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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES



OF

Acalypha indica(Linn.)


SYNOPSIS FOR
M.PHARM DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,

KARNATAKA, BANGALORE
SUBMITED BY
MANJUNATH

Department of Pharmacognosy


THE OXFORD COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
BANGALORE-78

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,
BANGALORE, KARNATAKA
ANNEXURE-II
PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION

1.

Name of the candidate and Address

MANJUNATH

The Oxford College of Pharmacy,

J.P. Nagar, Ist Phase,

Bangalore
PERMANENT ADDRESS:

S/o Shivalingaiah hiremath

Post: Boodagumpa

Tq: Gangavati

Dist: Koppal (Karnataka )

Pin code- 583229


2.

Name of the Institution

The Oxford College of Pharmacy, J.P.Nagar, 1st Phase,

Bangalore -560078.



3.

Course of study and subject

M.Pharm, Pharmacognosy




4.

Date of Admission


18-JUNE-2009

5.

Title of the Topic


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF



Acalypha indica (Linn.)


6.

7.





Brief resume of intended work

6.1 – Need for the study:


Acalypha indica Linn. also known as Acalypha spicata, A. ciliata, Indian Acalypha, belonging to family euphorbiaceae, is an erect annual herb occurring in waste places and along the road sides through out plains of India, ascending hills in Orissa1.
Leaves and twings contain alkaloids like acalyphine, acalyphamide, amides, quinine, sterols and cyanogenic glycosides. Plant contains kaemperol, sitosterol, triacetonamine2, and New amides like auranthiamide and its acetate succinimide, 2-methylanthraquinone, tri-o-methylellagic acid were isolated from leaves of Acalypha indica Linn3.
The extract of whole plant was reported for post coital antifertility activity4, The aqeous extract of Acalypha indica Linn. shown neuroprotection and neurotherapy effect5, extract of leaves has shown antibacterial activity6 and anti-inflammatory activity7, Different extracts of Acalypha indica Linn. shown Larvicidal and ovicidal activity against Anapheles stephensi8, Antibacterial activity of biosythesized silver nanoparticles from Acalypha indica Linn. has been reported9.
In folk medicine leaves are known to be used in treatment of in ringworm infection rheumatoid arthritis, scabies, snake bite10, Root & leaves used in treatment of skin diseases, constipation, ulcer, bronchitis11.
Although various studies have been carried out with respect to plant parts for phytochemical and pharmacological activity but not much data is available to establish certain traditional uses mentioned for Acalypha indica Linn.
So based on existing phytochemical data & folklore medicine the present studies have been taken up to establish/provide scientific data for antioxidant & anthelmintic activity of leaf. There fore in present studies it is proposed to isolate the chemical constituents from leaves of Acalypha indica Linn. & to carry out in vitro antioxidant & in-vivo anthelmintic activity.


6.2-Review of Literature:


  • Four different extracts of whole plant of Acalypha indica Linn. were tested for post-coital antifertility activity in female albino rats. Of these, only petroleum ether and ethanol extracts were found most significant activity. But activity is reversible on withdrawal of extract4.

  • Aqueous extract of Acalypha indica Linn. were studied for Neuro- protection and neuro-therapy effect ex vivo on musculus gastrocnemius frog. Studies were done on two groups of frog, the parameters measured in this study are electrical activities such as amount and duration (in second) of repolarization, depolarization, resting potential, and height of spike after electrical stimulation. Extract showed both activities5.

  • Different extracts of leaves of Acalypha indica Linn. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. All extracts shown activity against various strains of gram positive and in gram negative only on Pseudomonas aeruginosa6.

  • Fresh juice of Acalypha indica Linn. leaf were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity on four groups of albino rats which are pretreated orally with control, standard, (indomethacin), in combination of Both Acalypha indica & Indomethacin, Acalypha indica juice was effective in inhibition of paw Volume and oedema7.

  • Different leaf extract of Acalypha indica Linn. were tested for larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition attractancy against Anapheles stephensi. Hatchability of ovicidal activity was observed, the percent hatchability was inversely proporitional to concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Result of extracts having promising activity8.

  • Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using leaf extract of Acalypha Indica Linn. The antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles showed effective inhibitory activity against water borne pathogens Viz., Escherichia Coli and Vibrio cholerae9.


