Sri Vedanta-sutra Volume Four The Smrti-sastras also affirm it. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana. Fn 1 Srimad-Bhagavatam 30. 23) explains




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Sri Vedanta-sutra Volume Four The Smrti-sastras also affirm it. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.30.23) explains: .FN 2 tatra tatra patan chranto murchitah punar utthitah patha papi#yasa ni#tas tarasa yama-sadanam .FN 1 {.sy 168}While passing on that road to the abode of Yamaraja, he falls down in fatigue, and sometimes he becomes unconscious, but he is forced to rise again. In this way he is very quickly brought to the presence of Yamaraja."* In the Smrti-sastra it is also said: .FN 2 sarve caite vasam yanti yamasya bhagavan. .FN 1 {.sy 168}O Lord, all sinners come under Yamarja's control." In this way the sages and Smrti-sastras affirm that the sinners come under Yamaraja's control. .FN 3 Sutra 16 .FN 2 api sapta apialso;{.fn 2} saptaseven. .FN 3 There are seven and others also. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 In the Mahabharata it is said: .FN 2 rauravo 'tha mahams caiva vahnir vaitarani# tatha kumbhi#paka iti proktany anitya-narakani tu tamisras canda-tamisro dvau nityau sampraki#rtitau iti sapta pradhanani bali#yas tuttarottaram .FN 1 {.sy 168}The temporary hells named 1. Raurava, 2. Mahan, 3. Vahni, 4. Vaitarani, and 5. Kumbhipaka, as well as the permanent hells named 6. Tamisra, and 7. Andha-tamisra, are said to be the seven most important hells, each one more horrible than the last." Thus the Smrti-sastra explains that sinners are punished for their sins in these hells. These hells are the places where sinners go. The word {.sy 168}api" (also) is used to indicate that in the Fifth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam other hells are also described. Here someone may object: Does this (the description of Yamaraja's punishment of sinners) not contradict the scriptures' declaration that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the supreme controller of everything? The author of the sutras now answers this objection: .FN 3 Sutra 17 .FN 2 tatrapi ca tad-vyaparad avirodhah tatrathere;{.fn 2} apieven;{.fn 2} caalso;{.fn 2} tatof Him;{.fn 2} vyaparatbecause of the activities;{.fn 2} awithout;{.fn 2} virodhahcontradiction. .FN 3 There is no contradiction, for He also acts there. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 The word {.sy 168}ca" (and) is here used for emphasis. Yamaraja and others punish sinners by the command of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This does not contradict the scriptures' description of the Lord's supremacy. That is the meaning. The Puranas affirm that, on the Supreme Lord's order, Yamaraja and others punish sinners. Here someone may object: It must be that, after receiving punishment from Yamaraja, sinners also ascend to Candraloka. This must be so, for the Kausitaki Upanisad affirms that all who leave this world travel to Candraloka. To refute this misconception the author of the sutras speaks the following words. .FN 3 Sutra 18 .FN 2 vidya-karmanos tv iti prakrtatvat vidyaof knowledge;{.fn 2} karmanohof action;{.fn 2} tubut;{.fn 2} itithus;{.fn 2} prakrtatvatbecause of being the topics. .FN 3 But because pious deeds and knowledge are the topics. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 The word {.sy 168}tu" (but) is used to begin the answer to the previous objection. The word {.sy 168}na" (It is not so) is to be understood in this sutra. Sinners do not go to Candraloka. Why not? The sutra explains that only they who perform pious deeds or are situated in true knowledge (vidya-karmanoh) travel to the worlds of the devas and pitas. That is the description of the scriptures (prakrtatvat). In the Chandogya Upanisad (5.10.1) it is said that they who are situated in knowledge travel on the path to the devas. In Chandogya Upanisad (5.10.3) it is said that they who perform pious deeds travel on the path to the pitas. Thus when it is said that all (sarve) go to Candraloka, the meaning is that all who have qualified themselves in these ways go to Candraloka. Here someone may object: Is it not so that without first going to Candraloka it is not possible for sinners to attain a new material body? This is the reason: Because (without first going to Candraloka) it is not possible to offer the fifth libation (by which one attains a new body). Therefore, in order to attain a new material body, all must first go to Candraloka. If this objection is raised, then the author of the sutras gives the following reply. .FN 3 Sutra 19 .FN 2 na trti#ye tathopalabdheh nanot;{.fn 2} trti#yein the third;{.fn 2} tathaso;{.fn 2} upalabdhehbecause of the perception. .FN 3 Not so in the third, for it is so perceived. