Seedlings




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SEEDLINGS:

A seedling is a plant that has been planted into its first seedbed. Seedlings are economical for large-scale plantings.



TRANSPLANTS:

Transplants are seedlings, which have been removed from the seedbed and placed into a transplant bed. Compared to a seedling, transplants have a superior root system and the main stem is more developed.

Coniferous Tree Varieties

Northern White Cedar Thuja occidentalis



Growth Form:

  • Size: small to medium sized (average maximum height 50 ft)

  • Crown: narrowly conic to broadly pyramidal (USDA Plants)

  • Bark: grey to reddish brown, fibrous

  • Needles: scale like, opposite in alternating pairs, about an inch long

  • Cones: 1/3 to ½ inch long,

Habitat: Cool, moist, nutrient rich soils

Uses: ornamental, wildlife, timber (fence posts, etc.)

Balsam Fir Abies balsamea

(Wisconsin Christmas tree Producers Association)



Growth Form:

  • Size: small to medium (average height 46 ft to 66 ft tall) (Wikipedia)

  • Crown: narrow, conical

  • Bark: smooth and gray with resin blisters

  • Needles: ¾-1 inch tall, often curved

  • Cone: 2-4 inches long, purplish color, stand erect on branches

Habitat:

Grows on a variety of sites, but prefers a loamy soil (USDA Plants Database)



Uses: Christmas trees, pulpwood

Canadian Hemlock Tsuga canandensis



Growth Form:

  • Average height up to 99 ft tall

  • Crown: broadly conical

  • Bark: brown, scaly, fissured

  • Needle: flat, two-ranked, about ½ inch long

  • Cone: small, about an inch long

Habitat:

  • Shade tolerant

  • Generally does not tolerate nutrient poor, wet, or poorly drained sites (USDA Plants)

Uses: Timber, wildlife habitat (deer, ruffled grouse, etc.)

Colorado Blue Spruce Picea pungens

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: average maximum about 165 ft

  • Crown: long conical

  • Cones: 2 ½-4 inches long, color green to violet, ripening to a pale brown

  • Bark: thick, gray brown, breaking into furrows and ridges

  • Needle: grow at right angle from twig, stiff and sharp, ½-1 in long, silvery to blue green

Habitat:

  • Cultivated on wide variety of soils that are well drained

  • Does not tolerate very moist soils

Uses: Often planted as an ornamental and Christmas Trees species

Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga menziesii

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: around 100 ft, can get taller

  • Crown: conical

  • Cones: 3-4 in long, have 3 pointed bracts on cone longer than cone scale

  • Bark: dark gray with resin blisters

  • Needle: ¾ to 1 inch in length, persistent (up to 8 years)

Habitat:

Uses: lumber, conservation (erosion control, etc.), windbreaks, wildlife (food, habitat), Christmas Trees

Fraser Fir Abies fraseri

(Comstock Trees and Services) (USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: small to medium sized, 50-60 ft tall

  • Crown: narrow, conical

  • Cones: pollen cones ½ inches in length, seed cones 1 ½-2 inches

  • Bark: smooth, with resin blisters

  • Needle: About ½ to 1 inch in length

  • Root system: very shallow

Habitat:

  • Prefers soils that are shallow or rocky

Uses: Conservation (erosion control, etc.), Ornamental, Christmas tree

(USFS Index of Species Information)


Japanese Larch Larix

(The Gymnosperm Database) (A Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador Vascular Plants)



Growth Form:

  • Height: grows to about 130 ft

  • Crown: conical and dense

  • Cones: ¾ to 1 in long, ovoid and erect on shoots

  • Bark: smooth and red brown on young trees, scaly, fissured, gray when old

  • Needle: blue green, turn yellow in autumn, deciduous, 2 in long, arranged in circular clusters

Habitat:

  • Typically grows best on acidic soils, moderately well drained sandy or clay-loam soils. Is not site specific however, it can adapt to a variety of soils and conditions.

