by the Month
Copyright © 2001 by Carl Lahser. All rights reserved. If you must copy any part of this work please give the author appropriate credit.
Published by: Pretense Press
6102 Royal Breeze
San Antonio, TX 78239
Other books by the author:
Snapshots of the North
Teacher, Leaves Don’t Change Color
Forty Years of Fishing
Chasing the Enterprise
Searching for the Phantom Crown
Cross-section through a Rainbow
Flowers of the Air
Backdoor to the Yukon
Ecoview 1 - Not Your Usual Neighborhood
Ecoview 2 - Texas
Ecoview 3 - D.C.
Ecoview 4 - St Louis to Minneapolis
Ecoview 5 - Southwest
Ecoview 6 - Green Things
Hey Momma, When we Goin Again
Under the Southern Cross (Under Clouds)
Texas to Alaska
Mr. Cuul in Yucatan
Thinking of Flying
Do Bears do it in the Woods
All titles are available from Pretense Press. Booksellers
are encouraged to write for seller’s information.
Printed in USA.
Of San Antonio
It has been fun and educational writing about the wildflowers in and around San Antonio, Texas, for the year 2003. Now that I am retired with over 40 years in natural resources management writing these monthly articles has provided incentive to get out and about as well as intellectual stimulation. These articles were written for the Bexar County Master Gardeners for publication in the Scion and the San Antonio Gardener.
January and February 2003
I like wildflowers. For years I have looked forward each month to the changing wildflower communities. Many of these are “belly plants”, the little ones you need to get close to the ground to see. Blooming is about a week earlier in Floresville than on the south side. The south side is about a week ahead of the north side and two week ahead of New Braunfels and Bourne. To make it easier on me I will cover the north side from Universal City to the medical center and note anything I see elsewhere. Plants will be identified by both common and scientific names and arranged in family order. You can find pictures of many of these plants using the images option on the Google search engine. The pictures will give you links to other websites and more information on particular plants.
This past January there was little in bloom. Flowering quince (Chaenomeles japonica Lindl.), a small, naturalized shrub, was in bloom in time for Chinese New Year. A few DANDEILIONS (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers), PRICKLY SOWTHISTLE [Sonchus asper (L) Hill], and COMMON SOWTHISTLE (S. oleraceus L.) came into bloom before the freeze. Many species of trees like the ash and pecan were preparing for spring with swelling leaf or flower buds
On the first of February I found ANEMONE (Anemone caroliniana Walt.), CROW POISON [Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Brit.], a few scattered naturalized Iris, CHICKWEED STARWORT [Stellaria media (L.) Vill.], CAROLINA DRABA [Draba reptans Lam. (Fern.)], BUR-CLOVER (Medicago polymorpha L.), EASTERN REDBUD (Cercis canadensis L.), PEAR (Pyrus communis L.), HENBIT DEADNETTLE (Lamium amplexicaule L.), and several scattered perennial ornamental flowers left from last fall in protected locations.
A trip to the SE corner of Loop1604 found several SHEPPARD’S PURSE (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.). A MEXICAN PLUM (Prunus mexicana S. Wats.) was blooming in a fence line. Several ERODIUM or HERON’S BILL [Erodium texanum (Trel.) Heller] were blooming from last fall. One lonesome TEXAS PAINTBRUSH (Castilleja indivisa Engelm) stood out in the roadside grass. Several SOWTHISTLE had been frozen back. BLUEBONNETS (Lupinus sp.) were getting ready to stand up. INDIA MUSTARD [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] and QUEEN ANN’S LACE (Daucas carota L) were several inches out of the ground.
It is still winter in the plant world. The cool wet weather of February and March will produce about a hundred blooming plants, mostly belly plants. Get outdoors and look carefully in the grass. Wildflowers such as several clovers, BLUE-EYED GRASS (Sisyrinchum sp.) and CATCHWEED BEDSTRAW (Galium aparine L.) are up and ready to bloom in March.
Mid-February to Mid-March 2003
Temperatures near 80 followed by 27 are not unusual for the Texas spring. Some plants can tolerate the cold. Some species put up a few plants every few days to work around weather extremes.
Then there is the rain pattern. If it rains in October/November the wild flowers will germinate. A little rain in December/January will make a good wildflower crop but a lot of rain during this period will produce a good grass crop that essentially hides wildflowers.
