Restoration Project




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Scarlett Maib

Final


Restoration Project: _____________________________________________________________

1. The restored ecosystem contains a characteristic assemblage of the species that occur in the reference ecosystem and that provide appropriate community structure.

What is the ecosystem type?

What is the characteristic assemblage of plant species? (climax species)

Evergreen



  • Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii)

  • Grand Fir (Abies Grandis)

  • Madrone (Arbutus menziesii)

  • Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana)

  • Pacific Silver Fir (Abies amabilis)

  • Shore Pine (Pinus contorta)

  • Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

  • Western Hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla)

  • Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)

  • Western Yew (Taxus brevifolia)

Deciduous

  • Big-leaf maple (Acer macropyllum)

  • Bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata var. mollis)

  • Black Cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera)

  • Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana)

  • Garry oak (Quercus garryana)

  • Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)

  • Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)

  • Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

  • Red alder (Alnus rubra)

  • Red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)

  • Vine maple (Acer cicinatum)

  • Western flowering dogwood (conrus nutallii)

  • Western larch (Larix occidentalis)

  • Other:

What animal species are likely inhabitants of such a system?

  • Beaver

  • Bear

  • Cougar

  • Deer

  • Elk

  • Rabbit

  • River otter

  • Squirrels

  • Other

What are the major characteristic plant species assemblages of such a reference ecosystem?

Evergreen



  • Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii)

  • Grand Fir (Abies Grandis)

  • Madrone (Arbutus menziesii)

  • Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana)

  • Pacific Silver Fir (Abies amabilis)

  • Shore Pine (Pinus contorta)

  • Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

  • Western Hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla)

  • Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)

  • Western Yew (Taxus brevifolia)

Deciduous

  • Big-leaf maple (Acer macropyllum)

  • Bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata var. mollis)

  • Black Cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera)

  • Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana)

  • Garry oak (Quercus garryana)

  • Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)

  • Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)

  • Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

  • Red alder (Alnus rubra)

  • Red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)

  • Vine maple (Acer cicinatum)

  • Western flowering dogwood (conrus nutallii)

  • Western larch (Larix occidentalis)

  • Other:

2. In general terms, describe what was done in the restoration project:

  • Cleared

  • Planted

  • Weeded

  • Sprayed what kind:

  • Invasives were mowed

  • Live stakes planted

  • Container plants planted

  • Bare-root material was planted in January

  • Mulch

  • Cardboard

  • Landscape fabric was used

  • Invasive trees were girdled

  • Land was contoured

  • Pond was built

  • Stream channel was changed (more sinuous)

  • Gaps were created

  • Trees were snagged

  • Signs were installed

  • Woody debris was placed along river or floor

  • Fences, netting put up to protect plants from grazing

  • Tubes put around base of plants to protect and keep warm

  • Bundle weeds to make a retaining wall

  • Boardwalks built

  • Other:


3. The restored ecosystem consists of indigenous species to the greatest practicable extent. In restored cultural ecosystems, allowances can be made for exotic domesticated species and for non-invasive ruderal and segetal species that presumably co-evolved with them. Ruderals are plants that colonize disturbed sites, whereas segetals typically grow intermixed with crop species.

What native plants were at the pre-restoration site? What planted natives can be identified?



Evergreen

  • Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii)

  • Grand Fir (Abies Grandis)

  • Madrone (Arbutus menziesii)

  • Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana)

  • Pacific Silver Fir (Abies amabilis)

  • Shore Pine (Pinus contorta)

  • Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

  • Western Hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla)

  • Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)

  • Western Yew (Taxus brevifolia)

  • Other:

Deciduous

  • Big-leaf maple (Acer macropyllum)

  • Bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata var. mollis)

  • Black Cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera)

  • Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana)

  • Garry oak (Quercus garryana)

  • Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)

  • Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)

  • Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

  • Red alder (Alnus rubra)

  • Red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)

  • Western flowering dogwood (conrus nutallii)

  • Western larch (Larix occidentalis)

  • Other:

Evergreen shrubs

  • Dull Oregon grape(Mahonia nervosa)

  • Evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum)

  • Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)

  • Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum)

  • Salal (Gaultheria shallon)

  • Snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus)

  • Tall Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifoluim)

  • Other:

Deciduous shrubs

  • Baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa)

  • Black gooseberry (Ribes lacustre)

  • Bog birch (Betula glandulosa)

  • Devil’s club (Oplopanax horridus)

  • Douglas Spirea (Spiraea douglasii)

  • High bush cranberry (vaccinium parvifoluim)

  • Indian plum (Oemleria cerasiformis)

  • Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum)

  • Mock orange (Philadelphus lewisii)

  • Nootka rose (Rosa nutkana)

  • Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor)

  • Pacific Ninebark (Physocarpus capitatus)

  • Pacific Willow (Salix lucida)

  • Red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)

  • Red flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum)

  • Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium)

  • Red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)

  • Sitka-mountain ash (Sorbus sitchensis)

  • Snowberry (symphoricarpos albus)

  • Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)

  • Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia)

  • Subalpine spirea (spirea densiflora)

  • Swamp rose (Rosa pisocarpa)

  • Trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus)

  • Twinberry (Lonicera incolucrata)

  • Vine maple (Acer cicinatum)

  • Other

Herbs

  • Beargrass (Xeropyllum tenax)

  • Bedstraw, Cleavers (Galium aparine)

  • Bog cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus)

  • Broad-leaved cattail (Typha latifolia)

  • Broad-leaved starflower (Trentalis latifolia)

  • Bunchberry (Cornus unalaschkensis)

  • Canada goldenrod (Solidago Canadensis)

  • Coastal strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)

  • Cooley’s hedge nettle (Stachys cooleyae)

  • Cursed buttercup (Ranunculus scelaeratus)

  • Evergreen violet (Viola sempervirens)

  • False lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum dilatatum)

  • Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium)

  • Foamflower (Tiarella trifoliate)

  • Golden-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium californicum)

  • Hooker’s fairybells (Disporum hookeri)

  • Miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata)

  • Pacific water parsley (oenanthe sarmentosa)

  • Silverweed (Potentilla anserine ssp. Pacifica)

  • Skunk cabbage (Lysichiton americanum)

  • Small bedstraw (Galium trifidum)

  • Spanish-clover (Lotus purshiana)

  • Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

  • Twinflower (Linnaea borealis)

  • Wapato (Sagittaria latifolia)

  • Water-parsnip (Sium suave)

  • Western buttercup (Ranunculus occidentalis)

  • Western trillium (Triliium ovatum)

  • Wild strawberry (Fragaria versca)

  • Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

  • Wood sorrel (Oxalis oregano)

  • Other:

Grasses

  • Big leaf sedge (Carex amplifolia)

  • Blue wild-rye (Elymus glaucus)

  • Chamisso’s cotton grass (Eriophorum chamissonis)

  • Creeping spikerush (Eleocharis palustris)

  • Cusick’s sedge (Carex cusickii)

  • Daggerleaf rush (Juncus ensifolius)

  • Fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)

  • Grey sedge (Carex canescens)

  • Meadow barley (Hordeum brachyantherum)

  • Red fescue (Festuca rubra)

  • Reed mannagrass (Glyceria grandis)

  • Sawbeak sedge (Carex stipata)

  • Seacoast bulrush (Scirpus maritimus)

  • Slender rush (Juncus tenuis)

  • Slough sedge (Carex obnupta)

  • Small-flowered bulrush (Scirpus microcarpus)

  • Softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani)

  • Tall mannagrass (Glyceria elata)

  • Tappertip rush (Juncus acuminatus)

  • Thick-head sedge (Carex pachystachya)

  • Other:

Ferns

  • Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

  • Deer fern (Blechnum spicant)

  • Field horsetail (Equisetum arvense)

  • Giant horsetail (Equisetum telmatiea)

  • Lady fern (Athyruim filix-femina)

  • Maidenhair fern (Adiantum aleuticum)

  • Oak fern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris)

  • Spiny wood fern (Dryopteris expansa)

  • Sword fern (Polystichum munitum)

Estimate survival of planted natives.

Estimate cover of native plants, by species.

What invasives are on site?


  • Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franch)

  • Common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

  • Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

  • Dwarf snapdragon (Chaenorhinum)

  • English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

  • Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.)

  • Japanese knotweed (Plygonum cuspidatum)

  • Musk thistle, nodding thistle (Carduus nutans L.)

  • Plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides L.)

  • Purple starthistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)

  • Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea)

  • Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum eleaginfolium)

  • Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparuius)

  • Snake flower, blueweed (Echium vulgare)

  • Spiny cocklebur (Xanbthuim spinosum)

  • Spotted knapweed (Centaurea beibersteinii)

  • Tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)

  • Yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

  • Other:

What has their impact been?

What is percent cover of invasives?

Are invasives increasing, decreasing or stable?

Is there any relationship between environmental factors of the site and the pattern of distribution of native vs. invasive species?

4. All functional groups necessary for the continued development and/or stability of the restored ecosystem are represented or, if they are not, the missing groups have the potential to colonize by natural means.

Keep in mind that seasonal changes in climate and biota may influence the answers to the questions below:

What is the vertical structure and what are canopy conditions?


  • Ground cover

  • Grasses

  • Sedges

  • Shrubs

  • Vines

  • Trees

What is the horizontal structure (distribution of populations of plant species)?

  • Spotty

  • Dense

  • Average

  • Different areas that contain different structures (different plant species on slope than on flat)

What colonization is possible or likely? What factors may restrict colonization (on-site and off-site factors)?

Is the site large or small?

Is the site an element in a fragmented landscape?

What are the ecological characteristics of the surrounding landscape?

Is there a nearby natural community of the type desired as the restoration goal?

How do these structural attributes provide habitat for local native animals? Is there evidence of use by animals?



  • Nests

  • Hives

  • Tracks

  • Sighting

  • Webs

  • Scat

5. The physical environment of the restored ecosystem is capable of sustaining reproducing populations of the species necessary for its continued stability or development along the desired trajectory.

