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Table of Contents




Background


Introduction………………………………………………..……...2

Site Statistics……………...………………………………………2

Site Significance………..…………………………………………3

Data Bases………………………………………………………...4

Agencies with Power……..……………………………………….5

Legal History……………..……………………………………….6

Prescriptive Rights………..………………………………………8

Conditions and Issues


Fire………………………………………………………………..9

Security and Emergency Services……………………………….10

Facilities…………………………………………………………10

Maintenance……………………………………………………..10

Natural Features/Significance…………………………………...11

Earthquakes……………………………………………………...12

Geomorphology…………………………………………………12

Geology…………………….……………………………………12

Soils……………………………………………………………...13

Sand……………………………………………………………...14

Erosion…………………………………………………………..14

Wave Climate……………………………………………………15

Tides and Sea Level……………………………………………..16

Climate…………………………………………………………..16

Hydrology and Runoff…………………………………………..17

Cultural Resources……….……………………………………...17

Habitats………………………………………………………….18

Programs and Use………………………………………………..19

Staff and Administration…….…………………………………..21

Annual Reports………………………………………………….21


Management Priorities


Impacts and Mitigation………………………………………….21

Adjacent Development Mitigation Guidelines……………….....25

Gnatcatchers…………………………………………………….25

California Least Tern…………………………………………...26

Zoning of Reserve for Use……………………………………...26

Management of Applications—Guidelines……………………..27


Appendices


Appendix A (runoff prevention)……………………………….28

Appendix B (species lists)……………………………………..29



References…………………………..………………………….55

Attachments…………………………………………………….57

SCRIPPS COASTAL RESERVE

MANAGEMENT PLAN

May 2003

“If we cannot act as responsible stewards in our own backyards, the long-term prospects for biological diversity in the rest of this planet are grim indeed.” Murphy, 1988


Background
Introduction

The purpose of this plan is to help maintain a high quality natural reserve. University of California Natural Reserves have been created for research and teaching in representative habitats. When established by the state legislature in 1929, the reserve was protected explicitly for research and teaching. It is primarily intended for the benefit of the University of California, but has been used by other universities, colleges, government agencies, and private and public schools since at least 1970.

The Scripps Coastal Reserve represents several habitats, most notably coastal sage scrub. As this habitat is fast disappearing in Southern California, it is important that this reserve be protected. The reserve is in need of restoration and this plan will prioritize actions to be taken. There is also a lack of sufficient community involvement, which will be addressed in this plan.

General management objectives for this type of reserve (Category IA under the IUCN Protected Area Categories System):



  • Preservation of habitats, ecosystems and species

  • Maintain genetic resources in dynamic and evolutionary state

  • Maintain established ecological processes

  • Secure examples of the natural environment for scientific studies, environmental monitoring and education

  • Minimize disturbance by careful planning and execution of research and other approved activities1.

A good website for ideas and information on Management of ocean resources is www.ceres.ca.gov/cra/ocean. It could be useful for updates to this plan.
Site Statistics

Location: Coastal San Diego County, CA; upland portion lies approximately 0.5 km (0.3 mi) west of the main UCSD campus and 1.0 km (0.6 mi) north of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); marine portion is adjacent to SIO.

Latitude: 32o51’30” N

Longitude: 117 o 16’ W

USGS Maps: La Jolla 15’, Del Mar 7.5’, La Jolla 7.5’

Reserve Type: Multipurpose, core reserve.

Area by Land Tenure:


  1. 80 acres coastal parcel (60.6 acres submerged land, 19.4 acres intertidal land) owned by the UC Regents

  2. 44 acres comprising the upland portion, including the “Knoll” and south slope of Black Canyon owned by the UC Regents constitute the main upland parcel

  3. 15.5 acres (Sumner Canyon)—use and management agreement/license with the Scripps Estate Associates (SEA) beginning in 1981 when upland portion was added to the reserve. The original agreement was for 20 years, and in 2001 SEA agreed to lengthen that time. Rent is $1 per year. See attachment A.

  4. 800 acre submerged land lease from the City of San Diego in 1971, originally to house a new underwater research facility (never constructed). Leased for $50. See attachment B.

Date of Establishment: Marine portion, 1965; upland portion, 1980.

Elevation Range: Below mean sea level: 227 m (750 ft) Above mean sea level: 113 m (370 ft)

Topography: Steep coastal bluff topped by Plio-Pleistocene marine terrace and bounded by two coastal canyons; sandy beach with exposed cobble pockets; submerged coastal plain with intruded igneous dike and veneered by shifting sands; steep submarine canyon.

