Savannah State University
College of Sciences and Technology
Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Marine Science Program
MSCI 1810K - Marine Biology Spring 2011
Abyssopelagic Abiotic Adaptation Aerobic Ampulla Algae Amphineura Amphipoda Anaerobic Respiration Annelida Anoxic Anterior Aphotic Aposematic Aquaculture Aschelminthes Asexual Autotroph Baleen Barnacle Bathyal Bathypelagic Benthos Biochrome Biological clock Bioluminescence Biomass Biota Biotic community Brackish Bryozoa Byssal threads Calcareous Carapace Carnivore Cartilagenous Carotin Cephalopoda Cephalothorax Cerrata Cetacea Chaetae Chaetognatha Chela Chemosynthesis Chitin Chiton Chlorophyta Chromatophore Chrysophyta Cilium Ciguaterra Cirri Cirripedia Cnidoblast Coccolithophore Coelenterata Coelom Colonial animals Comb jelly Commensalism Community Compensation depth CaO3 Compensation depth Competition Copepoda Coral Crustacea Ctenophora Cypris Decapoda Decomposers Deep scattering layer Demersal Deposit feeder Dessication Detritus Diatom Diffusion Dinoflagellates Dolphin Dorsal Echolocation - Echinodermata Ecological efficiency Ecosystem Ectoderm Epifauna Epipelagic Estuary Euphotic zone Euryhaline Eurythermal Eutrophic Exoskeleton Fathom Fauna Fecal pellets Filter feeder Flagellum Flora Flotsam Food chain Food web Foraminafera Fouling Fringing reef Frustule Fucoxanthin Gastropoda Gill Habitat Hadal Herbivore Hermaphroditic Hermatypic coral Heterotroph Holdfast Holoplankton Homologous us. Hydrostatic skeleton Hydrothermal vent Hydrozoa Hypertonic Hypotonic Infauna In situ Intertidal Irridiophore Isohaline Isopoda Isotonic Isotope Jellyfish Key (Cay) Kelp Kelvin temperature scale (K) Knot(kt) Krill Larva Leeward Limpet Littoral Lophophore Mantle Mariculture Medusa Meroplankton Metazoans Mimicry Mollusca Molt Monera Mutualism Mycota Nanoplankton Natural selection Nauplius. Neap Tide Nektobenthos Nekton Neritic province Neritic sediment Neuston Niche Nitrogen Fixation Nudibranch Nutrientss. Obliterative counter-shading Oceanic Olfaction Offshore Omnivore Operculum Osmosis Osmotic pressure Otolith Parapodia Parasite Parasitism Pelagic Phaeoophyta Photophore Phytoplankton Piscivore Planktivore Plastron Polyp Population Porifera Port Predation Primary productivity Primary consumer Protista Protoplasm Protozoa Pseudopodia Pteropoda Pycnogonid Pyrrophyta Radial symmetry Radiata Radiolaria Ray Red tide Reef Respiration Rhodophyta Sabellid Salinity Salpa Salt marsh Saprophyte Sargasso Sea Sargassum Scaphopoda Scavenger Schematochome SCUBA Scyphozoant Sea anemone Sea cow Sessile Silaceous Siphon SONAR Species Spicule Spring tide Statocyst Stenohaline Stenothermal Starboard Stern Sublimination Sublittoral Substrate Supralittoral Surf zone Suspension feeder Swim bladder Symbiosis Taxon Taxonomy Tintinnid Tissue Trawl Trophic level Tube worms Tunicates Turbidity Ultraplankton Valve Veliger Ventral Vertebrata Water vascular Wrack Zonation Zooplankton Zooxanthellae
Taxa you must know: Metazoa Monera Protista Fungi Metaphyta Schizophyta Cyanophyta Chrysophyta Phaeophyta Chlorophyta Protozoa Rhodophyta Porifera Cnidaria (Coelenterata) Ctenophora Platyhelminthes Nemertea Nematoda Annelida Brachiopoda Bryozoa Mollusca Chordata Arthropoda Echinodermata Chaetognatha Hydrozoa Anthozoa Scyphozoa Polyplacophora(Amphineura) Gastropoda Bivalvia Cephalopoda Crustacea Asteroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Crinoidea Agnatha Chondrichthys Osteichthys Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Crustacea Cetacea Carnivora Sirenia Amphipoda Cirripedia Copepoda Decapoda Isopodqa Mysticeti Odontoceti
Mathematics Across the Curriculum (see problems after unit outlines below)
Provisional Lecture, Lab, Field Activity Schedule Spring 2009 (see attached)
* Exact dates are not given in advance because field/boat-based and field/boat-dependent exercises are scheduled when boats are available and when tides and weather permit and because some topics take more than one class period to complete.