Uses: Ornamental

Norway Spruce Picea Abies

(USDA Plants Database)


Growth Form:

  • Height: grows to about 150-160 ft tall, pendulant branching

  • Crown: conical

  • Cones: 4-6 in long, diamond shaped scales

  • Bark: orange brown, scaly

  • Needle: light to dark green, 4 sided, under 1 inch in length

Habitat:

  • Can live on a variety of sites

Uses: Ornamental, pulpwood

(The Gymnosperm Database)



White Pine Pinus strobus

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: up to 150 tall

  • Crown: pyramidal, distinctive plate-like branching

  • Cones: 4-8 in long, 1 in thick

  • Bark: thin, smooth, greenish brown on young, older is dark gray, fissured

  • Needle: occur in bundles of 5, 2 1/5-5 inches long

Habitat: Can grow in a variety of sites and soil types

Uses: Timber, ornamental, wildlife (seeds eaten by squirrels, deer, birds, etc.), conservation (erosion control, etc.)
White Spruce Picea glauca

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: up to 82 ft tall

  • Crown: broadly conic to spire like, branches point upward

  • Cones: 1-2 ½ in long, brown

  • Bark: gray brown, thin scales

  • Needle: blue-green, 4 sided, often with whitish coating

Habitat:

  • Grows best in mineral soil, can tolerate various conditions

Uses: Pulpwood, lumber, Christmas trees, ornamental

Deciduous Tree Varieties

Black Cherry Prunus Serotina

(USDA Plants Database)


Growth Form:

  • Height: up to 125 tall

  • Seed: about ½ inch in diameter, black berry-like fruit

  • Bark: fissured, scaley

  • Leaf: alternate, simple, 2-5 inches long, ovate, finely toothed

  • Flowers: Clusters of small, white, 5 petaled

Habitat: intolerant of shade, prefers rich soils and bottomlands

Uses: wood valuable for lumber, wildlife value (fruit used as food by birds and mammals)

Black Walnut Juglans nigra

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: 70-95 ft tall

  • Seed: about 1½ to 2 inches in diameter, sphere shaped, thick fleshy husk

  • Bark: deep furrowed and ridges, brown to grayish black

  • Twig: pith dark, chambered

  • Leaf: compound, 6-12 inches long, 9-23 leaflets attached to rachis

  • Flowers: grow in terminal clusters

Habitat: deep, well drained, rich soils

Uses: lumber, seeds eaten by wildlife and humans

Lilac Syringa vulgaris

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: medium sized shrub (12-16 ft tall)

  • Seed: ½ in long with wing

  • Bark: gray to brown, scaly

  • Leaf: simple, ovate, 2-4 ½ in long,

  • Flowers: white or purple flowers in terminal clusters

  • Habitat: intolerant of shade, can grow in multiple soil types but prefers slightly acidic soil

Uses: ornamental, can be used for lilac oil and dyes

Red Oak Quercus rubra

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: 60-100 ft

  • Seed: acorn, 6 inches long

  • Bark: dark gray or black, furrowed

  • Leaf: alternate, elliptic, lobed, about 6 inches long, bristle tipped ends

  • Flowers: catkins

Habitat: deep, well drained uplands

Uses: lumber, ornamental, wildlife food (acorns for animals)

Sugar Maple Acer Saccharum

(USDA Plants Database)



Growth Form:

  • Height: 80-120 ft

  • Seed: double winged samara, ¾ to 1 inch long

  • Bark: light gray to gray brown, deeply furrowed

  • Leaf: 2-4 inch long, opposite, with 5 toothed lobes

  • Flowers: small, greenish yellow, in long clusters

Habitat: rich, well drained soil

Uses: lumber, ornamental, maple syrup, wildlife food and cover (deer and rabbit browse)

White “Paper” Birch Betula papyrifera

(USDA Plants Database)


Growth Form:

  • Height: small to medium sized

  • Seed: catkins about 1-2 inches long

  • Bark: thin, smooth, dark red to almost black when young, bright creamy white when mature

  • Leaf: simple, alternate, ovate or triangular 2-4 inches long

Habitat: does best in acidic, well drained, sandy or loamy soils

Uses: pulpwood, lumber, fuel, landscape, wildlife, and conservation (erosion prevention, stream bank stabilization, etc.)