What is a wildflower anyway? Flowers that grow without human help? Maybe but we plant wildflower seeds. Are they native plants? Should we include naturalized or acclimated? Plants like DANDELIONS (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers) from Europe? We keep introducing new plants (alien species) that grow better (invasive species) accidentally and on purpose.
Plants will be identified by both common and scientific names and arranged in family order. The name in capitol letters is the preferred common name. You can find pictures of many of these plants using the images option on the Google search engine. The pictures will give you links to other websites and more information on particular plants.
Between mid February when the last article was due and 1 March not much new came on line. Most of the previous list was still in bloom. CHRISTMAS MISTLETOEor INJERTO [Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Gray], AGARITO also called ALGERITA or CURRENT of Texas [Mahonia trifoliolata (Moric) Fedde (Berberis trifoliolata Moric.), MESCALBEAN also called FRIJOLITO or MOUNTAIN LAUREL [Sophoro secundiflora (Ort.) DCCC.], and some TEXAS STAR (Lindheimera texana Gray) were blooming. BEDSTRAW and BLUEBONNETS were locally abundant. In the northeast part of town ash, pecan and oak trees set back by the early March freeze were back on schedule. LIVE OAK [Quercus virginiana Mill. (Q. fusiformis Small)] shed its spring quota of leaves. Purple flowered DEER PEA VETCH (Vicia ludiviciana Nutt.) and TEXAS TOADFLAX [Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. var. texana (Scheele) Penn. (L. texana Scheele)] were beginning to put on blooms. Yellow flowers are usually summer flowers but yellow OXALIS (Oxalis dillenii Jacq.), NARROWLEAF GROOMWELL or PUCCOON (Lithospermum incisum Lehm.) and PROSTRATE LAWNFLOWER, Straggler Daisy or hierba del caballo (Calyptocarpus vialis Less) were in bloom.
Out near the Medical Center white or bluish TENPETAL ANEMONE [Anemone berlanderi Pritz (A. heterophylla Nutt., A. decapetala var. heterophylla (Nutt.) Britt.)], orange LINDHEIMER INDIAN PAINTBRUSH [Castilleja purpurea (Nutt.) G. Don var. lindheimeri (Gray) Shinners (C. lindheimer Gray, C. mearnsii Penn., C. williamsii Penn.) was growing in a vacant lot.
Numerous species are up and should be blooming in the next couple months. Then come the little yellow belly plants. My daily walk that used to march along at 2 mph will take 2 hours per mile.
Mid-March to Mid-April 2003
Spring has sprung and the depth of summer can’t be too far behind. The sky turns green through clouds of golden pollen shaken out of the live oak trees. Red oak seedlings four inches tall appear in the yard over night. It is still light after the evening news. But spring will not become official until the mesquite begins to leaf out and Easter has passed.
With the strange weather of the past winter, a lot of summer plants are up and getting ready to bloom. Some plants like the INDIAN PAINTBRUSH did not do well this year but the BLUEBONNETS were spectacular.
Some of you may be interested in Plant names. A plant will have a scientific name consisting of its genus and species recognized world-wide. It may also have one or more common names that are valid in the local area only.
For example, there are six species of the genus Lupinus in Texas and all are locally called bluebonnet. However, the same plants may be called lupines in other parts of the world. To make sure everyone refers to the same plant, the scientific name is used. The authority I use is Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas by Stephen L. Hatch, Kancheepuram N. Ghandi and Larry E. Brown, published as MP-1655 by the Texas A&M Experiment Station in 1990.
The scientific name may seem difficult. As an example AGARITO is also called ALGERITA or CURRENT of TEXAS. Its oldest and official scientific name was Mahonia trifoliolata named by Fedde and published before Moricand called it Berberis trifoliolata. So it is officially Mahonia trifoliolata (Moric) Fedde (Berberis trifoliolata Moric). This is in accordance with the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
Since I am running out of space, I will list the plants spotted recently by common name in family order. The preferred common name is in boldface type. You can find pictures of many of these plants using the “images” option on the Google search engine on your friendly computer and typing in the common or scientific name of the plant you want. The pictures will give you links to other websites and more information on particular plants.
CANADA GARLIC has appeared replacing CROW POISON. SAW GREENBRIAR was in bloom. BLUE-EYED GRASS was common along roadsides. CAROLINA GERANIUM was beginning to bloom. DILLEN’S OXALIS was invading lawns. TEXAS BLUEBONNET has peaked. ALFALFA and SMALL MEDIC were blooming. DEER PEA VETCH was declining.