Site Significance

Natural Features


  1. Degree of disturbance: the shoreline portion of the reserve appears relatively undisturbed because of its resilience to constant bombardment by humans. However, recent analysis suggests major impacts due to human disturbance including poaching and trampling2. The upland portion is heavily used and as a result is somewhat trampled and littered upon. This portion was used for grazing of livestock prior to UCSD involvement, and so much of the habitat is now disturbed grassland.

  2. Diversity: See attached lists of vegetation and habitat types, birds, invertebrates, and other animal species.

  3. Rare/threatened/endangered habitats/species:

SE= State listed endangered

FE= Federally listed endangered

SE=State threatened

FE=Federally threatened



Knoll:

Sea dahlia, rare (CNPS)

Barrel cactus, rare (CNPS), FE

Coast scrub oak, rare

Coastal sage scrub habitat, rare

Loggerhead Shrike, FE

Peregrine Falcon, FE

Savannah Sparrow, SE

Brown Towhee, FT, SE

California Gnatcatcher, ST



Shoreline:

Brown Pelican, FE, SE

Least Tern, FE, SE

Snowy Plover, FT



  • There may be non-listed sensitive species which should be monitored. These species should be determined and the existing individuals mapped (plants) or counted (animals). A bi-yearly survey for these species would be important.

  1. Special natural processes:

  • Erosion of cliff face

  • Sand migration and resulting seasonal sand height fluctuations

  • Migration of infauna up and down the beach

  • Succession after disturbance (Knoll)

  • Spawning of market squid (Loligo opalescens) and grunion (Leuresthes tenuis)

  • Heavy fog regime contributes to moisture deposition.

  1. Protectability:

Access to the upland portion could easily be restricted due to its small access area, although enforcement would be nearly impossible without changing the entrance gate. The shoreline portion is much harder to protect due to ease of access and laws regarding public access to shoreline areas. The rocky intertidal is under considerable pressure due to getting walked on and invertebrate poaching, but is practically impossible to protect. Also, due to the fact that fishing is allowed recreationally inside the reserve, the invertebrates are at greater risk of being poached and the fish have no protection at all.

  1. Other:

Important cultural site—the Knoll is an internationally renowned archaeological site. Excavations began in 1929 by the San Diego Museum of Man. Remnants of human burials have been found, evidence of La Jollan culture 1,300 to 8,000 years ago. Further investigations revealed that much of the knoll is covered with artifacts spanning 10,000 years and three cultures—San Dieguito, La Jollan, and Diegueño.

Connectivity—the Torrey Pines State Reserve to the north and the La Jolla Ecological Reserve to the south provide some degree of connectivity between natural places. Corridors along the beach and submerged coastline connect them.



Andesite dike reef habitat is unique to the area.
Data Bases:

  1. Species lists (plants, birds, mammals, etc.)

  2. Bibliography list of related papers and research.

  3. Infauna and sand sampling 1994 to present. Infauna is only partly sorted and catalogued, some sand samples have been analyzed for grain size.

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data from the end of Scripps Pier, available on the Internet at: http://scilib.ucsd.edu/sio/ocean/.

  5. Information on the La Jolla and Scripps Canyons available at: http://scilib.ucsd.edu/sio/canyon/index.html, including abstracts of over 215 publications and a map of the La Jolla fan.

  6. The SIO Weather Page includes radar and satellite images, Pacific Ocean wave information, and SIO pier data (temperature of air and water, salinity, etc.). The information spans from 1916 to the present and can be found at: http://meteora.ucsd.edu.weather.html.

  7. SIO Oceanographic Collections, at: http://gdcmp1.ucsd.edu/sci_coll.html includes information on:

    • Fish Holdings: Over 2 million fish specimens, and over 4500 catalogued species. Searchable database.

    • Zooplankton: The Scripps Planktonic Invertebrates Collection includes over 102,000 whole zooplankton samples with 108 species.

    • Benthic Invertebrates: The collection includes approximately 40,000 lots of sorted specimens, of which about 30,000 have been catalogued and about 30% of these have been identified. Qualified individuals can loan out these specimens for the purposes of research, education, or exhibition.

    • Geological Cores and Dredged Rocks: Approximately 15,000 core samples and more than 2000 hauls of dredged rocks. These are part of the Micropaleontological Reference Data Center Collection, and the site includes links to searchable databases.

