Tossups by Eric Mukherjee, Auroni Gupta, Ike Jose, Mike Cheyne, Dominic Machado, Jonathan Magin, Chris Chiego 1. One creature possessed by this deity was born after Brahma recited a hymn over the egg that Garuda hatched out of. A son of Ravana managed to bind this figure in a noose and drag him across Lanka. This figure’s servants were created after this figure aborted Diti’s fetus and cut it into several pieces. This figure flooded the village of Govardhan when they refused to worship him at the behest of Krishna. This man employs Visvakarma to build him a palace, and upon him repeatedly asking for more improvements, Vishnu showed him a group of ants that represent his past lives. Agni replaced the (*) testes of this deity with those of a ram after he was cursed by Ahayla. The apsaras dance for him in his home of Svarga, and this owner of the many-headed white elephant Airavata consumed a large amount of Soma in order to destroy the evil dragon Vritra. Vajra is the chief weapon of this figure. For 10 points, name this Hindu god of lightning. ANSWER: Indra 2. A hydroxyl version of this functional group is isomerized in the Payne rearrangement, and aflatoxin damages DNA after one of these moieties is added to it by the P450 system. One method of synthesizing them uses a catalyst with a manganese-III salen-like ligand dissolved with sodium hypochlorite, while another uses DET and titanium isopropoxide. A third method reacts a carbonyl with a sulfonium ylide. They can be opened with a Grignard reagent in an SN2-like reaction or protonated with sulfuric acid and then opened in an SN1-like reaction. Besides the Jacobsen, Sharpless, and Corey-Chaykovsky reactions, this functional group can be created from halohydrins in an intermolecular Williamson synthesis. They have lots of ring strain due to the sixty-degree angle of their bonds. For 10 points, name this functional group, a three-member ring with two carbons and one oxygen.
ANSWER: Epoxides or oxiranes (prompt on ethers)
3. Under the pseudonym Shapayev, this man served in the Spanish Civil War and commanded the Dimitrov Battlion. This leader’s government advocated an economic policy called “self-management” and his rule saw the abolition of visa requirements for foreigners. During World War II, the Allies initially supported his opponents, the Chetniks, but began to provide support to this man’s forces upon learning that the Chetniks had provided support to Germany. This ruler was targeted by an Otto Skornezy assassination operation at the behest of Hitler. This man helped to found a movement whose beliefs were outlined in a 1979 Havana Declaration. That was a result of this man’s refusal to join Warsaw Pact and was called the Non-Aligned Movement. For ten points, name this long time leader of the Yugoslav People’s Army.
ANSWER: Josif Broz Tito
4. Ulric Neisser led a task force studying the controversial claims of this work, subtitling his report “Knowns and Unknowns.” The first appendix in this work is called “Statistics for People Who are Sure They Can’t Learn Statistics,” providing a discussion of the regression analysis on socioeconomic status put forth in its section “Cognitive Classes and Social Behavior.” In a discussion about the “eugenic interlude” after World War II in the United States, this work’s author attack the ideas of James Flynn, suggesting the apparent rise in (*) test scores is ill-defined. Stephen Jay Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man was revised to address the claims of this work as applied to race. For 10 points, identify this book by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray the mass function of the intelligence of the human race may be modeled by the titular shape. ANSWER: The Bell Curve 5. This character was responsible for releasing Black Gaia. He hired the Babylon Rogues in order to obtain a treasure that turned out to be a magic carpet. This man’s grandfather used the DNA of Black Doom to create the ultimate life form. This character’s cousin Maria suffered from Neuro-Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and in a more recent game he is responsible for imprisoning the multi-colored Whisps and building a giant amusement park in orbit. One of his subordinates kidnapped him and transformed into Metal Madness in one entry, and he used the giant (*) laser on the Space Colony ARK to destroy GUN Headquarters. He had previously discovered his grandfather’s creation, Shadow, on board that colony. This builder of the Death Egg once tricked an echidna into fighting his nemesis, who always attemps to stop him from obtaining the Chaos Emeralds. For 10 points, name this enemy of Knuckles, Tails, and Sonic the Hedgehog, a fat mad scientist. ANSWER: Doctor Ivo Robotnik [or Doctor Eggman]
6. One character in this play thinks that a villain is named Deformed and alludes to a “worm-eaten tapestry” in which Hercules’s codpiece is as big as his club. Another character promises to “eat all of his killing,” referring to the casualties inflicted in battle by her eventual lover. That lover muses that instead of the sign “Here is a good horse to hire,” there should be a sign pointing to him as a married man, should marriage come to pass. This play contains a ghost character in the role of Innogen, whose husband hears the fanciful tale of the (*) Watch, who is supervised by Verges. Another character seduces Margaret in the guise of Hero, who is besmirched by the “Bastard Prince” Don John. Leonato governs Messina, whose constables are led by Dogberry in this play that ends with a fickle couple finally confessing their love. For 10 points, identify this Shakespeare play about Beatrice and Benedick.