NARROWLEAF GROOMWELL was still in bloom. MEXICAN EVENING PRIMROSE and SWEET GAURA were starting to bloom. DAKOTA VERBENA and SLENDER VERBENA were appearing in dry open spots. PROSTRATE LAWNFLOWER was taking over in shady areas. TEXAS STAR was declining replaced by ENGELMAN or CUT-LEAF DAISY. MANYSTEM EVAX was beginning to bloom in open spaces.
Mid-April to Mid-May 2003
My wife and I were out of town for a couple weeks and missed the peak blooming period for the spring wildflowers. The wide variety of plant families represented in the bloom has decreased replaced by the hot weather FLYFs (Frustrating Little Yellow Flowers) in abundance. These are mostly in the Composite family.
I noticed on my walks that there must have been a few light showers while we were gone. The oak flowers and spring-drop oak leaves were arranged in little crescent-shaped piles spaced along the roadside and gutters. You see a similar phenomenon with cut grass and trash down a hillside or along a streambed after a rain. Nature is trying to build terraces to slow runoff, increase percolation into the soil and prevent erosion. I must have learned this from the old Soil Conservation Service.
I have noticed GREEN CARPETWEED growing and flowering in cracks in the streets. WHITE PRICKLEPOPPY stands out and above other wildflowers. YELLOW PRICKLEPOPPY or CARDO SANTO is an occasional visitor. The perennial LOW POPPYMALLOW or WINECUP occurs in small colonies in fence lines and along roadsides.
WRIGHT BEAN occurs in fence lines. The yellow blooming RETAMA has been outstanding. LINDHEIMER COPPERLEAF or THREE-SEEDED MERCURY was blooming in shady fence lines. WOOLY CROTON was coming up in Bermuda in full sun. This is also called dove seed for good reason. MAT and PROSTRATE EUPHORBIA are taking over disturbed areas and providing shade for colonies of black native fire ants. PELOTAZO or INDIAN MALLOW and SPREADING SIDA were beginning to bloom.
A few PRICKLY PEARS were still in bloom. Some pink PLAINS GAURA and MEXICAN EVENING PRIMROSE were still blooming but the yellow MISSOURI PRIMROSE was replacing them. ANTELOPEHORN milkweed was mixed in grass in fields and along roads.
WILD CARROT or QUEEN ANNE’S LACE and THREADLEAF MOCK BISHOP’S WEED were going to seed but still in good bloom. GRAY BINDWEED was crawling through the grass. HAIRY PHACELIA has appeared on gravelly hillsides. DAKOTA VERBENA, SLENDER VERAIN and DOORYARD and REDSEED PLANTAIN were common in disturbed areas. Occasional LEMON BEEBALM was still in bloom. SILVER NIGHTSHADE was locally common along clay roadsides.
Indian Blanket was past its prime in NE San Antonio but still blooming to the north and west. A few LONG-HEADED CONE FLOWERS or MEXICAN HAT, TEXAS THISTLE, and CUTLEAF DAISY remain in bloom. STRAGGLER DAISY was forming a carpet of small yellow flowers in the shade. OLD PLAINSMAN stood tall towering over other wildflowers.
Mid-May to Mid-June 2003
Summer has finally arrived. Soil temperatures an inch below the surface rang from about 70° in the shade to 110° in the sun. This added to the air temperature in the afternoon cause grass and many shrubs to wilt regardless of the amount of water applied. Hunting wildflowers gets tough.
Newcomers got an overview of central Texas rain pattern. On 2 June we got one of the famous Texas gully washers. There were tall thunderheads 60,000 feet high on a hot afternoon. Hot and still and so humid the birds were wearing SCUBA gear. It got as dark as dusk and the purple martins started flying. Then the wind hit with gusts of 50-60 mph. The temperature dropped almost 20 degrees. It rained for about ten minutes horizontally but only dropped a half-inch of rain. The streets were curb deep with white foamy water. Ten minutes later the sun was out and the water was gone. Leaves and some branches were all over the yard and street. We could use a little more rain but without the theatrics.
Then, on 3 June in the afternoon, we got 0.2” with lots of lightning and thunder. That night we got an inch with no fanfare.
On 5 June we got over three inches over several hours that flooded low-water crossings and left cans and trash as a high water mark.
