources for student success. Educators who participate in the broader system strive to provide information and engage constituents with data to sustain progress and address needs. Education leaders in a variety of roles contribute special skills and insights to the legal, economic, political, and social well-being of educational organizations and environments.

C. Element A—Exerting Professional Influence. Leaders improve the broader political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context of education for all students and families through active participation and exerting professional influence in the local community and the larger educational policy environment.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. facilitates constructive discussions with the public about federal, state, and local laws, policies, regulations, and statutory requirements affecting continuous improvement of educational programs and outcomes;

b. actively develops relationships with a range of stakeholders and policymakers to identify, respond to, and influence issues, trends, and potential changes that affect the context and conduct of education;

c. advocates for equity and adequacy in providing for students' and families' educational, physical, emotional, social, cultural, legal, and economic needs, so every student can meet educational expectations and policy goals.

D. Element B—Contributing to the Educational Policy Environment. Leaders contribute to policies and political support for excellence and equity in education.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. operates consistently to uphold and influence federal, state, and local laws, policies, regulations, and statutory requirements in support of every student learning;

b. collects and accurately communicates data about educational performance in a clear and timely way, relating specifics about the local context to improve policies and inform progressive political debates;

c. communicates effectively with key decision makers in the community and in broader political contexts to improve public understanding of federal, state, and local laws, policies, regulations, and statutory requirements;

d advocates for increased support of excellence and equity in education.

E. Element C—Policy Engagement. Working with policymakers informs and improves education policymaking and effectiveness of the public's efforts to improve education.

1. Indicators. A leader:

a. builds strong relationships with the school board, district and state education leaders, and policy actors to inform and influence policies and policymakers in the service of children and families;

b. supports public policies that provide for present and future needs of children and families and improve equity and excellence in education;

c. advocates for public policies that ensure appropriate and equitable human and fiscal resources and improve student learning;

d. works with community leaders to collect and analyze data on economic, social, and other emerging issues that impact district and school planning, programs, and structures.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17 and R.S.17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1338 (July 2007), repromulgated LR 37:866 (March 2011).

Chapter 5. Glossary

§501. Definitions

Preferred Future―an understanding and conviction conveyed to teachers and students that opportunities available to students are not limited.

Psychometrically Sound―data that are valid and reliable; refers to data from tests and other forms of assessment.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17: and R.S.17: 6(A)(10) .



HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:1338 (July 2007).





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