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38. All employees to be insured
Subject to the provisions of this Act all employees in factories or establishments to which this Act applies shall be insured in the manner provided by this Act.

39. Contributions
(1) The contribution payable under this Act in respect of an employee shall comprise contribution payable by the employer (hereinafter referred to as the employer's contribution) and contribution payable by the employee (hereinafter referred to as the employee's contribution) and shall be paid to the Corporation.
(2) The contributions shall be paid at such rates as may be prescribed by the Central Government:
Provided that the rates so prescribed shall not be more than the rates which were in force immediately before the commencement of the Employees' State Insurance (Amendment) Act 1989.
(3) The wage period in relation to an employee shall be the unit in respect of which all contributions shall be payable under this Act.
(4) The contributions payable in respect of each wage period shall ordinarily fall due on the last day of the wage period and where an employee is employed for part of the wage period or is employed under two or more employers during the same wage period  the contributions shall fall due on such days as may be specified in the regulations.
(5)(a) If any contribution payable under this Act is not paid by the principal employer on the date on which such contribution has become due he shall be liable to pay simple interest at the rate of twelve per cent per annum or at such higher rate as may be specified in the regulations till the date of its actual payment :
Provided that higher interest specified in the regulation shall not exceed the leading rate of interest charged by any scheduled bank.
(b) Any interest recoverable under clause (a) may be recovered as an arrear of land revenue or under section 45C to section 45-I.
Explanation: In this sub-section scheduled bank means a bank for the time being included in the Second Schedule to the Reserve Bank of India Act 1934 (2 of 1934).

40. Principal employer to pay contributions in the first instance
(1) The principal employer shall pay in respect of every employee whether directly employed by him or by or through an immediate employer both the employer's contribution and the employee's contribution.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other enactment but subject to the provisions of this Act and the regulations if any made thereunder the principal employer shall in the case of an employee directly employed by him (not being an exempted employee) be entitled to recover from the employee the employee's contribution by deduction from his wages and not otherwise:
Provided that no such deduction shall be made from any wages other than such as relate to the period or part of the period in respect of which the contribution is payable or in excess of the sum representing the employee's contribution for the period.
(3) Notwithstanding any contract to the contrary neither the principal employer nor the immediate employer shall be entitled to deduct the employer's contribution from any wages payable to an employee or otherwise to recover it from him.
(4) Any sum deducted by the principal employer from wages under this Act shall be deemed to have been entrusted to him by the employee for the purpose of paying the contribution in respect of which it was deducted.

(5) The principal employer shall bear the expenses of remitting the contributions to the Corporation.

43. Method of payment of contribution
Subject to the provisions of this Act the Corporation may make regulations for any matter relating or incidental to the payment and collection of contributions payable under this Act and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power such regulations may provide for -
(a) the manner and time of payment of contributions;
(b) the payment of contributions by means of adhesive or other stamps affixed to or impressed upon books cards or otherwise and regulating the manner times and conditions in at and under which such stamps are to be affixed or impressed;
(bb) the date by which evidence of contributions having been paid is to be received by the Corporation;
(c) the entry in or upon books or cards of particulars of contributions paid and benefits distributed in the case of the insured persons to whom such books or cards relate; and
(d) the issue sale custody production inspection and delivery of books or cards and the replacement of books or cards which have been lost destroyed or defaced.

44. Employers to furnish returns and maintain registers in certain cases
(1) Every principal and immediate employer shall submit to the Corporation or to such officer of the Corporation as it may direct such returns in such form and containing such particulars relating to persons employed by him or to any factory or establishment in respect of which he is the principal or immediate employer as may be specified in regulations made in this behalf.
(2) Where in respect of any factory or establishment the Corporation has reason to believe that a return should have been submitted under sub-section (1) but has not been so submitted the Corporation may require any person in charge of the factory or establishment to furnish such particulars as it may consider necessary for the purpose of enabling the Corporation to decide whether the factory or establishment is a factory or establishment to which this Act applies.
(3) Every principal and immediate employer shall maintain such registers or records in respect of his factory or establishment as may be required by regulations made in this behalf.

45. Inspectors their functions and duties
(1) The Corporation may appoint such persons as Inspectors as it thinks fit for the purposes of this Act within such local limits as it may assign to them.
(2) Any Inspector appointed by the Corporation under sub-section (1) (hereinafter referred to as Inspector) or other official of the Corporation authorised in this behalf by it may for the purposes of enquiring into the correctness of any of the particulars stated in any return referred to in section 44 or for the purpose of ascertaining whether any of the provisions of this Act has been complied with -
(a) require any principal or immediate employer to furnish to him such information as he may consider necessary for the purposes of this Act; or
(b) at any reasonable time enter any office establishment factory or other premises occupied by such principal or immediate employer and require any person found in charge thereof to produce to such Inspector or other official and allow him to examine such accounts books and other documents relating to the employment of persons and payment of wages or to furnish to him such information as he may consider necessary; or
(c) examine with respect to any matter relevant to the purposes aforesaid the principal or immediate employer his agent or servant or any person found in such factory establishment  office or other premises or any person whom the said Inspector or other official has reasonable cause to believe to be or to have been an employee;
(d) make copies of or take extract from any register account book or other document maintained in such factory establishment office or other premises;
(e) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed.
(3) An Inspector shall exercise such functions and perform such duties as may be authorised by the Corporation or as may be specified in the regulations.

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