Red Maple- - -Acer rubrum

(USDA Plant Database)

Growth Form:

  • Height small to medium sized (16-54’)

  • On young trees, bark is smooth and light gray; with age becomes darker and breaks up into long scaly plates.

  • Leaves are opposite, 3 to 5 palmate lobes with serrated margins; sinuses relatively shallow 2 to 4 inches long.

Habitat: It develops best on moderately well-drained, moist sites at low to intermediate elevations; it is common in mountainous country on the drier ridges and on south and west exposures of upper slopes.

Uses: It is also a highly desirable wildlife browse food. White-tailed deer especially use the current season's growth as an important source of winter food.

Callery Pear Pyrus calleryana


Growth Form:

  • Trees have scaly gray-brown bark and branches with numerous short lateral twigs.

  • Twigs ending in thorns are typical of the species, but the Bradford cultivar is thorn less.

  • The leaves are simple, 2-3 inches long, broadest near the rounded base and tapering to the tip.

  • They are light to dark green and glossy with a wavy edge. The leaves remain green late into the fall and finally turn a deep red color before falling.

  • Callery pear is one of the earliest trees to flower in the spring, well before the leaves appear. The flowers are white, about ¾ inch in diameter, with five white petals

  • Callery pear fruits are small, ¼-½ inch in diameter, and hard and brown when ripe; each fruit contains 2-4 shiny black seeds. Birds and small mammals eat the fruits.

Habitat: The spread of Callery Pear along roadsides, rights-of-way, and in successional old fields

Uses: The landscape industry popularized it and before long it was being planted in urban and suburban settings from parking lots and streets to home landscapes. In 1982 the National Landscape Association voted 'Bradford' callery pear the second most popular tree in America.

Sargent Crab Apple Malus sargentii



Growth Form:

  • Height small (8’)

  • Pink buds open to a profuse, but brief, spring bloom of fragrant, white flowers (1" diameter). Profuse bloom often occurs only in alternate years.

  • Flowers are followed by small, red crabapples (1/4" diameter) which mature in the fall.

  • The pea-sized fruits are sweet-flavored like rose hips, but are not usually used in cooking. Fruits are long-lasting and attractive to birds, however. Ovate, lobed, dark green leaves turn yellow in autumn. The yellow fall color contrasts well with the red fruit.

Habitat: Prefers full sun and moist, well-drained, slightly acidic loams but is quite adaptable to varying soil conditions.

Uses: Provides high quality cover for roosting, loafing and nesting birds. This species is important to many song and game birds and squirrels, as the fruit is usually maintained well into the winter. Rabbits and whitetail browse this species.

Ground Cover Varieties

Blackberry Bush Rubus fruticosus



Growth Form:

  • A perennial, semi-deciduous, prickly, scrambling, semi-prostrate to almost erect shrub, with arching and entangling stems arising from a woody crown; forming thickets up to several meters high.

  • Erect or semi-erect canes, arched or trailing, up to 7 m long, green, purplish or red, smooth or moderately hairy, round or angled, with numerous curved or straight prickles of different sizes, and sometimes with small stalked glands.

  • Flowers 2 to 3 cm in diameter, growing in clusters on side branches; 5 sepals and 5 white or pink petals, numerous stamens.

  • Fruit, a berry, 1 to 3 cm in diameter, changing color from green to red to black as it ripens; each berry an aggregate of many single-seeded juicy segments (drupelets). Late December until April.

Habitat: Throughout all the higher rainfall (over 760 mm annual average) regions of bush land, forest plantations, along streams and on grazing land.

Uses: Blackberries are excellent sources of iron and vitamin C. They are eaten fresh and baked into pies, cobblers, and other desserts. Blackberry jellies and jams are favorites with many pies.

Blueberry Bush Vaccinium corymbosum



Growth Form:

  • They are usually erect but sometimes prostrate shrubs varying in size from 10 centimeters (3.9 in) to 4 meters (160 in) tall.