ANSWER: Much Ado About Nothing 7. One of this man’s works uses the example of the decline of the requirements for knighthood to show how the deontic powers associated with status functions derived from institutional facts has decayed. In addition to his most recent work The Construction of Social Reality, this philosopher criticized a different thinker for his interpretation of Austin’s term the “parasitic” and his own conception of “iterability.” That essay by this thinker, called “Reiterating the Differences” was the subject of Jacques Derrida’s Limited Inc. Another argument by this man, relies on three (*) axioms, two of which are “minds have mental contents” and “syntax by itself is neither constitutive nor sufficient for semantics.” That argument against strong AI is best illustrated by a man who feeds in strips of text to a man with a dictionary in another room. For 10 points, identify this philosopher who formulated the Chinese Room argument. ANSWER: John Searle 8. One poet who wrote in this language described “soul of antiquity/Gone gray with age and rage” and wondered “How lonely what is left to you must be!” Another poet who wrote in this language asked “do you remember/the moments in your mortal life/when beauty still shone in your sidelong, laughing eyes” in one poem and pondered “it was always dear to me, this solitary hill” in another. Another poet wrote about “the day the sun’s rays turned white” as the day he fell in love and wrote about “a rain of bitter tears fall[ing] from my face” because she never reciprocated. “To Sylvia,” and “The Infinite” were written in this language, which was used to write another author’s “Guide to the Holy Land,” “On (*) Famous Men,” a verse epic about Scipio Africanus, and hymns to Laura in his Canzoniere. For 10 points, identify this language that names a particular type of sonnet coined by the author Petrarch.
9. General Assembly Resolution 38/7 opposed this event, which Ronald H Cole published a report about after its occurrence. A report by Ron Dellums about the construction of an airport preceded this event. The proximal cause of this event was the murder of Maurice Bishop, and inefficencies during this military action resulted in the passage of the Goldwater-Nichols act. Public support for this event was partially drudged up by the fact that there was a group of medical students in the target nation. It resulted in the deposition of Hudson Austin, and this action was staunchly opposed by Margaret Thatcher due to the target nation’s status as a member of the British Commonwealth. Officially known as Operation Urgent Fury, for 10 points, name this military action ordered by Ronald Reagan, in which the US military toppled the government of a Caribbean Island.
