Supplementary materials Table abiotic and biotic characteristics of the 48 study sites in Inner–Mongolia shrub-encroached grasslands (segs)




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Supplementary materials

Table S1. Abiotic and biotic characteristics of the 48 study sites in Inner–Mongolia shrub-encroached grasslands (SEGs). Abiotic characteristics include latitude, longitude, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), annual potential evapotranspiration (PE, mm) and aridity index (AI). Biotic characteristics include encroached shrubs and resident dominant herbs.

Location

Latitude

(°N)

Longitude

(°E)

MAT

(°C)

MAP

(mm)

PE

(mm)

Aridity index (AI)

SEG type

Encroached shrubs

Dominant herbs

1

43.80

116.54

3.0

290.1

529.8

1.83

II

Caragana microphylla

Stipa krylovii, Carex korshinskyi

2

43.63

116.69

3.19

306.6

527.5

1.72

I

Caragana microphylla

Agropyron cristatum, Cleistogenes squarrosa

3

44.51

115.89

2.38

242.0

526.9

2.18

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana pygmaea, Caragana stenophylla

Stipa krylovii, Cleistogenes squarrosa

4

44.13

115.87

2.6

250.2

532.8

2.13

II

Caragana microphylla

Agropyron cristatum, Stipa krylovii

5

43.93

115.81

2.7

253.4

532.0

2.10

II

Caragana microphylla

Stipa krylovii, Agropyron cristatum

6

43.81

117.20

3.3

326.5

529.1

1.62

I

Caragana microphylla

Leymus chinensis, Cleistogenes squarrosa

7

43.97

117.38

3.3

329.3

527.6

1.60

I

Caragana microphylla

Carex korshinskyi, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis

8

42.31

114.07

3.3

278.0

519.0

1.87

II

Caragana microphylla

Convolvulus ammannii, Stipa krylovii

9

42.24

113.94

3.4

280.7

519.1

1.85

II

Caragana microphylla

Leymus chinensis, Allium bidentatum, Stipa krylovii

10

42.23

114.42

3.0

298.5

511.0

1.71

I

Caragana microphylla

Leymus chinensis, Carex pediformis, Cleistogenes squarrosa

11

42.33

114.30

3.1

289.1

513.7

1.78

I

Caragana microphylla

Stipa krylovii, Allium ramosum, Melilotoides ruthenica

12

42.19

114.78

3.0

312.5

510.6

1.63

I

Caragana microphylla

Convolvulus ammannii, Stipa krylovii

13

42.37

115.24

2.9

315.8

513.4

1.63

I

Caragana microphylla

Neopallasia pectinata, Artemisia annua, Stipa krylovii

14

42.39

115.39

3.0

320.8

514.1

1.60

I

Caragana microphylla

Stipa krylovii, Melilotoides ruthenica, Agropyron cristatum

15

42.32

115.11

3.0

318.2

513.4

1.61

I

Caragana microphylla

Artemisia frigida, Stipa krylovii

16

42.55

114.83

2.8

291.1

513.8

1.76

I

Caragana microphylla

Agropyron cristatum, Carex korshinskyi

17

42.45

114.87

2.8

299.8

512.6

1.71

I

Caragana microphylla

Stipa krylovii, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Agropyron cristatum

18

42.59

115.90

2.7

324.9

511.1

1.57

I

Caragana microphylla

Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia frigida, Heteropappus altaicus

19

42.17

115.55

3.2

336.2

517.1

1.54

I

Caragana microphylla

Agropyron cristatum, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Artemisia frigida

20

43.92

116.25

3.0

269.1

535.2

1.99

II

Caragana microphylla

Agropyron cristatum, Carex korshinskyi

21

43.68

119.02

5.9

362.5

584.8

1.61

I

Caragana microphylla

Stipa krylovii, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Artemisia frigida

22

44.56

117.51

2.2

319.3

506.7

1.59

I

Caragana microphylla

Agropyron cristatum, Artemisia annua, Carex korshinskyi

23

44.91

116.08

2.1

241.9

523.6

2.16

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla

Stipa krylovii, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Carex korshinskyi

24

43.90

115.42

2.4

249.2

526.7

2.11

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla

Stipa krylovii, Cleistogenes squarrosa

25

43.84

113.71

3.4

182.4

556.2

3.05

III

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla

Stipa krylovii, Artemisia frigida, Convolvulus ammannii

26

43.86

114.11

2.7

207.6

535.5

2.58

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla

Stipa krylovii, Agropyron cristatum

27

43.85

113.71

3.4

182.4

556.2

3.05

III

Caragana pygmaea, Caragana intermedia, Caragana stenophylla

Cleistogenes squarrosa, Agropyron cristatum, Agropyron mongolicum

28

43.53

113.23

4.1

169.6

569.8

3.36

III

Caragana intermedia, Caragana pygmaea

Stipa klemenzii, Convolvulus ammannii

29

43.63

113.38

3.9

173.4

566.4

3.27

III

Caragana microphylla, Caragana pygmaea

Stipa klemenzii, Agropyron mongolicum

30

43.63

113.37

3.9

173.4

566.4

3.27

III

Caragana intermedia, Caragana stenophylla, Caragana pygmaea,

Stipa klemenzii

31

42.60

112.53

5.1

188.0

577.4

3.07

III

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla, Caragana pygmaea,

Stipa klemenzii, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Agropyron mongolicum

