ŞUŞa qəDİm azərbaycan diyari шуша древний край азербайджана shusha




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ОККУПАЦИЯ ШУШИ АРМЯНАМИ

В ночь на 8 мая 1992-года армянские бандформирования провели операцию, завершившееся оккупацией Шуши. До 6-часов утра армянские военные формирования при помощи и поддержке 40 бронитехник 366-го мотострелкового полка бывшего советского союза артиллерийским огнем обстреляли город. После длительного артобстрела вражеские войска, численностью до тысячи солдат перешли в наступление с трех сторон и оккупировали Шушу.

Оккупацией Шуши армяне завершили оккупацию Нагорного Карабаха. Во время оккупации было убито до 200 человек, более 600 ранено, 150 человек стали инвалидами, 552 ребенка стали сиротами, более 20 тыс. человек стали вынужденными переселенцами. В результате оккупации было уничтожено более 600 исторических памятников, 7 дошкольных учреждений, 22 общеобразовательных школ, хозяйственные и культурно-просветительские техникумы, 8 домов культуры, 14 клубов, 20 библиотек, 2 кинотеатра, 3 музея, туристическая база, фабрика восточных музыкальных инструментов и сотни др. культурных памятников.

ОККУПАЦИОННАЯ ПОЛИТИКА


АРМЕНИИ ПРОТИВ АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНА

И ЕЕ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ
В настоящее время в результате военной агрессии исконные территории Азербайджанской Республики Нагорный Карабах и прилегающие к нему 7 административных районов оккупированы Республикой Армения.

 Территории Азербайджана, оккупированные в 1988–1993 гг.:



  • Нагорный Карабах: дата оккупации – 1988–1993 гг., площадь – 4400 кв. км. (Шуша, Ханкенди, Ходжалы, Аскеран, Ходжавенд, Агдере, Гадрут);

  • Лачынский район: дата оккупации - 18 мая 1992 г., площадь - 1875 кв.км.;

  • Кельбаджарский район: дата оккупации - 2 апреля 1993 г., площадь - 1936 кв.км.

  • Агдамский район: дата оккупации - 23 июля 1993 г., площадь - 1154 кв.км.;

  • Джебрайылский район: дата оккупации - 23 августа 1993 г., площадь - 1050 кв.км.;

  • Физулинский район: дата оккупации - 23 августа 1993 г., площадь - 1112 кв.км.;

  • Губадлынский район: дата оккупации - 31 августа 1993 г., площадь - 826 кв.км.;

  • Зенгиланский район: дата оккупации - 30 октября 1993 г., площадь - 707 кв.км.

В результате военной агрессии со стороны Республики Армения оккупировано более 20% территории Азербайджана, убито более 20 тыс. человек, ранено и искалечено более 50 тыс. человек. Уже более 10 лет свыше 1 млн. человек, став жертвами проводимой Арменией против Азербайджана политики геноцида и этнической чистки, вот уже больше 10 лет живут в положении беженцев и вынужденных переселенцев, лишены элементарных прав человека.

По официальным данным, во время I Карабахской войны 4471 человек без вести пропало. Из них 3591 человек были военнослужащими, 880 человек из мирного населения. Из мирного населения 51 детей (17 малолетних девушек), 384 пожилых (175 женщин).

Было установлено, что 451 человек были жестоко убиты в армянском плену. Из них 365 мужчин, 86 женщин.

Армяне скрывают от международных организаций точное число военнопленных и заложников, жестоко с ними обращаются, рабски их эксплуатируют и унижают их.

В результате оккупации более 900 населенных пунктов разграблено, сожжено и разрушено, 6 тыс. промышленных, сельскохозяйственных предприятий и других объектов уничтожено, 150 тыс. жилых зданий общей площадью более 9 млн. кв. м. разрушено, уничтожено 4366 объектов социально–культурного назначения, в том числе 695 медпунктов. На оккупированных территориях полностью выведены из строя сельскохозяйственные угодья, водное хозяйство, гидротехнические сооружения, весь транспорт и все линии коммуникации. В результате разрушений на оккупированных территориях экономике Азербайджана нанесен ущерб более чем на $60 млрд.