ANSWER: US Invasion of Grenada (or Operation Urgent Fury before mention)
10. A two stage model for this phenomenon by Daniel Gilbert divides the central process into a “spontaneous dispositional” phase and a “deliberative” phase. The person who first described this phenomenon performed an experiment asking college students to wear a sandwich board advertising “Eat at Joe’s” to discover the closely related false consensus effect. The original experiment that led this phenomenon to be so-named saw general knowledge questions made by question-askers rate their own knowledge against that of the contestant. Coined by (*) Lee Ross, the Jones and Harris experiment elucidating this phenomenon had observers read pro-Castro and anti-Castro essays. For 10 points, name this cognitive bias of assigning shortfalls of human beings to their behavior. ANSWER: Fundamental Attribution Error
11. Twenty-seven of this man’s paintings, including Outing of the Menagerie and Anatomy of Aphrodite, inspired Jason Wright Wingate’s second symphony. He depicted a circular face with lopsided red eyes in his Senecio. One of his works shows a group of yellow and orange arches on a dark background, while another work shows a face underneath three vertical lines and a yellow sun. Another of his works inspired one of the Theses on the Philosophy of History by Walter Benjamin and is entitled (*) Angelus Novus. He showed a black-roofed building under an orange sun in a work of pointillism, and this artist of Viaducts Break Ranks and Death and Fire depicted a story about Anselmus in his Tale A La Hoffman. This painter of Ad Parnassum published a series of notebooks about form and design theory, and another of this artists paintings shows a hand-crank on the right of a group of birds sitting on a perch. For 10 points, name this artist of The Twittering Machine.
ANSWER: Paul Klee 12. This man received six weeks house arrest at West Point after an incident in which whiskey was smuggled into the barracks, an event called the Eggnog Riot. This politician lost a 1851 gubernatorial campaign to his frequent political opponent Henry S. Foote. He gained fame after defending a cavalry assault at the Battle of Buena Vista, an engagement which saw him wounded and carried off by Robert Chilton. While serving in his most notable position, he gave a final proclamation at Danville and was arrested wearing his wife’s overcoat, giving rise to an urban legend that he was wearing a full petticoat. This man married Zachary Taylor’s daughter and served as Franklin Pierce’s Secretary of War. In his most notable post, this politician from Mississippi had such Cabinet Members as Stephen Mallory and Judah Benjamin. For 10 points, name this man who served as the only president of the Confederate States of America.
ANSWER: Jefferson Finis Davis 13. A pair of equations governing these objects has a solution named for Buchdahl. Latimer showed that the equation of state for one form of these objects is soft at low density and stiff at high density. These objects exhibition a phase transition from a spaghetti phase to a Swiss cheese phase when moving towards the core. Gamow and Scheonberg postulated a mechanism by which these stars would emit a neutrino to cool, known as the Urca process. These objects are postulated to have an outer core that consists of a Fermi liquid, while their core composition is unknown. The fact that their crusts are very stiff means that when these objects slow their rotation, the crust quickly adjusts in a starquake. The upper limit of these object’s mass is postulated to be between 1.5 to 2 solar masses, a value known as the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit. They form when the core of a star collapses during a supernova. For 10 points, name these dense stars made of a namesake neutral particle
ANSWER: Neutron Stars 14. One character in this novel imagines that his eye has been gouged out by a carabinieri who had jailed him for violently settling a dispute with a taxi driver and policeman. One quarrel early in this novel occurs at a party and erupts into a duel in which several shots are fired but hit neither Mr. McKisko nor a professional soldier who later leaves Russia after completing a romance. The latter character, Tommy Barban, begins an affair with a woman who was involved incestuously with her father, causing a breakdown that put her in a mental hospital in (*) Zurich. A murder precipitated by composer Abe North ruins the protagonist’s marriage with his first wife, who like his second wife is also named Nicole. This novel opens when the star of Daddy’s Girl, Rosemary Hoyt, meets a psychologist on a beach in Southern France. For 10 points, identify this novel about Dick Diver, written by F. Scott Fitzgerald.
ANSWER: Tender is the Night 15.The X-ray photoelectron spectrum of palladium has two peaks due to this effect. This effect was documented in a Jahn-Teller lattice by Kugel and Khomskii, and increasing the strength of this phenomenon allows intersystem crossing. Two-dimensional semiconductors with high values of this interaction give rise to the quantum spin Hall effect. The Lande interval rule states that if this interaction is weak, the components of this interaction have split energy levels. Its interaction energy is equal to the sum of the energy of Thomas precession and the Larmor energy, and this effect creates a 2J+1 degeneracy. It can be considered an internal version of the Zeeman effect, and can be divided into JJ and Russell-Saunders coupling depending on the size of the atom involved. For 10 points, name this interaction, a coupling between the magnetic field of a nucleus and the spin of an electron circling it.