  8. SIO Shore Station Data Set available at: http://www-mrlg.ucsd.edu/shoresta/index.html

  9. Data Sets for 2001 and 2002 SIO pier temperatures available at: ftp://ccsweb1.ucsd.edu/pub/shore/

  10. The California Coastal Records Project has aerial photographs of the entire California Coastline, and these are updated periodically. The project’s site is: http://www1.californiacoastline.org

  11. Seedbank Data from the Knoll. This includes data from 41 species, including annual/perennial, native/introduced, and habitat classifications.

  12. Real-time temperature and salinity data is available from the end of
    the pier as part of the Network for Environmental Observations of the Coastal
    Ocean (NEOCO) effort sponsored by the UC Marine Council. 7-day plots are displayed at http://es.ucsc.edu/~neoco/index_files/lajolla_7plots.htm.
    Please note that the chlorophyll fluorescence and light transmission
    data is not reliable (but they are working on it)

  13. Ron McConnaughey, Scientific Research Diver for SIO has species lists

  14. Birch Aquarium collects regularly and should have collection lists.


Agencies with Power:

  1. Primary Agency: UC Natural Reserve System Manager, UCSD

  2. Secondary Agency: California Department of Fish and Game. They are the main agency with power since this is a Marine Life Refuge. They provide defense for the invertebrates, which are completely protected in Marine Life Refuges. They can issue tickets to poachers. See attachment C.

  3. City of San Diego. (Stats. 1955, c. 41, p. 485: Article 3 §558 Entry upon described lands forbidden. Only UC officers, employees and students are technically allowed to use the marine portion of the reserve. This could be invoked if necessary). Law Enforcement Officers often respond faster to poaching calls than Fish and Game. The Lifeguards are also very helpful, and are the real first line of defense against poaching due to their proximity. The City of San Diego also sends us Environmental Impact Reports (EIRs) for prospective nearby projects so that we can comment on them. See attachment D.

  4. State Water Resources Control Board established Refuge as an Area of Special Biological Significance, meaning that nothing shall be discharged into it. Authority is delegated to the San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB), who supply the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits to Scripps to discharge the water from their aquaria that is brought in from the end of the pier.

  5. California Coastal Commission may have some influence on the reserve for access issues (prescriptive rights) and building issues, such as new gates; certainly for any construction.

  6. UC is a trustee under CEQA and is supposed to prepare an EIR and give the reserve management opportunity to comment on projects that may impact the reserve.

  7. The statewide Natural Community Conservation Planning (NCCP) program, implemented by the Department of Fish and Game aims to conserve ecosystems while accommodating human land use. The program was instituted to protect coastal sage scrub habitat for the California gnatcatcher. The program is broken down into subregions and further into subareas. The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Plan (MSCP) pertains to the area surrounding reserve land, although the reserve is not formally enrolled.

  8. Fish and Game Commission. Under section 10502 of the Fish and Game Code, the Commission may:

“Make additional regulations not in conflict with any law for the protection of birds, mammals, fish, amphibia and marine life within any refuge” (part d)3

This is significant to our reserve if we attempt to protect all life in the reserve from being taken, not just the plants and invertebrates. For instance, the new Monterey Bay and Channel Islands Sanctuaries provide for the protection of all life inside the reserve. Perhaps the Commission could be persuaded to consider the Scripps Coastal Reserve for this type of protection, under the 1999 Marine Life Protection Act4.

It has been shown in several studies (see bibliography on this issue) that protecting fish inside reserves can help improve fish stocks for the surrounding waters. This could be used to convince local fisherman that they are not losing out by being forbidden to fish in the reserve.


    • Contact: Enrique Sala at SIO. His specialty is Marine Reserves.


Legal History:

Shoreline Portion


2/13/1912—The Regents correspond with representatives of the San Diego Marine Biological Laboratory concerning the possible transfer of the Laboratory and surrounding land to the Regents. It would be accepted in trust as part of the University of California, and become a department of the University. The title would be “The Scripps Institution for Biological Research of the University of California.”

3/13/1913—Date of the grant deed from the Marine Biological Association of San Diego to the Regents of the University of California as per the Regents action of Feb. 13, 1912. 163 acres of land, presumably stopping at high tide. This deed was lost.

3/31/1914—Date of replacement deed which was recorded April 6, 1914 in Book of Deeds no. 649, page 75, of the Records of San Diego County.

1925—The name “The Scripps Institution for Biological Research of the University of California changed to “The Scripps Institution of Oceanography.”