В результате военной агрессии на захваченных территориях Азербайджана разрушено более 927 библиотек, 464 исторических памятников и музеев, более 100 археологических памятников, 6 государственных театров и концертных студий. Из разграбленных музеев похищено более 40 тыс. ценных предметов и редких экспонатов. Так, после полного разрушения Кельбаджарского историко-краеведческого музея редкие золотые и серебряные украшения, сотканные в прошлые века ковры, входящие в экспозицию музея, были вывезены в Армению. Такой же оказалась судьба и Шушинского исторического музея, Агдамского музея хлеба, Зенгиланского музея каменных памятников. Практически невозможно определить общую стоимость этих разграбленных и уничтоженных армянами историко-культурных ценностей.

Одним словом, Республика Армения, грубо нарушая положения Гаагской Конвенции «О защите культурных ценностей во время военных конфликтов» и Парижской Конвенции «О незаконном обороте культурных ценностей», занимается разграблением культурных ценностей Азербайджана.

12 мая 1994 года между Азербайджаном и Арменией было заключено соглашение о прекращении огня и до сих пор между сторонами ведутся мирные переговоры.

Для мирного урегулирования Нагорно-Карабахского конфликта Минская Группа ОБСЕ представительством трех республик – США, России и Франции ведет посредническую работу.

Несмотря на требования, выраженные в резолюциях Совета Безопасности ООН № 822, 853, 874 и 884 о необходимости признания территориальной целостности Азербайджанской Республики и освобождения без предварительных условий оккупированных территорий Азербайджана, Республика Армения и сегодня продолжает проводить свою захватническую политику.


В книге использованы материалы «Фонда Гейдара Алиева», АИH «Дейерлер» и Государственной Комиссии по делам военнопленных, заложников и без вести пропавших граждан

SHUSHA

- OLD AZERBAIJAN LAND



THE POPULATION OF OLD SHUSHA CITY

Shusha town – which is under Armenian occupation at present, takes specific place in Azerbaijan’s history. Foundation of the city is connected with Panahali khan’s name, the founder of Karabakh khanate (1748-1763). Political disorder rose in South Caucasia after Nadir shah’s murder in 1747 made Panahali khan to build strongly defended castle in order to ensure his security. For this purpose Bayat castle was built in 1748 and Shahbulag castle in 1752. But none of these castles was able to ensure khanate’s security during continuously fighting wars. Panahali khan decided to cause to build more solid castle inaccessible for enemies’ attack: “We should build such an eternal and unconquerable castle within mountains in solid and impassible place that even powerful enemy couldn’t surround it” (6, p 112). Mountain plateau located 1300-1600m high from sea-level and surrounded with precipitous cliffs was completely meeting these requirements. Panahali khan realizing favorable military-strategic situation of chosen place ordered to launch building of a new castle in 1754. After all necessary work was finished for secure living in 1756, capital of Karabakh khanate was removed there. The new castle was called Panahabad after its founder’s name but afterwards changed for Shusha.

Armenians occupied Azerbaijan’s very beautiful corners as Karabakh, as well as Shusha tries to conceal their aggressive policy falsifying historical facts. They try to show Shusha as “cradle of Armenian culture”, but historical facts proves that Armenian “specialists” lie. In order to be sure it’s enough to look at the names of streets and districts, which reflect history of town’s establishment and development, as well as national structure of population.

Analyses of available materials show three stages in the formation of Shusha as a town. The most ancient district of the town “Tabrizly” was build up during the first stage concurring Panahali khan’s authority. The district, famous with that name until the destruction of Karabakh khanate, was later called “lower district” (Ashagi mahalla) in accordance with the town’s relief. This first district of Shusha included the following streets: Chuxur (hollow), Gurdlar (worm), Julfa Seyidli, Haji Yusifli, Dordlar gurdu, Dord Chinar (Four planes) and Chol gala (2, p 277).

The second stage of the formation of Shusha as a town concurred to Ibrahimkhalil khan’s authority (1763-1806). The second district named “Upper district” (Yukhari mahalla) was built up. Unlike “lower district” favorable for town building, territory of this district was mountainous and covered with thick forest. For that reason as requirement raised forests were cut down and streets took their place. 8 new streets were built up in “Upper district” created during 40 years. Those streets were the followings: Khanate, Saatli, Kocharli, Mamayi, Khoja Marjanli, Damirchi, Hamam gabagi and Taza.

