6.1- Need for the study: Anogeissus latifolia (combretacea), also known as Dhava is widely distributed in Sub-Himalayan tract, Siwalik hills and in the hills through out India1.
The Anogeissus latifolia leaf contains Ellagic acid, corilagin, chebulic, gallic acid, qunic, shikimic and m-trigallic acid, arabinose, fructose, galactose and rhamnose, (+) leucocyanidin, 3,3’,4-tri-o-methyl flavellagic acid, two new glycoside 3,3’-di-o-methyl ellagic acid-4-β-D-xyloside and 3,3’,4-tri-o-methyl flavellagic acid-4-β-D-glucoside, phenyl alanine were isolated from leaves and bark of Anogeissus latifolia2. From the stem bark 3-β-hydroxy-28-acetyl taraxaren and β-sitosterol was isolated3. The isolation of a gallotannin from this plant is reported4.
Pharmacologically aqueous alcoholic extract of Anogeissus latifolia bark isfound to have antiulcer and antimicrobial activity5. The ethanolic extract of bark shows wound healing6 and antioxidant potential effect7.
Although a lot of work has been carried out on the bark of the plant with respect to pharmacological &phytochemical, very less work has been done on leaf of the plant.
Therefore the aim of the present study is to carry out the pharmacognostical, phytochemical and antioxidant studies of extracts / isolated compound of the leaf of Anogeissus Latifolia.
6.2 – Review of Literature:
Ellagic acid, corilagin, chebulic, gallic, quinic, shikmic and m-trigallic acids, arabinose, fructose, galactose, rhamnose, (+)leucocyanidin, 3,3’,4 tri o-methyl flavellagic acid, two new glycoside 3,3’di o-methyl ellagic acid-4-β-D-xyloside and 3,3’,4 tri o-methyl flavellagic acid, β-D-glucoside, phenylalanine were isolated from leaves and bark of Anogeissus latifolia2.
3-β-hydroxy-28-acetyl taraxaren(1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Anogeissus latifolia and were studied along with methanolic extract for antimicrobial activity by using disc diffusion method against gram positive, gramnegative and fungi. The ethyl acetate and methanol extract showed moderate inhibition of growth of fungal strains3.
The gallotannin of the plant dhava, based on analysis and other degradative studies was found to be octa or nongalloylated glucose4.
Gastroprotective potential of Anogeissus latifoliaextract was studied on aspirin, cold resistant stress, pylorus ligated and ethanol induced ulcer, results have showed for the first time that the ALE possessed gastroprotective activity5.
Wound healing potential for treatment of dermal wounds in rats was studied on excision and incision wound models using ethanolic extract of Anogeissus latifolia bark. The result indicates that Anogeissus latifolia accelerates the wound healing process by decreasing the surface area of the wound and increasing the tensile strength6.
The extract was studied for total antioxidant capacity, hydrogen donating ability, nitric oxide, superoxide scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide decomposition activity along with lipid peroxidation. The result indicates that Anogeissus latifolia extract has potent antioxidant activity7.
6.3 - Objective of the Study:
The objective of the present studies is to collect the drug i.e. (Leaf of Anogeissus latifolia) from Dr. Harish Botanist. Alva’s education foundation (R). Alvo’s Health centre complex Moobdidri and to carry out the pharmacognostical studies, extraction (Maceration / Soxhlet method) and isolation of the phytoconstituents from selected extract, based on phytochemical screening. And further characterization of isolated compounds by spectral analysis(IR and NMR spectroscopy).The different extracts and / or isolated compounds would be studied for in vitro antioxidant activity( By using DPPH and Superoxide radical method).
Materials and Methods:
7.1 a) Source of Data:
Search on Medline and other Journals from The Oxford College of Pharmacy, and RGUHS-Digital library.
b) Place of work: The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore.
7.2 Method of Collection of Data:
Collection - Authenticated samples of leaves of Anogeissus latifoliawill be collected from Dr. Harish Botanist. Alva’s education foundation (R). Alvo’s Health centre complex Moobdidri – 574227. D.K.
Pharmacognostical - T.S, stomatal index, vein islet no., palisade ratio and powder analysis for leaf sample.
Extraction - Extracts of the drugs will be prepared using different solvents by maceration / soxhlet.
Isolation – Isolation of extracted phytoconstituents will be done by using column chromatography / fractionation method.
Identification and characterization - The isolated compounds will be identified using analytical methods like IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Antioxidant activity – The extracts and/or isolated compounds will be studied for antioxidant activity in vitro by DPPH8 /superoxide radical method9.
7.3 - Does the study require any investigations or inventions to be conducted on
patients or other humans or animals?
If so, please describe briefly.
- Not applicable -
7.4 - Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?
- Not applicable -
Khare CP. Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic and Traditional uses, Botany springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2004; 64.
Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ, Joshi A, Prabhune YS, Borkar GB et al. Data base on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda. Central council for research in ayurveda & Siddha New Delhi 2002; vol-1: 127-132.
Mohammad SR, Mohammed ZR, Ahad Uddin ABM, Mohammad AR. Steroid and triterpenoid from Anogeissus latifolia. J Pharm Sci 2007; 6(1):47-50.
Reddy KK, Rajadurai S, Sastry KNS, Nayudamma. Studies on Dhava tannins. The isolation and constitution of a gallotannin from Anogeissus latifolia. Australian journal of chemistry 17 (2):238-245.
Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Singh M, Rao CV, Shirwaikar A, Rawer AKS, et. al. Anti-ulcer and anti-microbial activity of Anogeissus latifolia. J. Ethnopharmacol 2006; 106(1):57-61.
Govindarajan R,Vijayakumar M, Singh M, Rao CV, ShitwaikarA, Mehrotra S, Pushpangadan P. Healing potential of Anogeissus latifolia for dermal wounds in rats. Acta Pharm 2004; 54(4); 331-8.
Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Rao CV, ShitwaikarA, Rawat AK, Mehrotra S, Pushpangadan P. Antioxidant Potential of Anogeissus latifolia. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27(8):1266-9.
Vani T, Rajani M, Sarkar S, Shishoo C. Anti-oxidant properties of the ayurvedic formulation Triphala and its constituents. Int. J. Pharmacog 1997; 35 (5): 313-7.
Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutiase. Improved assays and assays applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 1971; 44: 276-7.