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 In the third place there is no need to offer the fifth libation to attain a new material body. Why not? The sutra explains: {.sy 168}tathopalabdheh" (because it is so perceived). This means: {.sy 168}Because the Sruti-sastra affirms that it is so." In the Chandogya Upanisad the following question is posed: .FN 2 yathasau loko na sampuryate .FN 1 {.sy 168}Do you know why the world never becomes filled?" The answer is given (Chandogya Upanisad 5.10.8): .FN 2 athaitayoh pathor na katarena ca tani#mani ksudrany asakrd avrtti#ni bhutani ji#vanti jayasva mriyasvety etat trti#yam sthanam. tenasau loko na sampuryate. .FN 1 {.sy 168}There are these two paths and there is also another path, where many tiny creatures live, and where they are ordered: `Now you must be born.' and `Now you must die.' It is because of this third place that the world never becomes filled." Aside from the worlds of the devas and the worlds of the pitas, there is another, a third world, the home of tiny creatures like mosquitoes, insects, and worms, creatures who do not go to the higher worlds, but are simply again and again ordered: {.sy 168}Now you must be born." and {.sy 168}Now you must die." In this way they are born again and again and they die again and again. That is the meaning. Their abode is this third world. It is said that sinners take birth in the bodies of these insects and other lower creatures. Their place is the third world because it is different from the first and second worlds: Brahmaloka and Dyuloka. Because they have not attained true knowledge and thus become able to travel to the world of the devas, and because they have not performed pious deeds and thus become able to travel to the world of the pitas, they become tiny creatures like mosquitoes and insects and they stay in a third world. That is why the other worlds do not become filled to overflowing. These creatures neither rise to nor descend from the celestial worlds of Dyuloka, and for that reason Dyuloka does not become overfilled. They stay in a third world, where they do not offer the fifth oblation in order to attain a new body. .FN 3 Sutra 20 .FN 2 smaryate 'pi ca loke smaryateaffirmed in the Smrti-sastra;{.fn 2} apiand;{.fn 2} caalso;{.fn 2} lokein the world. .FN 3 The Smrti-sastras affirm that it is also in this world. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 In this world also some pious persons, Drona and Dhrstadyumna are two examples, also attain new bodies without offering a fifth oblation. This is described in the Smrti- sastras. The words {.sy 168}api ca" (and also) hint that there are other examples also. .FN 3 Sutra 21 .FN 2 darsanac ca darsanatfrom seeing;{.fn 2} caalso. .FN 3 From seeing also. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 In the Chandogya Upanisad (6.3.1) it is said: .FN 2 tesam khalv esam bhutanam tri#ny eva bi#jani bhavanti. anda-jam ji#va-jam udbhij-jam. .FN 1 {.sy 168}Living beings are born in one of three ways. Some are born from an egg, some are born live, and some are plants sprouting from a seed." The Sruti-sastra affirms that plants sprouting from a seed and tiny creatures born from perspiration take birth without the fifth oblation. They neither ascend to nor descend from Candraloka. They are born from water without the fifth oblation. This view is not contradicted by the scriptures. Here someone may object: The passage you quoted from Chandogya Upanisad mentioned three kinds of birth but did not mention birth from perspiration. The author of the sutras now gives his answer to this objection. .FN 3 Sutra 22 .FN 2 trti#ya-sabdavarodhah samsoka-jasya trti#yasabdaword;{.fn 2} avarodhahdescription;{.fn 2} samsokafrom grief;{.fn 2} jasyaborn. .FN 3 The grief-born is included in the third word. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 The perspiration born creatures, here called grief-born, are included in the description of plants born from seeds. Because they are both born by bursting forth, one bursting from earth and the other bursting from water, they are considered in the same class. They differ in that one one (the perspiration-born creatures) has the power to move about and the other (the plants) does not. In this way it is proved that they who do not perform pious deeds do not go to Candraloka. .FN 6 Adhikarana 4 The Soul Does Not Become Ether .FN 3 Introduction by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 It has already been shown that the soul who performs pious deeds goes, accompanied by his subtle material body, to Candraloka, and (after some time again) descends, accompanied by the remnant of his karma, (to the earth). The way this happens is described in Chandogya Upanisad (5.10.5): .FN 2 athaitam evadhvanam punar nivartante yathetam akasasm akasad vayuh bhavati vayur bhutva dhumo bhavati dhumo bhutva abhram bhavaty abhram bhutva megho bhavati megho bhutva pravarsati .FN 1 {.sy 168}He returns by this path. First he becomes ether. From ether he becomes air. Having become air he becomes smoke. Having become smoke he becomes mist. Having become mist he becomes a cloud. Having become a cloud, he becomes rain." Samsaya (doubt): Is the descent literally like this, or is it not like this? Purvapaksa (the opponent speaks): This account of the descending soul becoming ether and other things is to be accepted literally. During its descent does the soul become completely identical with these various things, or does it become only similar to them? If the soul becomes only similar, then a secondary interpretation of the passage must be accepted. For this reason it should be understood that the soul becomes completely identical with these different things. Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion. .FN 3 Sutra 23 .FN 2 tat-svabhavyapattir upapatteh tatof them;{.fn 2} svabhavyasimilarity;{.fn 2} apattihattainment;{.fn 2} upapattehbecause of being reasonable. .FN 3 It is similar to them, for that is reasonable. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 This passage should be interpreted to mean that the soul becomes similar to these things. Why is that? The sutra explains: {.sy 168}upapatteh" (for that is reasonable). On Candraloka the soul attains a a body suitable for enjoyment. However, when the time for enjoyment comes to an end, that body perishes in the fire of grief, just as mist perishes in the sunlight. Thus deprived of its external body, the soul becomes like ether. Then the soul comes under the control of air. Then the soul comes into contact with smoke and the other things. That is a reasonable explanation of these events. This is so because it is not possible for one thing to become another, and also because if it did indeed become ether or these other things, it would not be possible for the soul to continue its descent. .FN 6 Adhikarana 5 The Passage From Ether to Rain Is Quick .FN 3 Introduction by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 Samsaya (doubt): Is the soul's descent from ether to rain accomplished quickly or slowly? Purvapaksa (the opponent speaks): No outside force pushes it, so the soul must proceed very slowly. Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion. .FN 3 Sutra 24 .FN 2 nati-cirena visesat nanot;{.fn 2} ativery;{.fn 2} cirenafor long;{.fn 2} visesatbecause of something specific. .FN 3 Not for very long, because of something specific. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 The soul's descent from ether and the other things does not take a long time. Why is that? The sutra explains: {.sy 168}visesat" (because of something specific). The specific thing here is a specific statement that the passage through rice and other grains is very difficult. Because this part of the passage is singled out as especially difficult it may be inferred that the other parts of the passage are quickly accomplished. .FN 6 Adhikarana 6 The Descending Soul Does Not Take Birth Among the Plants .FN 3 Introduction by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 Visaya (statement): The passage after entering rain is described in the following statement of Sruti-sastra: .FN 2 ta iha vri#hi-yava ausadhi-vanaspatayas tila-masa jayante .FN 1 {.sy 168}The descending souls then take birth as rice, barley, plants, trees, sesame, and beans." Samsaya (doubt): Do the souls literally take birth as rice or these other species, or is this description metaphorical? Purvapaksa (the opponent speaks): The text says {.sy 168}jayante" (they take birth). This is should be taken literally. Siddhanta: In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion. .FN 3 Sutra 25 .FN 2 anyadhisthite purvavad abhilapat anyaby an other;{.fn 2} adhisthiteoccupied;{.fn 2} purvabefore;{.fn 2} vatlike;{.fn 2} abhilapatbecause of the statement. .FN 3 In what is occupied by another because of a statement like the previous. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 Because the bodies of the plants and other beings are already inhabited by other spirit souls, the description here is metaphorical. The descending souls are not born in those species to experience their karma. Why not? The sutra explains: {.sy 168}purvavad abhilapat" (because of a statement like the previous). As it was previously said that the descending soul does not become ether, or the other things in its descent, but merely comes into contact with them, so the fallen soul merely comes into contact with the rice and other species. That is the meaning. As when it enters the ether the descending soul is not yet experiencing the specific results of various pious and impious deeds, so when it falls down in the rain the soul is also not yet experiencing the results of specific deeds. This the scriptures say. In Chandogya Upanisad (5.10.7) it is said: {.sy 168}They who act piously attain an auspicious birth. They who do not act piously attain a birth that is not auspicious." Therefore the description here that the descending souls take birth in this way is metaphorical. It is not literal. .FN 3 Sutra 26 .FN 2 asuddham iti cen na sabdat asuddhamimpure;{.fn 2} itithus;{.fn 2} cetif;{.fn 2} nanot;{.fn 2} sabdatbecause of Sruti-sastra. .FN 3 If it is said to be impure, then I reply: No, for that is the statement of the Sruti-sastra. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 Here someone may object: It is not at all logical to say that the scriptures' statement that the descending soul, accompanied by the remnant of his karma, takes birth in the body of a rice plant or similar species, is only a metaphor, and the soul does not really take birth in those species for the soul has no remaining karma to push it into that birth. The so-called pious deeds performed to attain residence in Svargaloka are actually impure. This is because the Agnisomi#ya-yaj{.sy 241}a and other yaj{.sy 241}as like them involve violence to animals. The scriptures give the following prohibition: .FN 2 ma himsyat sarva-bhutani .FN 1 {.sy 168}Never commit violence to anyone."* Therefore, by performing these yaj{.sy 241}as there is a pious portion, which sends the performer to Svargaloka, and also an impious portion, which forces him to take birth as a rice plant or similar species. In the Manu-samhita (12.9) it is said: .FN 2 sari#ra-jair karma-dosair yati sthavaratam narah .FN 1 {.sy 168}A person who sins with his body becomes an unmoving plant." Therefore the statement that the descending soul takes birth as a rice plant or similar being should be taken literally. If this is said, then the sutra replies: {.sy 168}na" (No. It is not so). Why not? The sutra explains: {.sy 168}sabdat" (Because that is the statement of the Sruti-sastra). The Vedas order: .FN 2 agnisomi#yam pasum alabheta .FN 1 {.sy 168}One should sacrifice an animal in an agnisomiya- yaj{.sy 241}a." Because piety and impiety is known only from the Vedas' statements, the Vedas' order to commit violence must be understood to be actually kind and pious. Therefore the orders of the Vedas are never impure. The prohibitions: {.sy 168}Never commit violence to anyone" and {.sy 168}Violence is a sin" are the general rules decreed by the Vedas, and the statement: {.sy 168}One should sacrifice an animal in an agnisomiya-yaj{.sy 241}a" is an exception to that general rule. A general rule and a specific exception to that rule need not contradict each other. There is scope for each. For these reasons, therefore, the scriptures' description that the fallen soul takes birth as a rice plant or similar being is metaphorical and not literal. What follows in this sequence is described in the next sutra. .FN 3 Sutra 27 .FN 2 retah-sig-yogo 'tha retahsemen;{.fn 2} sik-sprinkling;{.fn 2} yogahcontact;{.fn 2} athathen. .FN 3 Then there is contact with the male that sprinkles the semen. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 After entering the rice-plant or other plant, the fallen soul, accompanied by the remainder of his karma, enters the semen of a male. In the Chandogya Upanisad (5.10.6) it is said: .FN 2 yo yo 'nnam atti yo retah si{.sy 241}cati tad bhuya eva bhavati .FN 1 {.sy 168}A male eats that grain and then sprinkles semen. From that semen the fallen soul takes birth. He becomes just like his father." The statement that the soul becomes just like the father should not be taken literally, for one thing cannot have exactly the same form as another. In truth, if the offspring were completely identical with the father, and there were no difference at all between them, then the soul would not actually attain a new material body. Therefore this statement should be taken metaphorically. As the soul merely comes into contact with the rice plant or other vegetation, so the soul comes into contact with the father. The soul does not become identical with the father in all respects. .FN 3 Sutra 28 .FN 2 yoneh sari#ram yonehfrom the womb;{.fn 2} sari#rama body. .FN 3 The body comes from the womb. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 The word {.sy 168}yoneh" here is in the ablative case. The soul departs from its father's body and enters its mother's womb. In this way, so it may experience the fruits of its karma, the soul attains a new material body. In the Chandogya Upanisad (5.10.7) it is said: .FN 2 tad ya iha ramani#ya-caranah .FN 1 {.sy 168}They who perform pious deeds attain an auspicious birth. They who sin attain an inauspicious birth." In this way the soul's entrance into the series of things beginning with ether and the series of things beginning with a rice-plant or other vegetation is described. The conclusion is that a person who is actually intelligent will renounce this material world, a world filled with sorrows, and place all his thoughts on Lord Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is filled with transcendental bliss. .FN 6 Pada 2 .FN 3 Introduction by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 2 vittir viraktis ca krta{.sy 241}jalih puro yasyah parananda-tanor vitisthate siddhis ca seva-samayam prati#ksate bhaktih paresasya punatu sa jagat .FN 1 May devotion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, devotion that is filled with transcendental bliss, devotion before whom knowledge and renunciation stand, their hands folded with respect, devotion that mystic power yearns to serve, purify the entire world. Devotional service, by performing which one falls in love with the Supreme Personality of Godhead and attains His association, will be described in this pada. In order to strengthen the soul's love and devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Lord's glorious creation of dreams and other states of being, the Lord's identity with His many incarnations, His