Building up of the third district named “Gazanchali” began in 1805 after Karabakh khanate was occupied by Russia and continued during whole XIX century. This district included 12 streets was the most populated one in Shusha. Mirza Yusif Karabakhli enumerated names of this district’s streets as Mehrili, Gazanchali, Jilabord, Dara, Baglar and etc. (7, p 38)

Only 162 families were living in Shusha when it was newly built up. According to archive documents made up by Russian officials at the beginning of XIX century it becomes evident that all those families were Azerbaijanis (10, p 4-5). It means that Shusha was founded by Azerbaijanis and only Azerbaijanis were living there in the first period. Later, on the account of people coming from different parts of Karabakh khanate, density of population raised in the town. Shusha from one hand having very favorable situation, on the other hand turning to the center of Karabakh khanate was very attractive for those who lived in the outskirts. According to information available over two thousand families were living there at the end of XVIII and the beginning of XVIII century (3, p 50). If we suppose every family consisted of 5 persons on average, we would define that over 10 thousand people were living in Shusha during that period. People moved from Damirchihasanli, Kabirli, Dizag, Javanshir, Otuziki (thirty two), Iyirmidord (twenty four) and Khachin districts of Karabakh khanate formed main part of this population.

Among those people who moved to Shusha at the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX century were population of Alban origin grigorianized and armenilized in Middle Ages under Armenian Church. Majority of them were those who came from Tativ, Khachin and Dizdag districts of Karabakh khanate. But according to calculations made on the basis of a document named “description of Karabakh district”, they formed only 27% of Shusha’s population (10, p 13-18).

Statistical information belonging to the beginning of XIX century shows that Christian population living not only in Shusha but in whole Karabakh khanate formed very few part of the population. According to the statistical information belonging to 1823, 15.729 families out of 20.035 living in Karabakh khanate were Azerbaijanis and 4.366 were Christians.

Apparently absolute majority of population living in Karabakh as well as in Shusha were Azerbaijanis at the beginning of XIX century. After Russia signed Turkmanchay treaty with Iran in 1828 and Adirna treaty with Ottoman Turkey in 1829, armenilization of Christian population of Alban origin was completed and Armenians increased in the region. Tsar Russia completing conquer of South Caucasia decided to use Armenians to strengthen its position in this region. According to terms of named treaties Armenians started to be moved from Iran and Ottoman Turkey to South Caucasia, mainly to historical Azerbaijani lands. According to official data just only in 1828-1830 Russia moved 40 thousand Armenians from Iran and 84 thousand from Turkey to South Caucasia (13, p 47).

Afterwards movement of Armenians to South Caucasia became firmer and gradually strengthened. Just as a result of this mass movement number of Armenians in South Caucasia increased nearly 4.5 times during 80 years after Turkmanchay treaty. Russian Caucasist, N.Shavrov wrote that 1 million out of 1.3 million Armenians living in South Caucasia were newcomers (13, p 64).

Russia’s annexationist and forcible Christianization policy in South Caucasia seriously influenced both administrative and demographic condition of Shusa town. After Karabakh khanate was abolished in 1822 it became a center of newly established Karabakh province but from 1840 of Shusha district.

Political stability arisen in Azerbaijan after the signature of Turkmanchay treaty resulted with the increase of population in Shusha as well. Establishment of factory and plant industry from the beginning of 70th of XIX century and requirement for labor force considerably intensified growth of population in the town.

In comparison with the beginning of XIX century, number of population increased 2.5 times in Shusha and became 25.881 people at the end of the century. But at the beginning of XX century this growth became much more intensified and number of town’s population reached 43.869 people in 1917 (12. p 49-50).