32

42.58

112.44

5.1

194.8

574.5

2.95

III

Amygdalus pedunculata, Caragana stenophylla, Caragana microphylla,

Stipa klemenzii, Lagochilus ilicifolius, Cleistogenes squarrosa

33

42.57

112.43

5.1

194.78

574.51

2.95

III

Amygdalus pedunculata, Caragana stenophylla, Caragana pygmaea, Caragana microphylla,

Cleistogenes squarrosa, Cleistogenes songorica, Agropyron mongolicum

34

42.57

112.44

5.1

194.78

574.51

2.95

III

Amygdalus pedunculata, Caragana stenophylla, Caragana pygmaea, Caragana microphylla,

Cleistogenes squarrosa, Stipa klemenzii, Agropyron mongolicum

35

42.35

112.23

4.9

213.30

564.58

2.65

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana intermediaCaragana stenophylla

Stipa klemenzii

36

42.09

112.16

4.7

240.12

553.98

2.31

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla

Stipa krylovii, Agropyron mongolicum

37

41.80

111.84

4.3

281.28

538.38

1.91

II

Caragana microphylla, Caragana stenophylla

Artemisia frigida, Heteropappus altaicus

38

41.85

107.89

5.0

157.73

592.09

3.75

III

Caragana tibetica

Stipa klemenzii, Agropyron mongolicum

39

42.06

108.93

5.7

184.98

584.38

3.16

III

Caragana tibetica, Caragana intermedia

Stipa klemenzii, Agropyron mongolicum, Cleistogenes squarrosa

40

42.28

109.34

5.6

178.50

583.33

3.27

III

Caragana tibetica

Stipa klemenzii

41

42.04

110.08

5.4

207.85

574.34

2.76

II

Caragana intermedia, Caragana pygmaea

Stipa klemenzii, Cleistogenes squarrosa

42

39.98

107.95

8.0

216.96

634.59

2.92

III

Caragana stenophylla

Stipa klemenzii, Cleistogenes songorica, Ajania achilloides

43

39.86

107.66

8.3

198.20

643.70

3.25

III

Caragana stenophylla

Stipa breviflora, Stipa klemenzii, Cleistogenes songorica

44

39.24

107.88

7.8

249.71

621.95

2.49

II

Caragana stenophylla

Stipa breviflora, Stipa klemenzii, Cleistogenes songorica, Cleistogenes squarrosa

45

39.46

107.79

8.0

230.14

630.29

2.74

II

Caragana stenophylla

Stipa klemenzii, Stipa breviflora, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Enneapogon borealis

46

39.16

107.28

8.6

206.54

647.83

3.14

III

Caragana tibetica

Stipa breviflora, Cleistogenes songorica, Enneapogon borealis

47

38.67

107.37

8.5

229.86

642.97

2.80

II

Caragana tibetica

Stipa breviflora, Enneapogon borealis, Cleistogenes songorica

48

39.50

107.29

8.6

190.48

651.12

3.42

III

Caragana tibetica

Stipa breviflora, Cleistogenes songorica, Enneapogon borealis

Table S2. A list of the shrub species and major perennial herb species in our plots. Frequency (%) is the number of times for a plant species occurring in 172 plots. For shrubs, we list the mean cover of the species across the plots where they appeared. For herbs, we list the mean abundance of the species across the plots where they appeared.

Species

Frequency (%)

Type of SEG

Cover (%) or abundance (/m2)