Don’t misinterpret when the lawn and weeds suddenly take off when it rains. Yes, the grass and weeds will suddenly stand up, grow up and turn green. Yes, the nitrogen generated by lightning and adsorbed by the rain is beneficial but the fertilizer you put down is exactly the same and much more concentrated. Besides moisture you might observe that the air and soil temperature is cooler for a few days. Warm season grasses do best with air temperature is 80-95 F and soil temperature between 75 and 85 F.
Back to wild flowers. The rain initiated a surge of blooming of white rainlilies. Most are GIANT RAINLILY (Cooperia pedunculata Herb.) and the smaller CEBOLETTA (Cooperia drummondii Herb). If you get lucky you may find the yellow COPPER-LILY [Habranthus tubispathus (L’Her) Traub.].
Individual specimens of cooler season flowers are available but not much new. There are hot dry patches of Silver Nightshade and Texas Nightshade. Most of the grass has gone to seed.
If you get out in the early morning you get to see a primitive joint-stemmed trailing plant with two-petaled blue flower in a boat-shaped spathe called WIDOW’S TEARS or DAYFLOWER. You may also find a cousin the three-petaled lavender SPIDERWORT with erect stems to 3 feet tall. The flowers usually last one day. These are common shade plants.
If you look close you may find pale yellow-green DICHONDRA or PONYFOOT blooms about a quarter inch across hidden in the grass. Dichondra belongs to the morning glory family. In California DICHONDRA is used for lawns and you buy DICHONDRA sod like we buy St Augustine sod.
Mid-June to Mid-July 2003
The rains of early June put us back in spring for some of the wild flowers. My yard in Royal Ridge had about ten inches. ST AUGUSTINEGRASS has spread into some bare spots and is growing like a weed. Flowers like GAILLARDIA and GREENTHREAD have come back into bloom. Pink EVENING PRIMROSE is blooming but the flowers are about half the size of the spring crop. Patches of purple LEMONBALM and SILVER NIGHTSHADE are in flower and seeds of the GREEN and the ORANGE MILKWEEDS are filling the skies.
Individuals and clumps and even whole fields of COMMON SUNFLOWER are in full bloom. They are food for the larvae of the Sunflower Patch butterfly (Chlosyne lacinia). Crowds of young larvae feed on the bottom of the leaves. Older larvae disperse and eat the leaf, stem and even the flower buds. It’s a pest of the growers of sunflower seeds.
Fenceline flowers are abundant. Fenceline vegetation is an important source of wildlife food and habitat. COMMON MULLEIN is a common biennial of the hill country. It is a naturalized alien invasive plant from Asia Minor. SNOW-ON-THE-PRAIRIE, like the earlier blooming BLUE BONNET is an indicator of poor soil. WILD CLEMATIS called TEXAS VIRGINSBOWER or OLD MAN’S BEARD vine covers fences. The flower is inconspicuous but the mature seed is attached to a 2-4 inch silky plume. Grape vines are in full fruit ready for picking in July. PRICKLEYPEAR and PENCIL (CHOLLA) or jumping cactus are coming into fruit. The fruit called a tuna is edible and can be used for jelly. Just watch for the little spines called glochids. CHILLIPIQUIN or BIRD-PEPPER is common since the mocking bird digestive process does a fine job of scarifying the seed. My Father called them Mexican strawberries. A container of the fruit soaked in wine or vinegar makes a hot sauce called pepper wine to spice up a bowl of beans.
After all the yellow flowers an unusual color for summer is shades of purple. Look for the violet colored SKELETONPLANT. It occurs roadside in the hill country. You may find another round purple flower head in your lawns. Kids love the SENSITIVE BRIAR - the leaves fold up when you touch them. On Guam it was called sleeping grass. A close non-sleeping relative is the yellow-flowered YELLOE-PUFF may be there also. Another reddish-purple flower is TRAILING RATANY that looks much like a bunch of little orchids. A family with several summer blooming bluish or purplish flowers is the Gentians. The ROCK CENTAURY or MOUNTAIN PINK, the TEXAS CENTAURY or LADY BIRD’S CENTAURY, and the BLUEBELL GENTIAN all occur in and around San Antonio.
Mid-July to Mid-August 2003
I just returned from my evening walk. Temperature was about 80 with a half moon shining. Nighthawks or goatsuckers made their “whump” sound breaking the sound barrier while consuming several ounces of mosquitoes and other flying insects every night.
The right-of-way was mowed yesterday and fresh beer cans and plastic cups and bottles had already sprouted.