But this growth observed in Shusha hadn’t been at the expense of the town’s native inhabitants – Azerbaijanis. Movement policy fulfilled by Russian tsarism resulted with the disorder of ethnic balance in the region and rapid increase of Armenians. It will b0 just enough to show that although number of population in Shusha increased in 1897 from 25.881 people to 42.568 in 1913, actually number of Azerbaijanis remained invariable (10 thousand people). At the expense of displaced Armenians mechanical growth of population in the town prevailed over the natural growth several time at the end of XIX and the beginning of XX century. That is, 9.400 people out 23.929 growths – from 1870 till 1917, referred to natural population growth, but 15.524 to mechanical growth, actually to displaced Armenians.

Armenians achieving number superiority in Shusha with the patronage of Tsar Government began to oppress town’s native inhabitants – Azerbaijanis. Armenians armed to the teeth attacked Azerbaijanis on August 16, 1905. They committed great savageries against Azerbaijani population living in Kocharli and Khalfali districts. Russians were helping them that time. M.S.Ordubadi writes, “On one hand Kazak clusters and infantry Russian troop, on the other hand about 10 thousand Armenian soldiers gathered from surroundings and Armenian detachments and bandits kept in order in the town before the war, began attacks against Muslims. During 5 days all Muslim houses boundary with Armenian districts were burnt and destroyed with cannon thrust” (8, p 61).

Establishment of Soviet authority in Azerbaijan in 1920 didn’t give peace to Karabakh, as well as Shusha. Armenians holding leading posts in Nagorno-Karabakh with the patronage of higher ranked soviet leadership were fulfilling their crafty policy under the name of “class struggle” and were actually pursuing genocide and deportation policy against Azerbaijani population of the region. In 1920-1922 hundreds of Azerbaijani inhabitants were arrested, shot and persecuted in Shusha with the instigation of Armenians. Many beys of the town were shot in front of the population. For many Azerbaijani families the only way of avoiding Armenian persecution was to leave Shusha for Iran and Turkey. These repressions resulted with the diminishing of Azerbaijanis in the town more (4, p 64-66).

Administrative status of Shusha underwent changes several times during Soviet authority. Under the decision of Central Committee’s Caucasus bureau dated July 5, 1921 Shusha was defined as a center of a newly established Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Republic. But when this decision was implementing on July 7, 1923 a center of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Republic was chosen not Shusha but Khankendy. Probably Armenians realizing that it wouldn’t be easy to fulfill their crafty plans against Azerbaijanis from Susha took this step. And according to the special decision of the Central Committee’s meeting dated July 16, 1923, Shusha was included in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Republic. The town turned to a center of the same district and Malibeyli volost consisted of 12 villages. So Shusha was deprived of a status of a center of whole Nagorno-Karabakh it fulfilled over 170 years (5, p 48-51).

Depriving Shusha from the status of the administrative center seriously influenced Shusha’s life. As a result of indifferent relation by a leadership of the Republic and the district the town began to lose its previous view and fame. Not only was any building-construction work, quite the contrary, several historical-architectural monuments were savagely destroyed. Iron and frames of the complex built according to the instruction of Idrahimkhalil khan in “treasury order” which included a castle, harem, stable, bath and shelter for troop, were extracted during World War II, but buildings were gradually destroyed and became useless. Destruction of historical-architectural monuments of Shusha continued following years as well.

The biggest strike to Shusha was, despite it was for a short time, depriving it from the status of district center. At the beginning of 60th of XX century Armenian leadership of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Republic used an implementation of the policy about enlarging districts initiated by N.S.Khurushov against Shusha. On January 4, 1963 Shusha district was abolished and included in Stepanakert region. Only after N.S. Khurushov was removed from authority, on January 6, 1965 status of Shusha region was restored again (5, p 69-70).

Strange relation to Shusha during Soviet authority seriously influenced number and national structure of the city. During 50 years number of population in Shusha, formerly being one of the biggest and prosperous towns of Azerbaijan was diminished over thrice. So, despite 43.869 people were living there in 1917, their number arranged just 13.664 persons in 1970. National structure of population living in Shusha underwent serious changes during Soviet authority as well. As a result of deprivation of Shusha of a status being a center of Karabakh and strange relation to the town for years, Armenians - settled there during Tsar Authority’s removal policy, gradually left there. Only 3577 out of 13.664 people living in the town were Armenians in 1970. This tendency strengthened next years much more. In 1989 just only 1.377 out of 20.579 people living in Shusha were Armenians (2, p 210).