8/14/1929—The effective date of a legislative act (Stats. 1929, Ch. 514, Secs. 1-3) approved by the Governor May 27, 1929. Grants the Regents “…the sole and exclusive right of possession, occupation and use…” of the strip of land between the westerly edge of Pueblo Lot 1298 (mean high tide/SIO property boundary) Misc. Map No. 36 and “the lowest low tide line opposite to and west of said Pueblo Lot” and the “state waters” extending 1000 feet westerly of the lowest low tide line between the seaward extensions of the northerly and southerly boundaries of pueblo lot 1298.

This is not a deed of ownership, but the term “possession, occupation and use” has been defined as “a perpetual lease, easement and/or license.” Also, “state waters” refers to the water column only and not the underlying land.

Further, the grant states that entry, trespass, or interference with the University’s rights by anyone other than an officer, employee, student, or licensee or the University is forbidden except for the rights of navigation and fishery reserved to the people by the state constitution. (Stats 1929, Ch. 514)

8/21/1933—The effective date of a legislative act (Stats. 1933, Ch. 688, Secs. 1a-d) approved by the Governor June 5, 1933, which grants the City of San Diego right to all the tidelands and submerged lands within its boundaries (excepting Mission Bay). Chapter 688 further reserves the right for the people of California to access and use these tidelands and the fish therein. This is subject to the prior grant of right and interest to the University offshore from Scripps.

The grant of land to the Regents does not specify whether it is an easement or a “perpetual” lease. An easement is not revocable, except by agreement of both parties, while a license is. Therefore, according to legal analysis by Connie Barton (State Lands Legal Unit, 11/3/77, file no. G 10-07), we should interpret the grant as an easement.

1957—The Fish and Game Commission designates the same land covered under the 1929 grant to the University as the “San Diego Marine Life Refuge,” protecting all invertebrates and marine plants. Only researchers who obtain permits from Fish and Game may take them. (Stats. 1957, Ch. 456. Fish and Game Code, Division 7, Chapter 2, Article 6, Section 10902). Section 10658 of the Code describes allowable uses for the San Diego Marine Life Refuge (see attached).

1/23/1965—Regents formally created the Natural Land and Water Reserves System, and incorporated seven existing University properties. One of these was the San Diego Marine Life Refuge. (Regents item dated 1/15/65 for meeting of 1/23/65).

11/2/68—The San Diego Campus NLWRS Committee endorsed name designation for NLWRS reserve as the “Scripps Shoreline-Underwater Reserve.” (Report from Carl Hubbs to Systemwide Advisory Committee dated 10/21/68. Status Report on the meeting of 11/1-2/68 states name change).

8/20/1969—Draft of 50 year lease from the City of San Diego to the State Department of Parks and Recreation to commence on January 1, 1970, for the purpose of creating the proposed Torrey Pines Underwater Park. It was to extend from Point La Jolla on the south to the northernmost tip of the Torrey Pines State Reserve and averaging 1.5 miles in width. Apparently, local opposition blocked implementation of the park. The City then created its own underwater park off of La Jolla Cove. (Communication with Jim Talley, Captain of the Harbor Patrol, Aquatics Division, City Parks Department, 2581 Quivira Ct., San Diego, 92109).

2/19/1970—Regents officially endorsed naming the reserve the Scripps Shoreline-Underwater Park. The name San Diego Marine Life Refuge also still applies. (Regents item dated 2/19/1970, D, p.3).

11/12/1971—Regents item for meeting of 11/18/1971 calling for a 55 year lease from the City of San Diego of 800 acres of offshore submerged land for the construction of a “Nearshore Underwater Research Facility” at a cost of $18 million. The facility was never constructed, and therefore the lease presumably was terminated. Allegedly Irwin L. Jacobs, of the Property Management Division of the City wrote to William D. McElroy, the Chancellor of UCSD on 4/19/1977 terminating the lease. However, as of February 2003, the lease is considered still active by the Clerk’s Department of the City of San Diego. See attached.

1972—The Regents and the City of San Diego entered into a lease of 800 acres of submerged land offshore from SIO and Black’s Beach in order to construct a “Nearshore Underwater Research Facility” (or “Experimental Inshore Oceanographic Facility”). The lease was for 50 years. The University approached the City to ask if the lease could continue without building the Facility, and they said yes—that the lease terms did not require it, and that use as a reserve is consistent with the use as defined in the lease. Lease number, etc.

