Supplementary Information Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions




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Supplementary Information
Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions
Zhen-Yu Wu, Chao Li, Hai-Wei Liang, Yu-Ning Zhang, Xin Wang, Jia-Fu Chen, Shu-Hong Yu*
Division of Nanomaterials & Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P. R. China.



Figure S1. High-magnification SEM images of (a, b) carbonaceous nanofiber aerogel and (c, d) CNF aerogel at different magnifications.


Figure S2. TEM images of (a, b) carbonaceous nanofiber aerogel and (c, d) CNF aerogel at different magnifications.


Figure S3. (a) Photograph of CNF aerogels of diverse sizes. (b) Photograph of the biggest CNF aerogel fabricated in the current study.


Figure S4. Photograph of a CNF aerogel with a size of 3.1× 1.7 × 1 cm3 on the balance (56.1 mg), demonstrating the material's low density.


Figure S5. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms of CNF aerogels.


Figure S6. (a) Photograph of the carbonaceous nanofiber aerogel and the CNF aerogel after being placed on water. (b) Water droplets as quasi-spheres and soybean oil trace on the surface of the CNF aerogel.


Figure S7. The sequential photographs of CNF aerogel absorbing phenoxin (dyed with Sudan III) under water.

Table S1. Pore volumes of CNF aerogels calculated from the uptake of various organic liquids.




Weight gain (g g-1)

Density (g cm-3)

Pore volume (cm3 g-1)

Gasoline

61.14

0.73

84.33

Diesel oil

74.82

0.83

89.87

Pump oil

86.34

0.87

99.24

Sesame oil

92.92

0.92

89.84

Soybean oil

90.19

0.93

97.37

Ethanol

71.47

0.79

90.47

Bromobenzene

124.55

1.5

83.03

Chloroform

120.17

1.5

80.11

Phenoxin

139.08

1.6

86.93

THF

78.94

0.89

88.70

n-hexane

51.55

0.66

78.18

Acetone

71.24

0.8

89.05

As shown in Table S1, pore volumes were calculated based on the sorption capacity for organic liquids and their densities. The values range from 78.18 to 99.24 cm3 g-1, which is consistent with pore volumes of ca. 99 cm3 g-1 calculated from apparent density, but far from that suggested by nitrogen sorption (pore volume of 0.32 cm3 g-1). The main reason for this difference is that nitrogen sorption does not allow for quantitative measurement of micrometer-scale pores (nitrogen sorption measurements are mainly suitable to test pores with a size between 0.35 nm and 400 nm).


Figure S8. Sorption kinetics of four organic liquids: (a) ethanol, (b) phenoxin, (c) soybean oil, and (d) diesel oil.


Table S2. Fitting parameters of sorption kinetics of four organic liquids.

Organic liquids

K (s-1)

Qm (%)

Ethanol

1.1063×10-2

7285.5

Phenoxin

1.7648×10-2

13827

Diesel oil

2.0669×10-4

7712.0

Soybean oil

5.3708×10-4

8893.2




Figure S9. (a-c) Photographs of the recycling process of CNF aerogel by direct combustion.


Figure S10. TGA curves of CNF aerogel in N2 and air.





Figure S11. The compressive strain–stress curves of CNF aerogels (a) at room temperature, (b) after freezing in LN2, and (c) burning in an ethanol flame for five minutes.


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