ANSWER: Spin-orbit coupling or spin-orbit interaction
16. These organisms can express Panton-Valentine leukocidin, which is a beta-pore forming toxin. The SaeRS two-component system regulates the expression of virulence factors in this organism, and the commonly-used immunoglobulin-binding protein Protein A was isolated from this organism. Particular subsets of this organism contain the mec cassette and the vanA gene, which confer resistance to certain antibiotics. This organism, which is catalase positive, coagulate positive, and beta-hemolytic, secretes the TSST-1 superantigenresponsible for toxic shock syndrome. Also the cause of acute endocarditis and impetigo, a subspecies of this bacterium is resistant to methicillin and is rampant in hospitals. For 10 points, name this gram-positive bacterium that grows in grape-like clusters, partly named for its golden color.
ANSWER: Staphylococcus Aureus (Accept S Aureus, Staph Aureus, etc)
17. In the scripture written by this author, he poses the questions “Through whom does the moon wax and wane?” and “Who, by procreation, is the primal father of Truth?” That work by this author identifies this figure as a member of the tribe of Spitāma, his ancestor. A later text reveals that this figure was among eighty priests that were martyred during an attack on the court of Vishtaspa. This figure attempted to establish recognition of the lord of trial by water, Varuna, or Apam Napat, who also upheld the cosmic principal of justice dubbed (*) asha. This figure decried the violence of the worshippers of the Daevas using his authority as zaotar. This author wrote the Gathas in the same language that would later by used by the Zend-Avesta, which proclaims the supremacy of Ahura Mazda. For 10 points, identify this Iranian prophet who founded a dualistic religion. ANSWER: Zoroaster [or Zarathustra]
18. One poet from this country debuted poems like “Sadness” and “Colloque Sentimental” at its Week of Modern Art, wrote a novel about an “emperor of the forest” who seduces Si, and led the “Group of Five” with an unrelated poet with the same surname, Oswald. One novel set in this country is about Galileo Gall, who sexually exploits Jurema, the lover of a narrator known only as The Nearsighted Journalist. That novel was inspired by an account of a civil war in this country known as the Rebellion in the Backlands. One author from this country wrote a novel whose title character’s wife (*) Capitu cheats on him with his best friend, as well as a novel which contains the pickpocket Quincas Borba. The setting of The War of the End of the World, Dom Casmurro, and The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas, for 10 points, identify this country whose Portuguese-language novelists include Machado de Assis.
ANSWER: Federative Republic of Brazil [or República Federativa do Brasil]
19. This man served as Junior Lord of the Treasury and Under-Secretary of the State for the Colonies in Robert Peel’s ministry. This man served twice as Chancellor of the Exchequer and introduced a bill that abolished paper duties, allowing for the cheaper production of newspapers. As prime minister, this man passed the Education Act, which established school boards in Britain and he also supported a law that extended the rights of working-class males living outside the boroughs. After this man’s party fell out of power, he returned to the political forefront with the pamphlet The Bulgarian and the Question of the East, which catalyzedhis Midlothian campaign. This man signed the Kilmainham Treaty with Charles Parnell and championed the Irish Home Rule Bill that was ultimately defeated by the House of Lords. For ten points, name this four-time Prime Minister and staunch rival of Benjamin Disraeli.
ANSWER: William Ewart Gladstone 20. Luigi Nono included many lines of poetry by Friedrich Holderlin in one of these pieces entitled Fragmente-Stille, an Diotima. Schoenberg set Stefan George’s poem “I feel a breeze from another planet” as the text to his second of these pieces, whose movements progress from tonality to atonality. Felix Mendelssohn composed his sixth in F minor in response to the death of his sister Fanny, while Shostakovich considered his eighth, in C minor, to be his suicide note, although it is dedicated to the “victims of fascism and war.” (*) Haydn’s Opus 20 consists of six of them that give each instrument its own voice, laying the groundwork for later ones, such as the three ones in Beethoven’s Opus 59 commissioned by Andreas Razumovsky. For 10 points, name this genre of chamber music played by a cello, a viola, and two violins.