Caragana microphylla

70.83

I, II, III

12.97

Caragana stenophylla

33.85

II, III

3.56

Caragana pygmaea

16.15

II, III

0.51

Caragana tibetica

12.50

II, III

11.28

Caragana intermedia

11.46

II, III

3.61

Amygdalus pedunculata

6.25

III

8.01

Carex korshinskyi

54.07

I, II, III

93

Leymus chinensis

51.74

I,II,III

135

Stipa krylovii

50.58

I,II, III

15

Allium tenuissimum

47.09

I,II,III

13

Artemisia frigida

46.51

I, II, III

8

Salsola collina

45.93

I, II, III

27

Setaria viridis

43.02

I, II, III

92

Artemisia annua

40.70

I, II, III

51

Eragrostis minor

40.12

I, II, III

79

Convolvulus ammannii

37.21

I, II, III

37

Allium mongolicum

36.05

I, II, III

10

Euphorbia humifusa

36.05

I, II, III

45

Astragalus galactites

33.72

I, II, III

4

Melilotoides ruthenica

30.81

I, II

4

Corispermum chinganicum

29.65

I, II, III

14

Stipa klemenzii

29.65

II, III

20

Chenopodium aristatum

28.49

I, II, III

40

Cleistogenes songorica

27.91

II, III

12

Enneapogon desvauxii

24.42

I, II, III

56

Heteropappus altaicus

23.26

I, II, III

8

Allium bidentatum

23.26

I, II, III

23

Neopallasia pectinata

20.35

I, II

81

Chenopodium glaucum

17.44

I, II, III

14

Allium ramosum

16.28

I, II

16

Asparagus dauricus

16.28

I, II, III

6

Stipa breviflora

15.70

I, II, III

6

Tribulus terrestris

15.70

I, II, III

14

Iris tenuifolia

14.53

I, II, III

4

Potentilla bifurca

12.79

I, II

53

Kochia prostrata

12.79

I, II

18

Lappula myosotis

11.05

I, II

4

Bassia dasyphylla

10.47

I, II

23

Lespedeza davurica

10.47

I, II, III

4

Lepidium apetalum

8.72

I, II

11

Aristida adscensionis

8.14

II, III

45

Plantago lessingii

8.14

II, III

25

Lagochilus ilicifolius

8.14

II, III

2

Tragus racemosus

8.14

I, II, III

14

Koeleria cristata

8.14

I, II

19

Ptilotrichum canescens

6.98

II, III

25

Artemisia ordosica

6.98

I, II

13

Potentilla acaulis

6.98

I

7

Allium polyrhizum

6.98

II, III

22

Haplophyllum dauricum

6.98

I, II, III

2

Thymus mongolicus

6.40

I, II

5

Thalictrum petaloideum

6.40

I, II

3

Cymbaria dahurica

5.81

I

10

Peganum harmala

5.81

II, III

7

Phlomis tuberosa

5.23

I, II

20

Stenosolenium saxatiles

4.65

I, II

12

Artemisia macilenta

4.07

I, II, III

34

Potentilla tanacetifolia

4.07

I, II

17

Echinops gmelini

4.07

I

3

Serratula centauroides

3.49

I, II, III

5

Oxytropis aciphylla

3.49

II, III

4

Axyris amaranthoides

3.49

I

17

Chenopodium acuminatum

3.49

I, II, III

66

Gueldenstaedtia verna

3.49

I, II, III

9

Cynanchum thesioides

3.49

I, II, III

3

Ephedra sinica

3.49

I, II, III

15

Artemisia sieversiana

2.91

II

4

Suaeda corniculata

2.91

I, II, III

3

Stipa grandis

2.91

I, III

4

Suaeda glauca

2.91

I, II

4

Achnatherum sibiricum

2.91

I

7

Polygala tenuifolia

2.33

I, II, III

2

Polygonum aviculare

2.33

I, II

21

Gentiana parvula

2.33

I, II

5

Ceratoides arborescens

2.33

I

51

Agropyron mongolicum

2.33

III

17

Astragalus efoliolatus

2.33

II, III

1

Sonchus brachyotus

2.33

I, II

2

Artemisia sacrorum

1.74

I

17

Scutellaria viscidula

1.74

I

8

Festuca ovina

1.74

I

13

Psammochloa villosa

1.74

III

20

Poa annua

1.74

I

5

Ajania achilloides

1.74

III

5

Taraxacum mongolicum

1.74

I

2

Salsola ruthenica

1.74

III

2

Scorzonera austriaca

1.74

III

3

Iris lacteal

1.16

II

2

Anemarrhena asphodeloides

1.16

I

2

Astragalus scaberrimus

1.74

I, II

2

Portulaca oleracea

1.16

I

128

Potentilla verticillaris

1.16

I

10

Gueldenstaedtia stenophylla

1.16

III

7

Thalictrum squarrosum

1.16

I

2

Pennisetum centrasiaticum

1.16

II, III

58

Dianthus chinensis

1.16

I

2

Veronica incana

1.16

I

4

Leymus secalinus

1.16

I

126

Stellera chamaejasme

1.16

I

2

Dimorphostemon micranthus

1.16

I

2

Erodium stephanianum

1.16

II

3

Peganum nigellastrum

0.58

II

4

Adenophora stenanthina

0.58

I

2

Orostachys malacophyllus

0.58

I

2

Adenophora stenanthina

0.58

I

2

Androsace maxima

0.58

II

2

Euphorbia esula 

0.58

II

2

Chamaerhodos trifida

0.58

II

4

Scabiosa tschiliensis

0.58

I

2

Scutellaria scordifolia

0.58

II

20

Medicago sativa

0.58

I

2

Amaranthus spinosus

0.58

I

12

Oxytropis gracilima

0.58

I

8

Iris tectoru

0.58

II

2

Plantago asiatica

0.58

I

6

Ferula borealis

0.58

III

2

Atraphaxis frutescens

0.58

III

2

Orostachys fimbriatus

0.58

I

4

Gypsophila licentiana

0.58

II

2

Galium verum 

0.58

I

6

Cnidium monnieri

0.58

I

2

Veronica didyma

0.58

I

2

Asparagus gobicus

0.58

III

28

Papaver nudicaule

0.58

I

2

Rumex acetosella 

0.58

I

2


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