appearance as the all-pervading Supersoul, His non-identity with His worshipers, who are still one with Him in quality, His being attained only by devotional service, His appearance in both spiritual and material worlds, His transcendental blissfulness, His coming before His devotees according to the devotees' love for Him, His supremacy over all, His supreme generosity, and a great host of the Lord's other virtues and glories will also be described here. When a person desires to love, the beloved's glories must be understood. Otherwise there can be no love. In the beginning of this pada will be described the Lord's creation of the dreaming state. The idea that someone other than the Supreme Lord had created the dreaming state contradicts the scriptures' statement that the Lord is the creator of everything. If the Lord sky in the heart" here is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In this way the Sruti-sastra explains that dreamless sleep is manifested when the soul enters the nadis, the membrane surrounding the heart, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Samsaya (doubt): Does the soul enter any one of these three places, or does the soul enter all of them? Purvapaksa (the opponent speaks): The soul may enter any one of these places. This is so because these three places are equally able to be the place where the soul sleeps. The Nyaya- sastra explains: .FN 2 tulyarthas tu vikalperan .FN 1 {.sy 168}A list of things equally suitable for a certain activity indicates the option of choosing from them." Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion. .FN 3 Sutra 7 .FN 2 tad-abhavo nadi#su tac chruter atmani ca tatof that;{.fn 2} abhavahthe absence;{.fn 2} nadi#suin the nadis;{.fn 2} tatthat;{.fn 2} srutehfrom Sruti-sastra;{.fn 2} atmaniin the Supreme Personality of Godhead;{.fn 2} caalso. .FN 3 Its absence occurs in the nadis and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is so because of the Sruti-sastra. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 The word {.sy 168}ca" (and) here hints the inclusion of the membrane surrounding the heart. The word {.sy 168}tad-abhava" (its absence) means {.sy 168}the absence of wakefulness and dream". Thus it means {.sy 168}the state of dreamless sleep". Dreamless sleep occurs in the nadis, the membrane surrounding the heart, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead collectively. Why is that? The sutra explains: {.sy 168}tac chruteh" (This is so because of the Sruti-sastra). Thus the Sruti-sastra declares that they are all, taken collectively, the place of dreamless sleep. The idea that there is an option here, and that to perform the activity of deep sleep the soul chooses one of these places, is an idea that contradicts the statements of Sruti-sastra. In the scriptures' description of dreamless sleep, it is seen that the nadis and pranas are described together. In the Kausitaki Upanisad (4.19) it is said: .FN 2 tasu tada bhavati. yada suptah svapnam na ka{.sy 241}cana pasyaty athasmin prana evaikadha bhavati. .FN 1 {.sy 168}Then the soul enters the nadis. When sleeping, the soul does not see any dream. Then the soul become one with the pranas." The explanation that the soul has an option of one of these three places does not apply here, for if that option were to apply, then these three places would have to be equally suitable for the action of dreamless sleep, but the truth is they are not. What occurs is the soul passes through the door of the nadis, enters the palace of the membrane surrounding the heart, and sleeps on the bed of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In this way all three places are involved in the activity of dreamless sleep, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the actual place where dreamless sleep occurs. The word {.sy 168}puritat" here means {.sy 168}the membrane surrounding the lotus of the heart". .FN 3 Sutra 8 .FN 2 atah prabodho 'smat atahtherefore;{.fn 2} prabodhahwaking;{.fn 2} asmatfrom Him. .FN 3 Therefore the waking state is from Him. Purport by Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana .FN 1 Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the actual place where dreamless sleep occurs, and the nadis and other things mentioned here are merely doors through which the soul passes in order to rest on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, therefore the waking soul rises from the bed of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the Chandogya Upanisad it is said: .FN 2 satas cagatya na viduh sata agacchamahe .FN 1 {.sy 168}We had departed from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although we could not understand that we had departed from the Supreme Personality of Godhead." In this way the idea that sometimes the soul sleeps in the nadis, sometimes in the membrane surrounding the heart, and sometimes in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is disproved. It is not like that. Therefore the soul sleeps on the bed of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


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