Recommendation itu-r sm. 1538-1 Technical and operating parameters and spectrum requirements for short range radiocommunication devices




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6.2 United States of America (FCC) and Canadian general limits


TABLE 4

General limits for any intentional transmitter


Frequency
(MHz)


Electric field strength
(V/m)


Measurement distance
(m)


0.009-0.490

2 400/f (kHz)

300

0.490-1.705

24 000/f (kHz)

30

1.705-30.0

30

30

30-88

100

3

88-216

150

3

216-960

200

3

Above 960

500

3

Exceptions or exclusions to the general limits are listed in Appendix 2.


6.3 Japan


TABLE 5

Tolerable value of electric field strength 3 m distant from a radio station
emitting extremely low power



Frequency band

Electric field strength
(V/m)


f  322 MHz

500

322 MHz  f  10 GHz

35

10 GHz  f  150 GHz

3.5  f (1), (2)

150 GHz  f

500

(1) f (GHz).

(2) If 3.5  f  500 V/m, the tolerable value is 500 V/m.


6.4 Korea


TABLE 6

Extremely low-power devices (LPD Class 1)
The limit of electric field strength of the LPD Class 1



Frequency band

Electric field strength in 3 m
(V/m)


f  322 MHz

500(1)

322 MHz  f  10 GHz

35

f   10 GHz

3.5  f (2), but not greater than 500

(1) The near field measurement compensation factor 20 log (wavelength/[m]/6) should be applied for the frequency of less than 15 MHz.

(2) Frequency in GHz


7 Antenna requirements


Basically three types of transmitter antennas are used for short-range radiocommunication transmitters:

– integral (no external antenna socket);

– dedicated (type approved with the equipment);

– external (equipment type approved without antenna).

In most cases short-range radiocommunication transmitters are equipped with either integral or dedicated antennas, because changing the antenna on a transmitter can significantly increase, or decrease, the strength of the signal that is ultimately transmitted. Except for some special applications, the RF requirements are not based solely on output power but also take into account the antenna characteristics. Thus, a short-range radiocommunication transmitter that complies with the technical standards with a particular antenna attached could exceed the power limits given if a different antenna is attached. Should this happen a serious interference problem to authorized radiocommunications such as emergency, broadcast and air-traffic control communications could occur.

In order to prevent such interference problems, short-range radiocommunication transmitters shall be designed to ensure that no type of antenna can be used other than one which has been designed and type approved by the manufacturer to show conformity with the appropriate emission level. This means that normally short-range radiocommunication transmitters must have permanently attached, or detachable antennas with a unique connector. A unique connector is one that is not of a standard type found in electronic supply stores or not normally used for RF connection purposes. National administrations may define the term unique connector differently.

It is recognized that suppliers of short-range radiocommunication transmitters often want their customers to be able to replace an antenna in case of breakage. With this in mind, manufacturers are allowed to design transmitters in such a way that the user can replace a broken antenna with an identical one.

8 Administrative requirements

8.1 Certification and verification

8.1.1 CEPT countries


In 1994, the European Radiocommunications Committee (ERC) adopted Recommendation ERC/REC 01-06 “Procedure for mutual recognition of type testing and type approval for radio equipment”. This Recommendation is applicable to all kinds of radio equipment and all international standards adopted within the CEPT/ERC can be used as a basis for conformity assessment. This Recommendation aims at removing the requirement for testing the equipment in every country, but still includes the requirement to apply for conformity assessment in every CEPT country.

Further, ERC has adopted the Decision CEPT/ERC/DEC/(97)10 “Decision on the mutual recognition of conformity assessment procedures including marking of radio equipment and radio terminal equipment”. This Decision (including the Decisions on the adoption of harmonized standards) will set the framework for CEPT wide collaboration in this field.

The purpose of marking equipment is to indicate its conformance to relevant European Commission (EC) Directives, ERC Decisions or Recommendations and national regulations.

In almost 100% of cases, requirements for marking and labelling approved and licensed equipment is set in national law. Most administrations require at least that the logo or name of the approval authority is shown on the label, along with the approval number which may also indicate the year of approval.

Since 8 April 2000 placing on the market, free circulation and putting into service of radio equipment is regulated for European Economic Area (EEA) countries by European Union (EU) legislation, namely by Directive 1999/5/EC on: Radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual recognition of their conformity, the R&TTE Directive.