6.3 - Objective of the Study:
Collection of drug i.e. (leaf of Acalypha indica) and preparation of the extract of the drug (maceration / soxhlet) and Isolation of phytoconstituents from the extract, based on phytochemical screening by column chromatography/seperation method. Identification of isolated phytoconstituents by UV, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Different extracts / isolated compounds would be studied for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH & superoxide radical method12. And in-vivo anthelmintic activity by using earth worm Pherentima posthuma13.

Materials and Methods:

7.1a) Source of Data:




    • Search on Medline and other Journals from The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore RGUHS-Digital library.

b) Place of work: The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore.




    1. Method of Collection of Data:




  • Collection – Collection of leaves from Gangavati region (Karnataka) and authentication of leaves of Acalypha indica Linn. will be done by Shiddamallyya (botanist), RRI Bangalore.

  • Extraction - Extracts of the drugs will be prepared using different solvents by maceration/ soxhlet.

  • Isolation – Isolation of extracted phytoconstituents will be done using column chromatography / separation methods.

  • Identification and characterization - The isolated compounds will be identified using analytical methods like UV, IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  • Biological activity- The extracts / isolated compounds will be studied for in-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anthelmintic activity.

7.3 - Does the study require any investigations or inventions to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals?

If so, please describe briefly.


        • Not applicable -

7.4 – Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?




        • Not applicable -




8.



Bibliography:



  1. Wealth of India, A dictionary of India Raw Material and Industrial Products, CSIR, New Delhi. 2003;(1):47-48.

  2. Joshi SG. Medicinal Plants. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 2007; 174.

  3. Rastogi PR, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian Medicinal plants. Central drug research institute of science communication, New Delhi. 2001;(3):8-9.

  4. Hiremath SP, Rudresh K, Badami S, Patil SB, Patil SR. Post-coital antifertility activity of Acalypha indica L. Journal of Ethnopharmacol. 1999;30:67(3):253-8.

  5. Ernie H, Purwaingsh, Nurhahi Ibrahim, Hamdani Zain, Arjo Tedjo. Neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects of Acalypha indica Linn. water extract ex vivo on muscular gastrocnemium frog. Makara, Kesehatan 2008; 2(12):71-76.

  6. Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Reetha D, Amsath R, Pushpanathan T, Samidurai K. Antibacterial activity of Acalypha indica L. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2008;12(5):299-302.

  7. Mohana Vamsi N, Venkata Sunil kumar M, Kodandaram N, Padmanabha Reddy Y. Evaluation of Anti- inflammatory activity of Acalypha indica L. The Indian Pharmacist. 2008;7:89-91.

  8. Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpanatan T, Samiduri K. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of leaf extract of Acalypha indica L. Parasitol Res. 2008;103(3):691-5.

  9. Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N. Synthesis of silver nanoparticals using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. J.colsurfb.2009.10.008.

  10. Gupta AK, Neeraj Tandon. Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants. Indian Council of medicinal research. 2004;1:111-113.

  11. Vaidyaratnam PS, Variers. Indian medicinal plants. A compendium of 500 species. 2005;(1):36-37.



  1. Vani T, Rajani M, Sarkar S, Shishoo C. Antioxidant properties of the ayurvedic formulation Triphala and its constituents. Int. J. Pharmacognocy. 1997;35(5):313-317.

  2. Dash GK, Mishra B, Panda A, Patro CP, Gangapaty S. Anthelmintic activity of Evolvulus nummularius. Indian journal of natural products. 2003;19(3):24-25.



9.


Signature of Candidate




10.

Remarks of the Guide




Recommended




11.

11.1 Name and Designation of Guide



Mrs. Usha Gavani


Asst.Professor

Department of Pharmacognosy






11.2 Signature









11.3 Co-Guide





-





11.4 Signature

_




11.5 Head of the Department


Dr. Padmaa M. Paarakh


Professor and Head

Department of Pharmacognosy






11.6 Signature


12.

12.1 Remarks of the Chairman and

Principal



Forwarded to the University for scrutiny




12.2 Signature




Dr. Padmaa M. Paarakh

Principal

The Oxford College of Pharmacy,



J.P.Nagar, 1st Phase, Bangalore – 78.


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