Unit Learning Objectives, Outlines, Questions, Critical Thinking Essays, Doing the Math (from PINET Ch. 9,10,12,13,14,15) http://www.jbpub.com/oceanlink/4e/
Unit 1: Marine Ecology
1. Learn the major habitats and life styles of marine organisms and the controlling environmental factors of each.
2. Learn the basic classification of marine organisms.
3. Understand the various environmental factors that control the distribution and behavior of organisms.
9-1. Ocean Habitats
A. There are two major marine provinces: the benthonic (bottom) and the pelagic (water column).
1. The benthonic environment is divided by depth into the:
a. Intertidal zone - the area between the low and high tide.
- It is sometimes called the littoral zone.
b. Sublittoral zone - from the low tide mark to the shelf break, about 200 m deep.
- This area essentially coincides with the continental shelf.
c. Bathyal zone - from the shelf break to 2000 m.
- This area coincides with the continental slope and rise.
d. Abyssal zone - from 2000 to 6000 m.
- This includes the average depth of the deep ocean floor.
e. Hadal zone - sea floor deeper than 6000 m.
- This includes the trenches, the deepest part of the sea floor.
2. The pelagic environment is divided into the:
a. Neritic Zone - shallow water above the continental shelf.
- The neritic water column is generally illuminated throughout.
b. Oceanic Zone - deep water of the open ocean beyond the shelf break.
- The oceanic water column is usually subdivided by depth into the following zones:
1. Epipelagic zone - from the surface to 200 m, the maximum depth of light penetration.
2. Mesopelagic zone - between 200 and 1000 m.
3. Bathypelagic zone - between 1000 and 2000 m.
4. Abyssopelagic zone - between 2000 and 6000 m.
5. Hadalpelagic zone - any depth deeper than 6000 m.
B. The ocean can also be divided into zones based upon depth of light penetration.
1. The photic zone is the depth where light is sufficient for photosynthesis.
- It varies from about 20 m on the shelf to about 100 m in the open ocean, depending upon clarity of the water.
2. The dysphotic zone is where illumination is too weak for photosynthesis.
- It varies in depth from 100 to 200 m.
3. The aphotic zone receives no light from the surface because it is all absorbed by the water above.
9-2. Classification of Organisms
C. In 1735 Linnaeus developed the taxonomic classification used in zoology.
1. The categories are from largest to smallest: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
2. The name of a species consists of the genus name combined with a trivial name.
- The genus name begins with a capital.
D. The five major kingdoms in the ocean are: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Metaphyta, and Metazoa.
1. Monera are the bacteria and blue-green algae.
a. Bacteria are important for decomposition and release of nutrients.
b. Blue-green algae are single cells which lack a nucleus and are important for converting ammonia and nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites.
2. Protista are single-celled organisms with a nucleus.
a. This kingdom includes plants and animals such as the foraminifera, coccoliths, diatoms, and radiolarians.
b. These groups are responsible for most deep sea oozes.
3. Fungi are abundant in the intertidal zone and are important in decomposition.
4. Metaphyta are the plants that grow attached to the sea floor.
a. This kingdom includes the red, brown, and green algae and the advanced plants of the salt marshes and coastal swamps.
b. They are only found in shallow areas where the bottom is in the photic zone.
5. Metazoa include all multicellular animals in the ocean.
9-3. Classification by Lifestyle
E. Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle.
1. Plankton are the organisms which float in the water and have no ability to propel themselves against a current.
a. Many forms undergo vertical migration in the water column.
b. They can be divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals).
2. Nekton are active swimmers.
a. They include marine fish, reptiles, mammals, birds, and others.
b. The larger members of this group can swim against currents and have special adaptations for locomotion.
c. Their distribution is generally controlled by temperature and salinity.
3. Benthos are the organisms which live on the bottom (epifauna) or within the bottom sediments (infauna).
- Plants are restricted to the photic zone, but animals and bacteria survive at all depths.
4. Some organisms cross from one lifestyle to another during their life, being pelagic early in life and benthonic later.