The July rains and cooler temperatures have some of the wild flowers confused. Mixed in with the KING RANCH BLUESTEM and JOJNSONGRASS were scattered patches of INDIAN BLANKET, MEXICAN HAT and GREENTHREAD that should be long gone. A few pink MEXICAN EVENING PRIMROSE blooming along with GAURA. One summer plant was a little yellow EVENINGPRIMROSE with the black center and stigma called Calylophus serrulatus.
On a gravel outcrop was a WILD FOXGLOVE, a yellow and a light orange PRAIRIE PAINTBRUSH, a light orange INDIAN MALLOW and white TEXAS BINDWEED. On this same slope were PURPLE BINDWEED and PURPLE BEAN. Nearby grew a WINECUP and three species of verbena that should have burned up by now.
In the disturbed area near the street were two species of small prostrate Euphorbia and two pigweeds, the GREEN STRIPE AMARANTH and the REDROOT AMARANTH, GREEN MILKWEED, TORREY’S CROTON, and lots of SANDBUR.
Along the fence around our local elementary school playground were SILVER NIGHTSHADE, WHITE ASTER, and lots of sandbur and crabgrass. By the second week of school the SANDBUR will be stomped into the ground and the burs spread far and wide in the pants legs and shoe soles. Before the construction was completed in the early spring of ’02 the contractor planted a beautiful crop of KEMTUCKY BLUEGRASS. This lasted until mid-May when it burned up and the school had to reseed its grounds with COMMON BERMUDAGRASS.
It’s finally getting hot and may hit 100. After mid-August the temperatures will normally have peaked and should begin slowly falling. This does not mean it will get cool anytime soon but for the plants it is important. The cool season fall flowers and vegetables begin to develop. These are plants that like long night and shorter days. Goldenrod, cabbages, football and school starts.
Mid-August to Mid-September 2003
My evening walks that took twenty minutes in winter now take an hour or more. I heard a young Cuckoo calling and looking for a home. A flock of swallows has returned from Canada and are on their way to South America. A neighbor has installed a zeroscape of rock in which I see several fossil sea urchins. Another neighbor has some chert cobbles in his yard. One is broken revealing crinoid stems. Down in the next block I hear a lawnmower sputtering and then the buzz of a leaf blower. I get there in time to see him blowing grass clipping down a storm drain. I wonder if he knows he is taking nutrient away from the lawn and if he has considered why the developer spent money installing storm drains.
Mars and Earth have come the closest together in 60,000 years and my tomato plants died anyway. Time to get the fall crop started.
I just visited a schoolyard in the Southwest part of town and found my old nemesis – Tribulus terrestris commonly called PUNCTURE VINE, BULLHEAD, GOATHEAD, CADILLO or ABROJODE, FLOR AMARILLA. Pinnate leaves and a yellow-orange flower half an inch across, the seed pod has two heavy spines that looks like a miniature bull’s skull with horns. It grows in a circular mat and these mats used to cover the entire school ballfield that was packed like concrete. Long after the mats were removed individual bullheads remained.
Along the back roads are miles of RAGWEED of the genus Ambrosia, and white FALSE RAGWEED (Parthenium hysterophorus) also called Santa Maria and feverfew. Purple blooms of SILVER NIGHTSHADE decorated the edges of the pavement. Mature JOHNSONGRASS wrapped up in purple FIELD BINDWEED hid fences. An abandoned field was producing a bumper crop of SEEPWILLOW (Baccharis salicifolia).
The bright yellow emergent WATER PRIMROSE and a collection of sedges and, sometimes, cattails identified wet spots. There were numerous other aquatic plants but not in bloom.
This cooler temperature and higher rainfall still has plants out of cycle. There is a MAGNOLIA in bloom in the next block. I guess there is no such thing as an average summer.
Mid-September to Mid-November 2003
Some of you may have noticed there was no article in October. This was in part due to my 23-day trip to the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. I was in Halifax a couple days after Hurricane Juan blew through. The trip will be a separate item in the near future. There may be another article on some reasons for the extensive tree damage in Halifax.
Meanwhile back at the ranch there has not been a lot in bloom.
All the summer flowers are gone from my part of town. Many species did not put on a good show with the cooler and wetter summer.
Fall is on the way. There are several nice patches of golden Maximillian Sunflowers (Helianthus maximiliani) to brighten the hills. Stands of Common Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) grow in some boggy fields. Grasses like the King Ranch Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica) and Sideoats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula var. caespitosa) have set seed and look like pink or pale green ocean waves as the wind walks along spreading grass pollen.
