Syllabus fall 2005 bme 425: Basics of Biomedical Imaging

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SYLLABUS Fall 2005
BME 425: Basics of Biomedical Imaging

(Dr. Singh)

WK 1: Overview of Various Imaging Modalities I
X-ray computed tomography, nuclear medical imaging, ultrasonic imaging
WK 2: Overview of Various Imaging Modalities II
Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, neuromagnetic imaging.
WK 3: Basic Parameters of Biomedical Imaging, Conventional X-ray Imaging and Digital Radiography
Spatial resolution, temporal resolution, sensitivity, point spread function, line spread function, modulation transfer function, contrast, photon statistics, signal to noise ratio. Interaction of X-rays with matter, photoelectric interaction, coherent and incoherent scattering, linear attenuation coefficients, contrast formation, contrast enhancement, fluorescent screens, quantum limits, fluoroscopy and image intensifiers, principles of digital radiography, system configuration, digital subtraction angiography.
WK 4: X-Ray Computed Tomography I
Principles of computed tomography, linear and angular sampling, sampling frequency, limited angular sampling, image reconstruction techniques, simple backprojection, iterative algorithms, Fourier and Direct reconstruction algorithms I.
WK 5: X-Ray Computed Tomography II
Fourier and Direct reconstruction algorithms II, X-ray sources, radiation detectors, first to fifth generation CT scanners, beam hardening artifacts.

WK 6: Conventional Nuclear Medical Imaging
Radioactive tags of biochemical function, scintillation detectors, basics of collimation, scintillation cameras, scattered radiation, clinical applications.
WK 7: Emission Computed Tomography I: SPECT
Introduction to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Image reconstruction in SPECT, Variations in sensitivity, line spread function and related problems, attenuation and scatter correction, quantification, clinical applications of SPECT.
WK 8: Emission Computed Tomography II: PET
Basics of positron emission tomography (PET), electronic collimation, scatter and attenuation correction, image reconstruction, instrumentation, time-of-flight techniques in PET, clinical applications.
WK 9: Introduction to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Physical concepts, classical and quantum mechanics, Bloch equations, spin density, relaxation times.

WK 10: MIDTERM II: Written exam

WK 11: MRI 2
Pulse sequences, Fourier imaging, k-space, Phase encoding, Fast imaging techniques, clinical applications.
WK 12: MRI 3
Functional MRI (fMRI), Applications of fMRI, Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
WK 13: MRI 4, Ultrasonic Imaging
MRI Instrumentation, resistive and superconducting magnets, RF coils, gradient coils.
Physical principles of ultrasonic imaging, various modes, transducers, system configuration, tissue characterization, applications.

WK 14: FINAL Presentation of Papers I
WK 15: FINAL Presentation of Papers II

Text-book (recommended)
Foundations of Medical Imaging, Z. H. Cho, Joie Jones and Manbir Singh, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, 1993.

Additional reading (recommended)

  1. Radiological Imaging: The theory of image formation, detection, and processing Vol. 1 and 2, H.H. Barrett and W. Swindell, Academic Press, New York, 1981.

  1. Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, IEEE Press, 1987.

  1. Physics in Nuclear Medicine, James Sorenson and Michael Phelps, Grune and Stratton, New York, 1980.

  1. Scientific Basis of Medical Imaging, P.N.T. Wells, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1982.

  1. All You Really Need to Know about MRI Physics, Moriel NessAiver, University of Maryland Medical Center, Published in 1996.

  1. Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; A Signal Processing Perspective, Z. P. Liang and Paul C. Lauterbur, IEEE Series in Biomedical Engineering, ISBN 0-7803-4723-4, 2000.

The midterm has two parts.
Part I: A 5-minute presentation of the outline of the student’s paper and submission of a one-page outline on the day of the midterm presentation.
Part II: A two-hour written exam, closed-book.


The Final exam has three parts:

Part I: A 15-minute presentation of the student’s paper (to be presented during the last two weeks of classes).
Part II: A 15-page written final paper submitted on the scheduled day of the Final.
Part III: A two-hour written exam on the scheduled day of the Final.
Grading policy:
Midterm part I: 5% of final grade
Midterm part II: 15% of final grade
Final part I: 25% of final grade
Final part II: 30% of final grade
Final part III: 15% of final grade
Homework, Attendance and Interactions in class: 10% of final grade

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