Revival of Shusha again was possible only in 1969, when H.Aliyev was appointed a leader of Azerbaijan. A new leader of the Republic firstly took measures to prevent destruction of historical-architectural monuments. Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan SSR passed a law with his initiative about “declaring historical part of Shusha town as a historical-architectural reservation” in 1977. Many measures were taken to revive socio-economic and cultural life of the town. Oriental National Musical Instruments’ Factory producing tar, kamancha, ud, nagara and other musical instruments was given to use.

Memorial houses of coryphaeus of Azerbaijani culture and art, U.Hajibeyov, Kh.Natavan, Bulbul and M.M.Navvab were arranged with the imitative of H.Aliyev. Mausoleum of M.P.Vagif was opened in January, 1982. This beautiful work of art with 20m height was ornamented with delicate and carved frames and local marble with reddish tinge.

But these peaceful constructive works started in Shusha didn’t continue for a long time. The town was destroyed by Armenian vandals when it was occupied by them in 1992. Shusha impatiently waits for getting liberated from Armenian occupation now.


Jamal Mustafayev

Doctor of historical sciences
Bibliography:


  1. Baharlı. Ahvalati Kharabakh //Karabakhnamalar, II book, Baku, 1991

  2. Boran Aziz. Khojaly genoсide. Baku, 2008

  3. Aliyev F.M. North Azerbaijan cities. Baku, 1960

  4. İmanov R.J. Attempt-false towards the territoral integrity of Azerbaijan the Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region. Baku, 2005

  5. Mahmudov Y. Shukurov K. Karabakh. Real history, fakts and documents. Baku, 2005

  6. Mirza Jamal Kharabakhi. The Karabakh history //Karabakhnamalar. I book, Baku, 1989

  7. Mirza Yusif Kharabakhi. Tarixi-safi // Karabakhnamalar. II book, Baku, 1991

  8. Ordubadi M.S. The bloody years. Baku. 1991

  9. The Caucasian calendar for 1914, Tbilisi, 1913

  10. The description of the Karabakh province made in 1823 under the order of the Yermolov, the commander-in-chief in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1866

  11. The first general population census of the Russian empire. 1897, Elizavetpolsky province. 1904

  12. Sаdiqova Q. The history of Shushi. Baku, 2004

  13. Shavrov N.N. New threat to Russian object in Transcaucasia: forthcoming sale of Mugan foreigns, 1911

INFORMATION ON HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS OF OLD SHUSHA