ANSWER: string quartets
An unknown Corinthian sculptor created a depiction of one of these found near the cenotaph of Menocrates. They’re not eagles, but a bridge in Sofia, Bulgaria is named for the fact that two sculptures of them are found on either side of each entrance. The Borobadour complex contains thirty-two depictions of these creatures next to arched gateways, and a monument at Sarnath contained four of them facing away from each other. A sculpture commemorating the Swiss Guards killed during the French revolution was created by Bertel Thorvaldssen in the shape of one of these animals; that example is found in (*) Lucerne. Both Falconet and Pierre Puget sculpted a scene in which one of these creatures attacks a wrestler named Milo of Croton. Edwin Landseer created four bronze ones for Nelson’s column. For 10 points, name these animals, whose skin Heracles is often depicted wearing.
THUNDER 2010: Lightning Bolt Action
Bonuses by Eric Mukherjee, Auroni Gupta, Ike Jose, Mike Cheyne, Dominic Machado, Evan Adams, Chris Chiego 1. Name these books ostensibly about communist politics by communist politicians, for 10 points each.
 Asserting that Crocean idealism eventually degenerates into phenomenalism, this set of works by a founder of the Italian Communist Party redefines the "withering away of the state" as Marx labelled it.
ANSWER: Prison Notebooks  Asserting that "All our literature and art are for the masses of the people," this pocket-sized work by Chairman Mao contains a list of quotations that Communist China should memorize.
ANSWER: Little Red Book  This historical work by Leon Trotsky shows how in his homeland barbarisms like tzar, pogrom and knout have been replaced by better words such as Bolshevik, soviet and piatiletka in its third section The Triumph of the Soviets.
ANSWER: The History of the Russian Revolution 2. A group of figures sit on a semicircular cloud in this work, and it contains depictions of Dante Alighieri, Savonarola, and both Julius II and Sixtus IV. For 10 points each:
 Name this painting, found in the same room as the artist’s The Parnassus and The Cardinal Virtues. It depicts an argument over the doctrine of transubstantiation
ANSWER: La Disputa del Sacramento [or The Disputation of the Sacrament]
 La Disputa is a painting by this Renaissance artist; that work sits across from this painter’s School of Athens in the Stanza della Signatura.
ANSWER: RaphaelSanzio [either is acceptable]
 Raphael painted several of these works, including the Ansidei and Esterhazy ones. One of them depicts a baby holding a small goldfinch in front of the title figure.
ANSWER: Madonnas [accept anything with “Virgin Mary” in it]
3. Answer some things about a certain branch of law, for 10 points each.
 Although they can be either oral or written, these agreements are not enforceable unless they’re supported either by consideration, moral obligation, or promissory estoppel.
 The bargain theory of consideration, which has mostly replaced the benefit-detriment theory, was promulgated by this well-respected justice whose father wrote “The Chambered Nautilus.”
ANSWER: Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
 Codified in some form in every state and at least in Article 2 of the UCC, these laws make certain types of contracts, such as those for a sale of goods over $500 or for marriage, unenforceable unless memorialized in writing.
ANSWER: Statutes of Frauds 4. Identify these novels penned by authors from my sixth-favorite continent, Australia, for 10 points each.
 This novel about a German industrialist who saves several of his Jewish employees from the evil machinations of Amon Goth was written by Thomas Keneally and was made into a movie directed by Steven Spielberg.
ANSWER: Schindler’s Ark [or Schindler’s List]
 Ralph Fiennes also appears in the film version of this novel by Peter Carey, which concerns a wager of the second title character’s entire inheritance that the first title character cannot transport a glass church to the Outback.
ANSWER: Oscar and Lucinda  Besides writing Voss, Patrick White also wrote this novel about Hurtle Duffield, a painter who performs the central action with his eye, as insinuated by his wealthy adopted mother Alfreda Courtney.