Keep in mind that seasonal changes in climate and biota may influence the answers to the questions below:

Is there soil that is appropriate for the plants in the proposed ecosystem type? Is soil quick (this means it drains quickly)? Is soil compacted?

What percentage of site is sunny? Shady?

What percentage of site is wet? Dry?

Is there evidence that some other soil characteristic could be limiting at the site?



  • Pollutants

  • PH

  • Nutrients

  • Pollutants

  • Anoxia

Is there a slope?

Is there a disturbance regime that might prevent success? What factors (on- and off-site) influence the presence of such a disturbance regime?

Is there a natural disturbance regime (e.g., flooding) associated with the reference system

If site is degraded because of disturbance, what was it like before disturbance? How long did disturbance continue?

What is the annual site moisture fluctuation likely to be?

6. The restored ecosystem apparently functions normally for its ecological stage of development, and signs of dysfunction are absent.

List important ecosystem functions expected in the restoration site (flood attenuation, water quality improvement, habitat, etc.)

Are plants growing? Are root systems well-established? Are plants reproducing successfully on site yet?

Is survival good? What is the mortality rate?

Is litter produced? Are the plants producing shade?

Are weeds being suppressed? If not, are they impacting the growth and spread of the planted species?

Has habitat for animals begun to develop? (invertebrates, fish, birds, mammals)

Were artificial habitat structures or features created? Do they function?



  • Bee boxes

  • Bat boxes

  • Nest boxes

  • Rock piles

  • Crock pots

  • Perches

  • Other:

Is there evidence of trophic web development (invertebrates in wood or soil, fish or birds feeding on them, etc.)?

7. The restored ecosystem is suitably integrated into a larger ecological matrix or landscape, with which it interacts through abiotic and biotic flows and exchanges.

What are the primary and secondary directions of material flow? (Put a p next to the primary and an s next to the secondary)

_ Water (river, creek, etc.)

_ Animals (birds, squirrels, etc.)

_ Wind

_ Other:


What birds, amphibians, invertebrates, mammals or fish have access to, or use, the site?

Is there evidence for the natural re-supply of important structural features (e.g., woody debris)?

Are there corridors or are there adjacent native communities?

Are there water features or is there interaction with water features?



8. Potential threats to the health and integrity of the restored ecosystem from the surrounding landscape have been eliminated or reduced as much as possible.

Back along the pathways of material flow, off-site, what kinds of native or invasive plants or animals exist?

Plants


  • Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franch)

  • Common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

  • Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

  • Dwarf snapdragon (Chaenorhinum)

  • English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

  • Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.)

  • Japanese knotweed (Plygonum cuspidatum)

  • Musk thistle, nodding thistle (Carduus nutans L.)

  • Plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides L.)

  • Purple starthistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)

  • Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea)

  • Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum eleaginfolium)

  • Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparuius)

  • Snake flower, blueweed (Echium vulgare)

  • Spiny cocklebur (Xanbthuim spinosum)

  • Spotted knapweed (Centaurea beibersteinii)

  • Tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)

  • Yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

  • Other:

Animals (fill in only if they are causing problems)

  • Beaver

  • Deer

  • Elk

  • Geese

  • Other:

Identify specific likely entry points or corridors for invasive plants and animals.

Are there off-site threats for flooding or sediment, or any other threats?

  • Wind

  • Heat

  • Predators

  • Pollutants

  • Feral pets

  • People

Is there care taken on-site to make site less receptive to threats? Bad on-site practices are un-vegetated disturbed areas, continuing disturbances, perennial shallow ponds, un-managed invasive populations, etc.

9. The restored ecosystem is sufficiently resilient to endure the normal periodic stress events in the local environment that serve to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem.

Keep in mind the degree of successional development and successional trajectory while answering the questions below:

Are plants established well-enough to be left without regular care? (Are they tall enough, do they cast enough shade, is there canopy closure, are there gaps between plants, is there a multiple-layer canopy?)

Do plants need continued watering? Weeding? Soil amendments?

Are natural processes that perpetuate a system still operative


  • Fire

  • Flooding

  • Grazing

  • Windthrow

  • Other:

Is the restored system mature enough to survive the natural processes, including those mentioned above?

10. The restored ecosystem is self-sustaining to the same degree as its reference ecosystem, and has the potential to persist indefinitely under existing environmental conditions. Nevertheless, aspects of its biodiversity, structure and functioning may change as part of normal ecosystem development, and may fluctuate in response to normal periodic stress and occasional disturbance events of greater consequence. As in any intact ecosystem, the species composition and other attributes of a restored ecosystem may evolve as environmental conditions change.

State or hypothesize the likely goal of the restoration.

Assess the likelihood that the goal can be attained.

What were/are the problems?

Estimate the extent to which the project goals were accomplished.

What is the successional state of the restoration project? Of the target ecosystem?



  • Early successional

  • Mid successional

  • Late successional

  • Climax

How harsh is the environment, or how great are potential fluctuations (floods in riparian zones, droughts in prairies, frost-heave in alpine, etc.)?

Give the restoration project a score:_____________________________________



(Out of 100%. Below 70% is failing)



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