1. Tower walls (8 km long)
2. Bulwarks built on Tower Walls (17)
3. 17 old-stile districts
4. 17 mosques
5. 17 springs
6. 17 bathing-houses
7. Meydan spring
8. Isa spring
9. Sakhsi spring
10. Turshsu Gallery
11. Caravanserai (4)
12. Shakhlig bridge
13. Ganja gates
14. Mirza Hasan graveyard
15. Shor spring
16. Mirfaseh graveyard
17. Rasta bazaar
18. Torpag square
19. Korun Caravanserai in Zarisli
20. Bridge in new district
21. Statue of U.Hajibeyov
22. Bust of Bulbul
23. Bust of U.Hajibeyov
24. Jidir duzu
25. Topkhana forest
26. Bulwark of Agaboyuk Khanim
27. School for girls in Malibeyli
28. Flour mill
29. Garden of Kelba Shahriyar
30. Mirfaseh Garden
31. “Hazret Ali” cave
32. “Gizil Gaya”
33. Sekili spring
34. Gotur spring
35. Shemil`s garden
36. Pear garden of the Hajiyev`s
37. Castle of Agabeyim Aga
38. Complex of the palace of Bahman Mirza Gajar
39. Harem of Bahman Mirza Gajar
40. Bathing house “Bab” built by Bahman Mirza Gajar
41. Mausoleum complex of Gajars
42. Residence of Gulam Shah
43. Residence of Asad bey
44. Residence of Mamay bey
45. Sheytana bazaar
46. Mythic Leyli tower
47. “Shafa ocagi” (house of recovery) in Chukhur mahalla (district)
48. Residence of Mahammad Hasan Aga
49. Complex of Divan of Garabag khanate
50. “Hazrat Abbas Shafa ocagi”(house of recovery)
51. Complex of Delik-dash pillekan(holed stone stairs)
52. Residence of Garabag Gazi
53. Shusha Ovdan spring
54. House of poetry of Vagif
55. Mausoleum of M.P.Vagif
56. House of teaching of M.P.Vagif
57. Bust of M.P.Vagif
58. House of M.P.Vagif
59. Palace of Khan gizi (khan`s daughter, princess) Khurshudbanu Natavan
60. Spring complex of Khan gizi Khurshudbanu Natavan
61. Bust of K.B. Natavan
62. “Garama” built by K.B. Natavan
63. Jail built by K.B. Natavan
64. Mosque Ashagi Govhar Aga
65. Mosque Yukhari Govhar Aga
66. Malibeyli Mosque
67. Gaybali Mosque
68. Shirlan Mosque
69. Albanian Church
70. Russian church
71. Residence of Haji Gulam
72. Residence of M.M. Navvab
73. Monumental complex of M.M. Navvab
74. Residence of Najafgulu Aga
75. House of Aga-Abdurrahim Aga
76. Residence of Haji Bashir
77. Residence of Jabbar Garyagdi
78. Residence of Mirza Huseyn
79. Residence of Miralibeyli
80. Residence of Seyid Mejid
81. Residence of Kelba Shirin
82. Residence of Opannik Gara Zeynal
83. Residence of Farzali bey
84. Residence of Allahverenli Kelba Shirin
85. House of Kal Hasan in Chukhur mahalla
86. House of Khayatlilar Mehdi in new district
87. House of child of Kurd in Chukhur mahalla
88. Residence of Meshedi Gahraman
89. House of Meshedi Teymur in Guyrug district
90. Complex of Mehmandarov`s House
91. House of the Zohrabbeyovs
92. Residence of Ibrahim khan
93. Castle of Sadigjan
94. House of Ulugbey
95. Residence of Sadiq bey in Guyruq district
96. House of Jalal bey
97. Residence of Najaf bey Vezirov
98. Residence of Firudin bey Kocharli
99. Residence of Suleyman Sani Akhundov
100. House of Ismail bey
101. Residence of Mashadi Shirin
102. Residence of Garaf Askarov
103. Residence of the Agamirovs
104. Residence of Husu Hajiyev
105. Bust of Husu Hajiyev
106. House of Kalba Huseyn
107. Residence of Yusif Vezir Chemenzeminli
108. Residence of Mir Hasan Vezirov
109. Residence of the Garashov`s
110. Residence of Huseyn Gayibov
111. House of G.B. Zakir
112. Head-stone of G.B. Zakir
113. Residence of Haji Dadash
114. House of Abdulrahim bey Hagverdiyev
115. Building of Haji Shukur
116. Residence of the Gadimovs
117. House-museum of U. Hajibeyov
118. House-museum of Bulbul
119. Carpet museum
120. Picture gallery
121. Historical country-study museum
122. Garabag State Historical museum
123. House of the first “realni uchilish”(college) in Azerbaijan
124. Green chemists
125. House of culture
126. Masses of silver and cooper plates
127. Complex of madrasa(religious schools)built by Ibrahim Kahlil khan in 1801(in the yard of Govhar Aga mosque)
128. Mausoleum complex of the Garabag vizier Mirza Jamal bey Javanshir and his family
129. Stone Inscriptions-the memory of the history.
Note: The city had 17 districts, each of them had its mosque, spring and bathing-house

THE FOLLOWING ARE THE NAME OF THE ABOVEMENTIONED DISTRICTS:


1. Urudlar
2. Seyidli
3. Julfalar
4. Guyulug
5. Chukhur
6. Haji Yusifli
7. Dordler Gurdu
8. Dord Chinar
9. Chol Gala
10. Kocherli
11. Mamayi
12. Merdinli
13. Saatli
14. Demirchiler
15. Hamamcabagi
16. Taze Mehelle
17. Khojamirjanli
According to the received information, all the historical, cultural, architectural monuments and sacred religious belief places existing in Shusha and belonginin to Azerbaijan was destroyed by Armenian armed forces.

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