ANSWER: The Vivisector 5. With Léon Bakst, this choreographer produced the ballet La Spectre de la Rose. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Russian choreographer who ballet-ized Scheherazade in addition to choreographing Stravinsky’s Firebird and Petrushka.
ANSWER: Mikhail Fokine
 Fokine was once part of this ballet company, which was directed by Sergei Diaghilev.
ANSWER: Ballet Russes  Fokine added elements of ballet this opera for its Paris premiere. This Rimsky-Korsakov opera was based on a poem by Pushkin, which itself was based on Washington Irving’s Tales of the Alhambra.
ANSWER: The Golden Cockerel [or Zolotoy Petushok]
6. Giles Deleuze has examined this concept, which he supposes must not be “the movement of a cycle” for that would give rise to a habit of the cosmos. For 10 points each:
 Identify this idea believed by Hindus and represented by the Ourborous. It is the label given to the idea that the Universe has been constantly forming and reforming.
ANSWER: eternal return [or eternal recurrence]
 This philosopher put forth the question of eternal return and re-popularized its usage in his book of aphorisms The Gay Science, which also contains his quotation that “God is Dead.”
ANSWER: Friedrich Nietzsche  Another aphoristic work by Friedrich Nietzsche is this one of his written shortly after he left teaching at universities. Broken into nine parts of sayings, it ends with the Epode “Among Friends.”
ANSWER: Human, all too Human 7. One central figure in this movement wrote a memorable poem whose speaker suffers for not speaking up when they came for the Communists, trade unionists, and Jews. For 10 points each:
 Identify this movement partly founded by Martin Niemöller and the murdered theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, whose leader Karl Barth wrote the Barmen Declaration, which proclaimed the pro-Nazi state church to be heretical.
ANSWER: Confessing Church  Karl Barth wrote a commentary on this longest Pauline epistle, in which Paul issues a warning to Hypocrites using the phrase ho alazon, which made lots of people falsely think that he was criticizing the hypocrisy of Judaism. It also contains Paul’s statement of sola fide, which uses Abraham as an example of a believerp.
ANSWER: Epistle of Paul to the Romans  A related organization, the German Christian movement, celebrated the 400th anniversary of the posting of these documents in 1917. These documents were apocryphally nailed to the Wittenberg church door to protest Tetzel’s indulgences.
ANSWER: The Ninety-Five Theseson the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences 8. A complex of one gp120 and three gp41 proteins are present on the envelope of this virus, while another of its proteins binds to rev response elements. For 10 points each:
 Name this lentivirus, whose reverse transcriptase enzyme is targeted by AZT. It may also help you to know that it enters T cells by using CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 surface proteins, and it causes AIDS.
ANSWER: HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus  Since translating the HIV genome creates one big polypeptide, HIV also codes for one of these proteins that cuts up that polypeptide into individual, functional proteins.
ANSWER: Protease  The HIV protease and reverse transcriptase are both coded for by this gene, which is present right after the gag gene in the HIV genome.
ASNWER: pol 9. Their utility is limited by their tendency to undergo the Boord olefin synthesis, and their dimerization can be controlled by switching solvents from diethyl ether to THF. For 10 points each:
 Name these magnesium halide reagents which are used to form carbon-carbon bonds when they attack a carbonyl compound. Adding them to nitriles generates an imine.
ANSWER: Grignard reagents
 Reagents containing this metal are often used as a replacement for Grignard reagents. Those reagents can also be added to copper iodide to form Gilman reagents.
ANSWER: Lithium  This functional group, which can be attacked by alkyllithium compounds, consists of a nitrogen atom double bonded to a carbon and single bonded to a hydroxyl group.
ANSWER: Oxime (accept aldoxime or ketoxime)
10. The warrant for the death sentence for the title character in this play is given to Burleigh. For 10 points each:
 Identify this historical play in which Mortimer commits suicide after failing to release the title character, who was imprisoned for the murder of her husband Darnley and for her claim to the throne of England.