1974—The State Water Resources Control Board designated the San Diego Marine Life Refuge an “Area of Special Biological Significance,” which allows the board to prohibit any point discharge into the area. Seawater outfall from SIO is permitted by an NPDES permit issued by the Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). Permit number, etc.

Upland Portion

1967—The Regents acquired several parcels of land between the UCSD campus and the ocean. These Include Black Canyon, the Knoll, and portions of Sumner Canyon.

1967-1978—Extensive discussions as to appropriate use of these parcels, especially the Knoll. Suggested uses of the Knoll lands included: preservation as an archaeological resource, low density housing, a botanical garden, inclusion into the NRS for teaching and research, a policy center combined with a wildlife area or botanical garden, a site for the new aquarium-museum, or high-density low-cost housing.

1980—Appraisal for the Knoll set its value at $3,750,000.

1981—The Knoll is included in the NRS.

1982—The Regents and the Scripps Estates Associates (SEA) entered into a license for use of SEA’s part of Sumner Canyon.

1987—The Shoreline and Upland portions are united under the new name “Scripps Coastal Reserve.”

2000 – The Knoll is approved for permanent reserve status by the Regents.

Prescriptive rights:

We could have a problem with prescriptive rights if we attempt to totally close the trail down the face of the cliff to Blacks Beach. Unfortunately, although we have always had a sign up saying No Beach Access, the laws say that for the public to obtain an easement by way of implied dedication, it must be shown that:



  • The public has used the land for the prescriptive period of five years as if it were public land

  • Without asking or receiving permission from the owner

  • With the actual or presumed knowledge of the owner

  • Without significant objection or bona fide attempts by the fee owner to prevent or halt such use5.

The last point is the only one that is flexible really, since the first three obviously apply. We may have a problem with this because it seems hard to prove that we have made significant attempts to stop use. It is unclear whether simple verbal reprimands are considered sufficient.

However, one point is that “The use must be by the public at large as opposed to a number of persons who belong to some limited identifiable group.” It is obvious that surfers are the only ones who use this trail; normal people are more sensible and use the road. Therefore this point could work.



Conditions and Issues

The following is descriptive information compiled about the reserve. Some recommendations for management are included in each section.
Fire:

The Bates Bill states that if an area is deemed a high fire hazard, the chief of the local fire department should decide whether it is necessary to establish a firebreak. The Knoll is not considered a high hazard area according to the California Department of Forestry Fire Severity Mapping. It is also not in a state-controlled area, so it seems that the reserve management is the body to decide whether or not a fire break is necessary. Since there are no buildings on the knoll, we are also exempt from the mandatory firebreaks surrounding structures6. We cannot stop the owners of the Scripps Estates Associates property from clearing on their property line in Sumner Canyon. Nothing in the license agreement addresses this issue. The reserve property is not enrolled in the MHCP or MSCP, so the agreements in those plans do not automatically apply.

  • Firebreaks are the responsibility of the adjacent homeowners.

  • Fire retardant should not be used due to its fertilizing effect that helps exotic vegetation to out-compete natives.

  • Non-native grasses tend to burn better, jeopardizing the adjacent scrub habitat. This is one reason that exotic grasses need to be removed and replaced by natives. One management technique for removal of annual grasses could be to torch the ground, and immediately follow with a fire extinguisher. This would sear the seeds of the grasses to help prevent regrowth.

  • It is important to prevent fires at the Knoll so that the coastal sage scrub habitat is not jeopardized7. Please see section on Gnatcatchers below.


Security and Emergency Services:

A heavy-duty metal gate marks the entrance to the Knoll. However, although this gate keeps out vehicles, bicycles still are brought onto the reserve and there is no way to completely close the reserve at night. A new gate has been proposed and was going to be paid for by the SEA that could be locked at night. This has not yet occurred, but it should. There is no police presence at the reserve, so locking and unlocking the gate could be an issue. Hopefully the security guards who patrol the La Jolla Farms area could be contracted to add this onto their duties by the La Jolla Farms Homeowners Association who pays them. The guards have expressed willingness on their end.

City police only respond to emergencies on SEA land. Campus police are responsible for the rest of the reserve, but they do not have a clear responsibility. Issues we need to work out with them:


  • Should help us when people resist being told what the rules are

  • Vagrancy on our property

  • Need to contact us when there is an incident, such as a cliff rescue. They have not been good about this in the past.