  • The leaves can be deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and 1–8 centimeters (0.39–3.1 in) long and 0.5–3.5 centimeters (0.20–1.4 in) broad.

  • The flowers are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish.

  • The fruit is a false berry 5–16 millimeters (0.20–0.63 in) diameter with a flared crown at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally blue or blueish-purple when ripe.

Habitat: Blueberry production in North America typically starts in mid-May (in Florida) and ends in September. Grows best and most commonly in moist or wet peat of moderate to high acidity – in and around marshes, swamps, and lakes, often with extended flooding, as well as on floodplains, sheltered slopes, and ravines. It also occurs in drier areas – dunes and barrier beaches, rocky hillsides, oak woods, and pine woods.

Uses: Blueberries are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer goods such as jellies, jams, pies, muffins, snack foods, and cereals.

Myrtle: Vinca minor



Growth Form:

  • Small shiny evergreen leaves with purple flowers in the spring.

  • 5-petaled pinwheel-shaped flowers bring welcome color to a shady spot.

  • The shiny leaves are arranged along stems that may reach three feet in length, but are only six inches high.

  • The stems will root wherever they touch the ground.

Habitat: Requires partial to full shade; the leaves develop chlorosis and the plant declines in full sun. It does best in fertile, well-drained loam, but will tolerate less-than-optimal conditions. While preferring damp soil, established plantings will endure some drought. Allowing the foliage and soil surface to dry between watering helps prevent Vinca Stem Blight, a fungal disease brought on by constantly wet conditions.

Uses: Because it competes successfully with tree myrtle is frequently used as an evergreen groundcover under woody plants. The trailing stems are also attractive spilling over the sides of flowering containers.\

Pachysandra



Growth Form:

  • One of the most attractive evergreen ground covers available.

  • Has alternating leaves 3-4 inches long.

  • It is in leaf all year, in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from September to October.

  • The flowers are monocots (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant)

Habitat: Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Deep Shade; Ground Cover; The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Uses: Ground cover for shade areas. Excellent selection for shaded areas under shallow-rooted trees.




Raspberry Bush



Growth Form:

  • The raspberry plant is a deciduous shrub that ranges in height from 1.6 to 9.8 feet.

  • The branches on which the leaves and berries grow are covered in sharp thickets

  • Have leaves that alternate along the stem in groups of three to five leaflets.

  • Small white flowers that bloom in clusters along the stems are also characteristic of the plant.

Habitat: Raspberry plants can be found in most temperate regions of the world. In North America, wild raspberry bushes can be found throughout the southern regions of Canada, Alaska and much of the northern United States. The plants are often found in forests or on pieces of land that were cleared by logging or fire.

Uses: Raspberry are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer goods such as jellies, jams, pies, muffins, snack foods, and cereals.

WILDFLOWER SEED MIX

ORIGINAL: A blend of perennial and annual species designed to suit a wide variety of conditions. Original’s 17 varieties provide a full spectrum of color.

SHADY: As the name implies, this mixture is for lower light conditions. Shady includes 11 varieties that will tolerate shaded and partial sun areas.

SUNNY: Here, the accent is on full sun and drier conditions. The 20 varieties are perfect for low maintenance areas in the open landscape plan.

BIRD & BUTTERFLY: The bird and butterfly mixture includes 13 varieties intended to attract Hummingbirds and Butterflies.

ENVIRO-FRIENDLY SEED MIX: This mix produces a friendly, healthy environment that attracts Butterflies, Hummingbirds, insects, and songbirds.

ANNUAL OVER-SEEDING BLEND: This mixture contains all annual varieties in a full range of colors. Blooms appear in as little as six weeks and continue through out the season.


OLD GLORY: Show your patriotism with this mixture containing flowers with red, white and blue colors.

Fruit Tree Varieties

Bartlett Pear Pyrus communis



Growth Form:

  • Semi Dwarf: 12 - 18 feet

  • The fruit has a bell shape

  • White flowers grouped in a corymbs

  • Large, golden yellow skin, brownish red blush, classic shape with smooth, white flesh. Harvest from mid-August to mid-September.