ANSWER: Mary Stuart [or Maria Stuart]
 Mary Stuart was written by this German playwright who wrote about a Swiss crossbowman who kills Gessler in William Tell in addition to praising the “daughter of Elysium” in “Ode to Joy.”
ANSWER: Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller  In this Schiller play, Spiegelberg has a falling out with Karl Moor, whose brother Franz appears cold and calculating due to a lack of attention paid to him by his father.
ANSWER: The Robbers [or Die Räuber]
11. The Italian and Amharic versions of this treaty said different things, with the Italian version establishing a protectorate over the nation in question. For 10 points each:
 Name this treaty signed by Pietro Antonelli in 1889. It gave one country Bogos, Serae, and a few other provinces in exchange for monetary aid.
ANSWER: Treaty of Wuchale or Wichale or Ucciale  This emperor signed the treaty of Wuchale with the Italians, and only later realized that the two versions of the treaty said different things. His forces defeated an army lead by Oreste Baratieri at Adowa.
ANSWER: Menilek II  Menilek II was emperor of this African nation, which had earlier seen the turmoil of the Era of the Princes, which was ended by Tewodros II. Later, it was ruled by a communist junta known as the Derg.
ANSWER: Ethiopia 12. Identify these people or plays that won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, for 10 points each.
 Tobias reveals that he once euthanized a cat that stopped liking him in this Edward Albee play, in which Harry and Edna bear a disease of sorts and spend a night in the living room of Agnes and her daughter Julia.
ANSWER: A Delicate Balance  The lines “you can’t eat the orange and throw the peel away - a man is not a piece of fruit” are spoken to Howard in this Arthur Miller play, which ends in a funeral for Willy Loman attended by his two sons Happy and Biff.
ANSWER: Death of a Salesman  Dodge’s murder of an infant occurs offstage in this author’s Pulitzer-winning drama Buried Child. His other works include True West and Fool for Love.
ANSWER: Sam Shepard 13. Answer some questions about the American space race, for 10 points each:
 After those dastardly Soviets sent Yuri Gagarin into space as the first human, the Americans countered by sending this man into space in Freedom 7. He would later become the all important fifth person to walk on the moon, during which he drove a golf ball several miles.
ANSWER: Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr.
 The first mission to land on the moon was this one, which consisted of Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Collins got to stay in the command ship, while Buzz and Neil romped.
ANSWER: Apollo 11 [prompt on Apollo]
 The Apollo 1 accident killed Edward White, Roger B. Chaffee, and this man, who many predicted would be the first man to walk on the moon had he lived. Hilariously, his middle name was Ivan.
ANSWER: Virgil Ivan “Gus” Grissom 14. Some historians of Rome wrote in Greek. Name some of them, for ten points each:
 This native of Chaeronea authored Moralia and On the Malice of Herodotus and wrote about notable Romans like Romulus, Marcus Claudius Marcellus and Fabius Maximus in his Parallel Lives.
ANSWER: Plutarch  This tutor of Scipio Aemilianus authored a now lost biography of Philopoemon. His Histories tell us much of what we know about the First Punic War and the Carthaginian Mercenary Wars.
ANSWER: Polybius  This co-consul with Severus Alexander wrote an 80 volume history of Rome, starting with Aeneas’ arrival in Italy and ending in 229. His work is notable for its mention of Boudicea’s revolt and description of Severan rule.
ANSWER: Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio 15. This character was alluded to in T.S. Eliot’s poem Morning at the Window. For 10 points each:
 Identify this character, who, when sentenced to death at a croquet game, removes his head from his body and later disappears, leaving behind only his devilish grin.
ANSWER: Cheshire Cat  The Cheshire Cat appears in this novel by Lewis Carroll, which begins as a young girl falls down through a rabbit hole.
ANSWER: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland  This character from Alice in Wonderland steals some tarts made by his queen, an action for which he is tried in court. Fortunately for him, a gigantic Alice denounces the trial and everyone attacks her instead.