Apart from EEA countries, candidate EU Member States are also implementing the R&TTE Directive.

The new R&TTE Directive is intended to shorten the time-to-market by placing the development and path to market of radiocommunication and telecommunication equipment on a par with most other forms of electronic equipment. It covers all terminal equipment, and all radio equipment, with the exception of equipment mentioned in Annex 1 of the R&TTE Directive, whether using harmonized or non-harmonized frequency bands. It abolishes the need for national approval regulations for these classes of equipment.

The safeguards for the spectrum are also largely market-determined. It is assumed that manufacturers will not sell products where they cannot be used, and places an obligation on them to inform users about geographical limitations on the use of products. It does allow for some licensing of frequency bands and for some special provisions for marking some classes of equipment. However, in all cases there is a presumption that the product is allowed on to the market and places the burden of proof on any authority trying to stop it coming to the market to prove that it is harmful and therefore not permitted in that country.

All manufacturers must, of course, continue to comply with electrical safety and EMC regulations. They may not make equipment that degrades the service to other users, and radio equipment must make effective use of the spectrum. Optional requirements to ensure disabled people are not hindered from using the equipment, that it does not interfere with emergency or security services equipment, that it has sufficient anti-fraud protection and that it will not invade privacy or infringe data protection regulations may also be enacted, but these require decisions at the Community level.

The underlying philosophy of the Directive is that there should be full market harmonization, and the Community principles of free movement of goods and a minimum of market access controls will be applied. It will be monitored largely through market surveillance, with manufacturers being subject to the normal range of product liability regulations.

The conformity assessment procedures will be extremely simple. A manufacturer’s declaration will be all that is needed, with a modified form (containing some additional radio tests) for radiocommunication equipment. A technical construction file may be made, and this lodged with a notified body who may issue an opinion (though this is not a requirement). The conformity assessment procedures of the EMC and low voltage directives (LVD’s) will apply and should be used for compliance with those.

8.1.2 United States of America (FCC)


A “Part 15” transmitter must be tested and authorized before it may be marketed. There are two ways to obtain authorization: certification and verification.

Certification


The certification procedure requires that tests be performed to measure the levels of radio frequency energy that are radiated by the device into the open air or conducted by the device onto the power lines. A description of the measurement facilities of the laboratory where these tests are performed must be on file with the Commission’s laboratory or must accompany the certification application. After these tests have been performed, a report must be produced showing the test procedure, the test results, and some additional information about the device including design drawings, internal and external photos, expository statement, etc. The specific information that must be included in a certification report is detailed in Part 2 of the FCC Rules and in the rules that govern the equipment.

Verification


The verification procedure requires that tests be performed on the transmitter to be authorized using a laboratory that has calibrated its test site or, if the transmitter is incapable of being tested at a laboratory, at the installation site. These tests measure the levels of radio frequency energy that are radiated by the transmitter into the open air or conducted by the transmitter onto the power lines. After these tests are performed, a report must be produced showing the test procedure, the test results, and some additional information about the transmitter including design drawings. The specific information that must be included in a verification report is detailed in Part 2 of the FCC Rules and the rules governing the device.

Once the report is completed, the manufacturer (or importer for an imported device) is required to keep a copy of it on file as evidence that the transmitter meets the technical standards in Part 15. The manufacturer (importer) must be able to produce this report on short notice should the FCC ever request it.

TABLE 7

Authorization procedures for Part 15 transmitters


Low power transmitter

Authorization procedure

Amplitude modulation (AM) band transmission systems on the campuses of educational institutions

Verification

Cable locating equipment at or below 490 kHz

Verification

Carrier current systems

Verification

Devices, such as a perimeter protection systems, that must be measured at the installation site

Verification of first three installations with resulting data immediately used to obtain certification

Leaky coaxial cable systems

If designed for operation exclusively in the AM broadcast band: verification; otherwise: certification

Tunnel radio systems

Verification

All other Part 15 transmitters

Certification

A detailed description of the certification and verification procedures as well as marking requirements is contained in Appendix 2. Additional guidance on authorization processes for specific low power devices can be found in Part 15 of the FCC rules.


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