Fall leaves should be turning color and SEEP WILLOW (Baccharis salicifolia) fill the ditches. There are already some yellow leaves due to the change in day/night light ratios. The hill country should get its first frost in early November and the red oaks and maples will color up. The leaves in New England were gone in early October this year. They had an early hard frost that caused many of the leaves to turn brown and stick on the trees.
I was cleaning out the gutters and vacuuming up leave for the mulch pile when what to my wondering eyes should appear but BLUEBONNET plants about an inch across. If we have a relatively dry November and December the BLUEBONNETS will outgrow the grass and be outstanding. If there is a wet winter the BLUEBONNETS will still be there but hidden in the taller grass.
Since its fall its time to prune back my ornamentals so they don’t take up so much room. It is also time to try rooting some of the cuttings and otherwise get ready for the winter. The weatherman says this is supposed to be a warmer wetter winter but I quit holding my breath waiting for the weather guessers’ predictions to come true.
Over the next month or so we should see next spring flowers germinating. Go back to last spring’s articles and see what to expect.
Mid-November to Mid-December 2003
Here it is the first of December already and I have been retired almost a year. Like the old frog says, “Times sure fun when you’re having flies.”
You may have noticed there are practically no wild flowers in bloom. There have been several nights of frost. We are short on rainfall for October and November. The days are getting shorter and the nights longer and cooler. There may be some other reasons but these are the major reasons for no or few wildflowers. Walking through some mowed fields kicking clods I see a bumper crop of Evening Primrose, bluebonnets and other spring flowers. The flowers will be impressive with the short rainfall this fall and if we have normal rainfall December to March. Heavy winter rain will cause a good crop of grass that will out grow and hide the flowers.
I guess I could stop now but since the computer is lit up getting my trip report on a recent trip to Cabo San Lucas on the southern tip of Baja California how about discussing what flowers are called in various locations and why there is a scientific name for everything.
A common ornamental in San Antonio is TRUMPETFLOWER (Tecoma stans) or ESPERANZA (Tecoma stans variety angustata). This plant belongs to the Bignonia family along with TRUMPET CREEPER, DESERT WILLOW and CATALPA. Various names include YELLOW TRUMPET BUSH, YELLOW BELLS, YELLOW ELDER, TRUMPETFLOWER, ESPERANZA, PALO DE ARCO, MINONES, TRONADORA, and MINONA. It is a common native in the hills north of Cabo San Lucas where it is called the TRUMPET BUSH, PALO DE ARCO or TRONADORA. Across the Sea of Cortez in Sinaloa it is called GLORIA. There are about 40 other names in various parts of Mexico including Xk’nanlol in Mayan, Guiabiche in the Zapotec language of Oaxaca and Nixtamalxo’chitl in Aztec. There are also many Native American tribal names.
It is called RETAMA in north central Mexico. RETAMA in San Antonio is Parkinsonia aculeate but around Cabo San Lucas Parkinsonia is called RETAMA, JUNCO, JUNCO MAIRNA, and is one of about 30 trees called PALO VERDE because of its green trunk.
I prefer Tecoma stans and Parkinsonia aculeate. Then I know what you are referring to.
Common name Scientific name
AGARITO, alerita, current of Texas Mahonia trifoliolata (Moric) Fedde (Berberis trifoliolata Moric)
ALFALFA, lucerne Medicago sativa L.
ANEMONE Anemone caroliniana Walt.
see Carolina Anemone or Tenpetal Anemone
ANTELOPEHORN Asclepis viridis Walt.
BLACK MEDIC Medicago lupulina L.
BLUEBONNETS Lupinus sp.
see Texas Bluebonnet
BLUEBELL, showy Prairie Gentian Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)
Lira de San Pedro Shinners
BUR-CLOVER Medicago polymorpha L.var vulgaris (Benth.) Shinners (M. hispida Gaertn)
CANADA GARLIC, wild garlic Allium canadense L. var canadense
wild onion (A. acetabulum (Raf.) Shinners)
CAROLINA ANEMONE Anemone caroliniana Walt.
CAROLINA GERANIUM Geranium carolinianum L.
CATCHWEED BEDSTRAW or Galium aparine L.
CEBOLETTA Cooperia drummondii Herb.