ANSWER: Knave of Hearts [prompt on Knave]
16. One of these, which governs transitions symmetric centers, is named for Laporte, and in general they can be derived by finding which values of the integral of psi one star times x times psi two are nonzero. For 10 points each
[10 ] Identify these rules from quantum mechanics, which govern which transitions of a system are allowed and forbidden.
ANSWER: Selection Rules
 This man’s Golden rule is useful in calculating the rate of a transition in a quantum system. This Italian physicist was part of the Manhattan project, and he lends his name to particles with half-integer spin.
ANSWER: Enrico Fermi  The selection rule for this system states that its angular momentum quantum number must change by one. This system, which is used to model rotational transitions of diatomic atoms, is two masses connected by a rod.
ANSWER: Rigid Rotor 17. This nephew of Frederick the Great was a lover of the arts and defeated the Russians in a naval battle at Sveskund. For ten points each:
 Name this king, who reinstated an absolute monarchy in his country through the Act of Security of Union. This man reaffirmed the provisions of the Treaty of Abo by signing the Treaty of Varala and he was killed while attending the opera by Jacob Johan Anckarstrom.
ANSWER: Gustav III of Sweden
 Gustav III was the member of the Vasa house, which ruled this country that fought Russia in the Great Northern War. Other famous rulers of this country include Gustavus Adolphus and Charles X.
ANSWER: Sweden  Sweden was a part of this confederation founded by Margaret I in 1397. Later governed by Eric of Pomerania, it was challenged by the Engbrekt revolt and the Jorgen Holmuth-led Stockholm Bloodbath.
ANSWER: Kalmar Union 18. The diffraction patterns for these objects can show peaks corresponding to fivefold symmetry, and icosahedral ones have no period along any dimension. For 10 points each:
 Identify these unusual types of crystals, which are ordered but not periodic.
ANSWER: Quasicrystals  This British mathematician names a type of aperiodic, self-similar tiling of the plane in which the tiles have five-fold symmetry. They include the kite-and-dart tiling and the star-boat-rhombus tiling.
ANSWER: Roger Penrose  Performing this operation on a Penrose tiling creates peaks in a fivefold pattern. This transformation decomposes a wave into it’s parts, and takes functions from the time domain to the frequency doman
ANSWER: Fourier Transform
19. Answer some questions about techniques that may be familiar to players of stringed instruments, for 10 points each.
 This term refers to the technique of plucking a string instead of bowing it.
ANSWER: pizzicato  This technique is known as a bisbigliando when performed on a harp. It is like a trill, and involves rapidly reiterating the same note repeatedly.
ANSWER: tremolo  In this technique, two notes are played simultaneously by depressing two separate strings and bowing simultaneously.
ANSWER: double stop 20. Identify these avatars of Vishnu, for 10 points each.
 This blue-skinned brother of Balarama often frolicked around with a group of milkmaidens called the Gopis, one of whom was his beloved Radha. His conversation with another figure is recorded in the Baghavad Gita.
ANSWER: Krishna  This second avatar of Vishnu was a turtle who supported Mount Mandara during the Churning of the Ocean.
ANSWER: Kurma  This avatar, which takes the form of a half-man half-lion, came to be after Hiranyakashipu smashed a pillar. After killing Hiranyakashipu, his rage could only be calmed by Shiva in the form of Sharabha.
This work’s success led its author to analyze religion in other societies like China and India in his The Religion of China and The Religion of India respectively. For 10 points each:
 Identify this work which discusses how members of the titular faith are more likely to strive towards economic success by applying religious principles to the titular economic system. Talcott Parsons notoriously translated one phrase in this work as the “iron cage of capitalism.”
ANSWER: The Protestant Ethic  This man, whom Karl Mannheim argued that his idea of the"sociology of law" was inspired by, wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
ANSWER: Max Weber  In Politics as a Vocation Max Weber described this entity as the only agent with a legitimate monopoly on force. Herbert Spencer wrote about “Man versus” it.
ANSWER: the state