9-4. Basic Ecology
F. Environmental factors in the marine environment include: temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved gases, currents, light, suspended sediments, substrate (bottom material), river inflow, tides, and waves.
1. Ecosystem is the total environment including the biota (all living organisms) and non-living physical and chemical aspects.
2. Temperature can control distribution, degree of activity, and reproduction of an organism.
a. Temperature controls the rate of chemical reactions within organisms and therefore controls their rate of growth and activity.
b. For every 10oC rise in temperature activity rates double.
- In polar waters animals grow more slowly, reproduce less frequently and live longer than do the same organisms in the tropics.
c. Tolerance to variation in temperature varies greatly between species and during an organism’s life span.
d. Temperature can indirectly control organisms by limiting their predators or restricting pathogens.
3. Salinity can control the distribution of organisms and force them to migrate in response to changes in salinity.
a. Availability of various dissolved chemicals can limit an organism’s ability to construct shells.
b. Epipelagic organisms tend to be more tolerant of changes in salinity because their environment is more subject to changes than in the deeper ocean.
c. Marine organisms’ body fluids are similar to that of sea water in the proportion of salts but not in salinity.
d. Diffusion is the physical process whereby molecules move from areas of higher concentration into areas of lower concentration.
e. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through the cell membrane from where salinity is lower to where it is higher.
- Osmosis can result in the dehydration of the cell if the surrounding water is more saline or in the rupturing of the cell if it is more saline than the surrounding water.
f. Osmoregulation is the control of diffusion through the cell wall and the maintenance of sufficient body fluids.
1. Some marine organisms drink large amounts of water and have chloride cells which extract and dispose of excess salts, leaving the body with a ready supply of water to replace that lost by diffusion.
2. Freshwater organisms tend not to drink and have kidneys which produce large amounts of very dilute urine to dispose of excess water gained by diffusion.
4. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of water surrounding an organism.
a. Amount of hydrostatic pressure is determined by the height of the water column and the water’s density, which is a function of the temperature, salinity, and turbidity.
b. 10m of water exerts the pressure of 1 atmosphere or 14.7 lbs/in2.
c. Gases are highly compressible as pressure increases, but water is not.
1. Because the bodies of deep-ocean fishes lack an air bladder and are composed of mostly water, they are not sensitive to changes in pressure.
2. Fishes of the mesopelagic and shallower zones have a gas bladder and can be killed by a sudden change in hydrostatic pressure.
9-5. Selective Adaptive Strategies
G. More than 90% of marine plants are algae and most are unicellular and microscopic.
1. To photosynthesize (produce organic material from inorganic matter and sunlight) plants must remain within the photic zone.
a. Plants are more dense than water and have a tendency to sink, but have evolved various methods to retard sinking.
b. Increasing surface area retards sinking because of the frictional drag between the surface and water.
c. Because mass increases faster than surface area, small size produces a slower settling velocity because of less mass and greater frictional drag.
d. Plants also decrease mass by having very porous shells. They increase frictional drag by developing spines that increase the surface area.
e. Large plants anchor themselves in place with holdfasts, a root-like mass that functions only to hold the plant in place, not to absorb nutrients and water from the sediment as do roots.
2. Diatoms are single cells enclosed in a siliceous frustule (shell) that is shaped as a pillbox.
a. In reproducing, the frustule separates into the larger epitheca and smaller hypotheca.
b. Each part then secretes a new hypotheca.
- The original hypotheca now functions as an epitheca.
c. After numerous generations, one of the cell lines becomes progressively smaller until it reaches a critical size, abandons the hypotheca, reproduces sexually, grows larger as a naked cell and finally develops a frustule of the size of the original one in the sequence.
d. Diatoms thrive in cold nutrient-rich waters of the polar and subpolar regions and in the inshore water of the shelf in the mid-latitudes.
e. They can reproduce rapidly and produce plankton blooms when conditions are ideal.
3. Dinoflagellates are single cells with two whip-like tails (flagella).
a. Their shell, called a theca, if present, is composed of cellulose.
b. When the concentration of dissolved silica is low, dinoflagellates can out-number the diatoms.
H. Zooplankton include the copepods and foraminifera.
1. Copepods are small herbivores (plant-eating organisms) that filter diatoms from the water.
a. They molt (shed) their outer skeleton as they grow.
b. They display vertical seasonal migration.
2. Foraminifera are single-celled, microscopic organisms which build shells of calcium carbonate.
a. Benthonic forms greatly out number the pelagic.
b. Their shells are porous and protoplasm streams from inside the shell to engulf and digest food.