The Lifeguards provide emergency services on the shoreline portion. They will also help apprehend poachers. The San Diego City Lifeguard, Fire Department, and Paramedic crews coordinate to help in emergencies at the Knoll. However, they do not communicate with the campus police or the NRS office during or after an emergency. This should be changed.

A large amount of damage is caused by emergency vehicles accessing the reserve often to rescue a person who has fallen on the cliff face. There are no signs or preventive measures to dissuade use of the dirt trail down to Blacks Beach or climbing and sitting on the bluff faces.



  • We need to install signs by the end of 2003, as well as ticket trespassers who ignore the signs and continue to do as they wish, endangering their lives. In Morro Bay there is a sign warning people not to walk out onto the breakwater—it has a list of all the people who have died or gotten injured from doing so, and has turned out to be an excellent deterrent. This could be an option for the Knoll. Also, it is important that the sign is deep in the ground and reinforced so it cannot be vandalized easily.

Recorded Injuries

2/5/98—Surfer broke leg using unauthorized trail to beach

2/20/00—Student at UCSD fell down cliff on same trail

3/24/02—39 year-old man fell to his death on this trail


Facilities:

Upland: garbage service, information kiosk, half-mile trail encircling the Knoll. A new entrance gate is needed (see below).

Shoreline: access to Scripps pier and labs for researchers.
Maintenance:

The following needs to be done:

a. Posting and replacement of NRS identification signs and Ecological Study Area signs.

b. Issue and control of collecting permits.

c. Docent patrols.

d. Fence and gate repairs, graffiti removal.

e. Fire abatement (see above).

f. Removal of non-natives.

g. Trash cleanups8.

h. Trail maintenance. The inner loop was created to keep visitors away from the cliff edge and Sumner canyon, as the public is not allowed to use the canyon. The license agreement states that the canyon can be used only for research and teaching. The inner loop’s path was chosen to be on as level ground as possible to decrease erosion.



  • Need to post a sign stating that entering the canyon is trespassing.

  • Have begun to help rehabilitate vegetation on the sides of the trail by steering the flow using telephone poles. This needs to be maintained, and the logs can be moved inwards as the vegetation regrows, narrowing the trail.

h. A new gate should be installed at the entrance to the knoll. This has been discussed and planned. The reasons this is important are:

  • Need to keep the Knoll closed at night, when most vandalism tends to occur

  • Need to make it more difficult to bring bicycles onto the knoll.



Natural Features/Significance:

Dike Rock is a region where rocks occur from above the high tide line out to a depth of about ten feet below mean sea level. Here, stable hard substrates offer surfaces where algae (seaweeds) and seagrasses can attach and grow. Sand often is moved off and on many of the rocks, so the algal vegetation and the associated communities change with the seasons and differ from year to year as the physical conditions fluctuate. It is an interesting area to study changes in intertidal systems. This rocky intertidal habitat supports a rich invertebrate community that is in dire need of protection.



  • To protect the rocky intertidal—we need to cordon off an area of Dike Rock to keep people off it. This can be done by anchoring metal poles into the rock and attaching a cable between them, but care needs to be taken to not cause extra harm and to create a structure that is likely to stay put for a while.

About 250 yards offshore, north of Scripps is the head of the Scripps Submarine Canyon. Below about 50 feet, the algal species are very different from the intertidal forms, and near 100 feet, several very rare plants can be found9.

  • The 800 acre submerged land lease from the City of San Diego could be used to protect the canyon head somewhat. Not sure what the laws say we are allowed to do. Any ideas on how to find out?

The reserve constitutes a significant area of Diegan Coastal Sage Scrub—cornerstone for the NCCP and local MSCP10.

The bluffs at the Knoll are *** feet high, and erode at approximately ****rate. There is no seawall or other coastline-armoring device below the Knoll, allowing natural bluff retreat. As the coastline of California is increasingly armored, adjacent areas are subject to increased erosion rates. However the Knoll’s position at the base of the Oceanside Littoral Cell and down-drift from the unprotected bluffs of Torrey Pines and Blacks Beach, this effect will most likely not occur.



  • Brown and MacLachlan recommend that no protective measures be installed to allow natural processes to continue11, as fits with the goals of the NRS.

The submerged sandy beach is a spawning ground for market squid, Loligo opalescens, and the sandy beach is a spawning ground for grunion. The reserve should continue to protect these spawning grounds, especially by preventing commercial fishing in reserve boundaries, and hopefully in the 800 acre leased area.
Earthquakes12:

Date Magnitude Area
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9


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