CHICKWEED STARWORT or Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
CHILLIPIQUIN or bird-pepper Capsicum annuum L. var, aviculare D’Arcy& Eshbaugh (includes var. minimum
(Mill.)Heiser and var. minus (Fing.)Shinners)
COMMON GOLDENROD Solidago canadensis L. var. gilvo canescens Rybd (S. gilvocanescens (Rybd.) Smyth.)
COMMON RAGWEED or Roman Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
wormwood, short wormwood, altamisa
COMMON SOWTHISTLE Sonchus oleraceus L.
COMMON SUNFLOWER or mirasol Helianthus annuus L.
COPPER-LILY Habranthus tubispathus (L’Her) Traub.
(H. texanus (Herb.)Steud.)
CROW POISON or yellow false garlic Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Brit.
DAKOTA VERAIN or sweetwilliam, Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt.
small-flowered v., common v.,
ragweed v., wild v., western pink v.,
western pink verbena, moradilla
DANDELION, common dandelion Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers)
DEER PEA VETCH Vicia ludiviciana Nutt..
DILLEN’S OXALIS Oxalis dillenii Jacq.
DOORYARD PLANTAIN, common p., Plantago major L.
Whiteman’s foot, broadleaf p., lanten
see REDSEED P.
DRABA Draba reptans Lam. (Fern.)
EASTERN REDBUD Cercis canadensis L. var. canadensis
ENGELMANN or CUT-LEAF DAISY Engelmannia pinnatfida Nutt.ex Nutt.
FIELD Bindweed, common bindweed Convolvulus arvensis L.
FLANNEL MULLEIN, common mullein Verbascum thapsus L.
FLOWERING QUINCE Chaenomeles japonica Lindl.
ROSERING GAILLARDIA , indian Gaillardia pulchella Foug.
blanket, firewheel var. pulchella Gray
GIANT RAINLILY, prairie r., white r. Cooperia pedunculata Herb.
GRAY BINDWEED, Texas Bindweed Convolvulus equitans Bebth
(C. hermanoides Gray, C.
incanus of auth., Not Vahl)
GREEN CARPETWEED, Molluga verticillata L.
GREENSTRIPE Amaranthus acanthochiton (Torr) Sauer (Acanthochiton wrightii Torr)
GREENTHREAD Thelosperma filifolium (Hook)Gray
HENBIT DEADNETTLE Lamium amplexicaule L.
HAIRY PHACELIA Phacelia hirsuta Nutt.
INDIA MUSTARD, Chinese m., leaf m. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
IRIS Iris sp.
INJERTO, Mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Gray
LEMON BEEBALM, lemon-mint, Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex. Lag. horsemint var. citriodora
LINDHEIMER COPPERLEAF Acalypha lindheimeri Muell.Arg.
LINDHEIMER INDIAN PAINTBRUSH Castilleja purpurea (Nutt.) G. Don
Prairie Indian Paintbrush var. lindheimeri (Gray) Shinners
(C. lindheimer Gray, C. mearnsii Penn., C. williamsii Penn.)
LIVE OAK Quercus virginiana Mill.
(Q. fusiformis Small)
LONG-HEADED CONE FLOWER Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Stendl. (R. columaris (Sims) D. Don and var . pulcherrima (DC.) D, Don)
LOW POPPYMALLOW or winecup Callirhoe involucrata (Torr.) Gray
MANYSTEM EVAX Evax verna Raf (E. multicaulis (DC), Filago verna (Raf.)Shinners)
MAT EUPHORBIA, Euphorbia serpens Kunth on H.B.K
hierba de la golondrina [Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth in
MAXIMILLIAN SUNFLOWERS, Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.
MEXICAN PLUM Prunus mexicana S. Wats.
MEXICAN EVENING PRIMROSE Oenothera speciosa Nutt.
Mexican primrose, white e., amapola del campo
MESCALBEAN or mountain laurel Sophora secundiflora (Ort.) DC.
frijolito, Texas mountain laurel
MISSOURI PRIMROSE Oenothera macrocarpa Nutt. In Fras.
(O. missouriensis Sims
var incana Gray)
Oenothera serrulata Nutt.)
NARROWLEAF GROOMWELL Lithospermum incisum Lehm.
OLD PLAINSMAN Hymenopappus scabiosaeus L’Her var. corymbosus (T&G)B Turner (H corymbosus T&G)
PEAR Pyrus communis L.