  • The leaves are simple, glossy green leaves that alternate on the twig. They grow up to 3" long, are thick with slight midrib curves folding the edges inwards. They have fine teeth on the margin.

Habitat: Orchards and landscaping

Uses: The fruit is aromatic and is outstanding for fresh eating. Along with its very sweet and juicy flavor for eating, it is widely used for canning and cooking because of its excellent taste.
Ayers Pear Pyrus Communis



Growth Form

  • grows to a height of up to 30 feet

  • Have upright vertical branches.

  • This tree blooms from early to late spring and has fragrant pink and white flowers. The blooms are partially self-pollinating.

  • Ayer’s pears have smooth flesh and very high sugar content. They should be picked early and allowed to ripen for a few days before eating. The fruits generally ripen from August to September

Habitat: Orchards and landscaping

Uses: The fruit is aromatic and is outstanding for fresh eating. Along with its very sweet and juicy flavor for eating, it is widely used for canning and cooking because of its excellent taste.

Bing Cherry Tree Prunus avium




Growth Form

  • Will grow to a height of 30-35 feet tall, and have a mature spread of about fifteen feet.

  • It produces a very large, delicious cherry that ranges in color from a deep garnet to almost black.

  • The skin is smooth and glossy and the flesh is firm, juicy, and sweet.

  • Simple, alternate, 3"-6" long with small, blunt teeth on the margin, dark green, smooth upper surface, light green lower surface with slight amounts of pubescence or fuzz.

Habitat: Bing cherry is especially sensitive to local site conditions. The best growth is in light, sandy soil that is well drained, but receives adequate rain or irrigation through dry periods.

Uses: Bing cherries are great for cooking as well as out-of-hand eating. The Bing cherry is one of the finest commercial sweet cherries and it is the most famous sweet cherry variety.
Montmorency Cherry Tree Prunus cerasus



Growth Form

  • A small vigorous tree with upright, spreading branches and rounded top.

  • Spring white flowers in clusters of 2–4 on long pedicels are borne on one year old wood as well as spurs.

  • This tree requires moist, well drained soil and has some resistance to drought.

  • Simple, alternate, elliptic with acute tips, smooth and dark green on top, about 3" long with double teeth at margin

Habitat: Montmorency cherry is especially sensitive to local site conditions. The best growth is in light, sandy soil that is well drained, but receives adequate rain or irrigation through dry periods.

Uses: Montmorency cherry is the most popular tart cherry in America. The tastiness of its bright, red cherries in pies and preserves make it a favorite with cooks, while its tolerance for temperature extremes, its production, and the firmness of its fruit are appreciated by farmers and shippers.
McIntosh Apple Tree Malus domestica



Growth Form:

  • Fruit is medium to large and attractively colored. Thin skin. Flesh is sweet with a delicious aroma

  • The tree bears young, annually, and abundantly. Partly self-fertile.

  • Ripens in September. Hardy to zone 4

  • Apples are deciduous and must be pollinated in order to produce fruit. Apple trees should be pruned in summer and winter.

Habitat: Best quality fruit is produced in colder climates. There are varieties of apples suitable for almost all of the climate zones in the United States. They prefer cold winters, moderate summer and high humidity.

Uses: Excellent for fresh eating, good for cooking.
Cortland Apple Tree



Growth Form:

  • Cortland blooms in mid-season and will pollinate all other early blooming apple varieties,

  • Fruit is medium to large and attractively colored. Thin skin. Flesh is sweet with a delicious aroma

  • The tree bears young, annually, and abundantly. Partly self-fertile.

  • Ripens in September. Hardy to zone 4

  • Apples are deciduous and must be pollinated in order to produce fruit. Apple trees should be pruned in summer and winter.

Habitat: Best quality fruit is produced in colder climates. There are varieties of apples suitable for almost all of the climate zones in the United States. They prefer cold winters, moderate summer and high humidity.

Uses: Good for eating fresh and good for cooking


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