I. The morphology of fish has evolved to allow them to move through the water easily.
1.The fish’s body must overcome three types of drag (resistance).
a. Surface drag is the friction between the surface of the fish and the surrounding water.
1. This can be reduced by decreasing the surface area.
2. A sphere offers the least surface drag.
b. Form drag is a function of the volume of water that must be displaced for movement to occur.
1. Form drag increases as the cross sectional area of the body increases.
2. The ideal shape to reduce form drag is needle-shape or pencil-shape.
c. Turbulent drag is the turbulence created around the body as it moves through the water.
1. Turbulent drag can be decreased by having a blunt leading edge and tapering end.
2. The ideal shape is torpedo-shape.
2. Speed is dependent upon:
a. Body length.
b. Beat frequency - number of times the tail (caudal fin) sweeps back and forth in a unit of time.
c. Aspect ratio of the caudal fin.
3. Aspect ratio is the ratio of the square of the caudal fin height to caudal fin area.
AR = (Caudal Fin Height)2/Caudal Fin Area
a. A low aspect ratio means that the tail is broad and provides short, rapid acceleration and great maneuverability, but because of the large surface area, drag interferes with prolonged maintenance of high speed.
- Tail is designed for darting motion.
b. A high aspect ratio means the tail has little surface area to generate acceleration or assist in maneuverability, but because drag is reduced, it is ideal for maintenance of high speed.
4. There are three basic body forms, each adapted to a different life style.
a. The torpedo shape of the tuna is ideal for efficient, high speed cruising.
b. The more elongate pike is designed for sudden lunging motion.
c. The butterfly fish is designed for great maneuverability and delicate movements.
d. Most fish are generalists and combine aspects of the three body forms to suit their environment.
5. There is a strong correlation between predation success and body form.
a. Tuna have a low success rate (15%) because of poor maneuverability, but because they travel over great distances they have many more encounters with prey than do sedentary fish.
b. Pike have a high success rate (85%), but spend most of their time waiting for prey to approach and have few encounters.
c. Generalists have a success rate somewhere between these two.
J. Intertidal benthonic communities generally display vertical zonation that parallels sea level.
1. Zonation reflects the amount of time the area is submerged and the ability of the organism to survive the stress of exposure.
a. The uppermost level is rarely wet and inhabited mainly by blue-green algae and snails.
b. The next lower level is occupied by barnacles near the top and muscles and brown algae at the base.
- Size of barnacles tends to increase downward because those living lower in the zone are submerged more often, for longer periods of time, and feed more frequently.
c. The lowest zone has a very diverse fauna and flora.
2. Benthonic communities also vary in response to substrate (bottom material).
a. Rocky substrate provides a stable and firm material for attachment but prevents burrowing.
b. Sandy substrate is mobile and abrasive but can be burrowed into.
c. Mud substrate provides little support but is easy to burrow through.
Box: Sampling Biota
K. There are various devices which can be employed for sampling planktonic and benthonic biota.
1. Plankton nets come in various mesh sizes depending upon the size of the biota to be sampled.
- Nets can be dragged behind the ship or water can be pumped onto the ship and passed through the net.
2. Trawling gear to catch nekton consists of a net with a pair of “otter boards” at the front of the net. They flare out as the net is towed so as to keep the net open and close the opening when trawling stops, preventing captured nekton from escaping.
3. A purse seine to collect nekton is a large net set out around an area and drawn in at the bottom to prevent organisms from escaping below the net.
4. An anchor dredge consists of a mesh net and metal frame which is dragged along the bottom and scoops up benthonic organisms.
5. A grab sampler consists of a pair of spring-loaded jaws that can scoop a sample of soft sediment, collecting both epifauna and infauna.
Box: Ecology of the Giant Kelp Community
L. A complex interaction between kelp, sea urchins, and sea otters controls the kelp community.
1. Macrocystis is a brown algae that grows up to 40 m long in extensive beds on North America’s Pacific coast continental shelf.
2. Sea urchins feeding on the kelp detach them from their holdfast and can devastate the kelp beds.
3. Sea otters feed on the sea urchins and serve as a control on their population.
a. Where sea otters abound, sea urchins are few, kelp beds thrive and sea otters feed mainly on fish.
b. Where sea otters are few, sea urchins abound and kelp beds are thin. Sea otters then mainly eat urchins.