PELOTAZO, indian mallow Abutilon fruticosum Pen.&Rich (A. incanum (Link)Sweet
PENCIL CACTUS, tesajo, Opuntia leptocaulis DC.
tasajillo, desert Christmas cactus, jumping cactus
PLAINS GAURA Gaura brachypcarpa Small
(G. tripetala Cav. var. coryi Munz)
PUNCTURE VINE, bullhead, goathead, Tribulus terrestris L
caltrop, cadillo, abrojo de flor amarilla
PRAIRE BLUE-EYED GRASS Sisyrinchium campestre Bicnell
PRICKLYPEAR, nopal Opuntia lindheimeri Engelm.
PRICKLEY SOWTHISTLE, Sonchus asper (L) Hill
PROSTRATE EUPHORBIA Euphorbia prostrata Ait. (Chamaesyce prostrata (Ait.) Small)
PROSTRATE LAWNFLOWER, Calyptocarpus vialis Less
Straggler Daisy or hierba del caballo
PURPLE BEAN Phaseolus atropurpureusDC
QUEEN ANN’S LACE, wild carrot Daucas carota L.
RAGWEED PARTHENIUM, false Parthenium hysterophorus L.
ragweed, Santa Maria, feverfew
REDROOT AMARANTHUS, redroot Amaranthus retroflexus L.
pigweed, green amaranth, rough pigweed, quelite
RED MILKWEED Asclepis rubra L.
REDSEED PLANTAIN Plantago rhodosperma Dene
RETAMA, Mexican paloverde, Parkinsonia aculeata L.
ROCK CENTAURY or mountain pink Centaurium beyrichii (T&G) Robins
SAW GREENBRIAR, Chinabriar, Smilax bono-nox L.
bullbriar, zarzaprilla, catbriar
SEEPWILLOW, watermillow, Baccharis salicifolia (R.&P) Pers.
Water-wally, jara (B. glutinosa of C&J )
CATCLAW SENSATIVE BRIAR, Schrankia nuttallii (Brit&Rose) Standl. Catclaw schrankia (S. uncinata of Texas auth., not Wild
SHEPPARD’S PURSE, pickpocket Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic
SILVERLEAF NIGHTSHADE, Solanum elaegnifolium Cav.
white horse nettle, bullnettle, trompillo
SLENDER VERBENA, blue verain, Verbena officinale L. ssp halei (Small)
slender v., candelabra v., V. halei Small)
sanding v., Texas v., Hall’s verbena
SMALL MEDIC, small bur-clover Medicago minima (L.) Bartalina
SNOW-ON-THE-PRAIRE Euphorbia bicolor Englm.&Gray
SOUTHERN THISTLE Cirsium texanum Buckl.
SPREADING SIDA Sida abutifolia Mill. (S. filicaulis T&G)
SWEET GAURA Gaura drummondii (Spach)T&G
(G. odorata Lag.)
TENPETAL ANEMONE Anemone berlanderi Pritz (A. hetero phylla Nutt., A. decapetala
var. heterophylla (Nutt.) Britt.)],
TEXAS BLUEBONNET Lupinus subcarnosus Hook.
TEXAS FILLAGREE or heronbill Erodium texanum Gray
TEXAS or LADY BIRD’S CENTAURY Centaurium texense (Griesb) Fern. (Erythraea texensis Griesb.)
TEXAS PAINTBRUSH Castilleja indivisa Engelm
TEXAS SKELETONPLANT Lygodesmia texana (T.&G.)Greene
(L. aphylla var, texana T.&G.)
TEXAS STAR, yellow texas star Lindheimera texana Gray
TOADFLAX Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. var. texana Scheele) Penn.
(L. texana Scheele)
TEXAS VIRGINSBOWER Clematis drummondii T&G
barbas de chivato
THREADLEAF MOCK BISHOP’S WEED Ptilimnium capillaceaum Michx)Raf
TORREY’S CROTON Croton incanus Kunth in HBK
(C. torreyanus Mue. Arg.)
TRAILING RATANY, krameria Krameria lanceolata Torr.
WHITE PRICKLEPOPPY Argemone albiflora Hornem
ssp texana G. Ownbey
WOOLY CROTON, hogwort Croton capitatus Michx.
WRIGHT BEAN Phaseolus wrightii Gray
YELLOW EVENING PRIMROSE Calylophus serrulatus (Nutt.) Raven (C. australis Towner&Raven, Oenothera serrulata Nutt.)
YELLOW NEPTUNIA Neptunia lutea (Leavenw.) Benth.
YELLOW PRICKLEPOPPY A. mexicana L.
devil’s fig, cardo santo