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50.10  Pulsatilla Mill. (1754), Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4, 28. [OR]

Comments: See Anemone above.

50.10.1  Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. (1768), Gard. Dict., ed. 8, no. 4.

B Anemone patens L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 538.


T Herb. Burser IX: 93 (UPS) lectotype, selected by Jonsell & Jarvis (1994, Nord. J. Bot. 14: 160).


(1) There seems to be much confusion and dispute as concerns the Siberian and American representative(s) of the P. patens group. In the current draft version I propose to accept two Siberian and one North American subspecies for the Arctic. The North American and one of the Siberian ones ('multifida') seem to be very close and may well merge into one only. In the Russian draft, two species are reported from the American side (as P. ludoviciana and P. multifida) but Americans accept only one. (Elven)

(2) Subsp. multifida and subsp. hirsutissima should probably be merged. (Rebristaya & Yurtsev)  Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. subsp. multifida (Pritzel) Zamels (1926), Acta Hort. Bot. Univ. Latv. 1: 98.

B Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritzel (1841), Linnaea 15: 581. [or: p. 58 acc. to Hultén 1944]

S P. nuttalliana (DC.) Bercht. & Presl subsp. multifida (Pritzel) Aichele & Schwegler (1957), Feddes Repert. 60, 1-3: 81.

T [Described from Siberia.]

2n= (1) 16 (2x). (2) 32 (4x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list several Russian counts, most of them as arctic. (2) Löve & Löve (1964 Can).



(1) In case you don't have it available, I here cite Hultén (1944: 739): "I can see no essential difference between the Siberian plant and the American and must consequently refer both to the same subspecies [i.e., subsp. multifida]. I find it impossible to regard the different races of A. patens as distinct species as Juzupczuk does in Fl. S.S.S.R. Where they meet, intermediate forms occur and they are clearly geographic races". (Elven)

(2) The tetraploid chromosome number probably belongs to the next subspecies, if they are kept separate. (Elven)  Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. subsp. hirsutissima Zamels ***

S P. hirsutissima (Pursh) Britton, nom. illegit., ***; P. nuttalliana (DC.) Bercht. & Presl subsp. nuttalliana; P. ludoviciana (Nutt.) Heller (1900), nom. illegit., Cat. Enum. Am. Pl., ed. 2, 4.

2n= (1) 16 (2x). (2) 32 (4x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list several American counts, one of them as arctic. (2) See above for the tetraploid count.



(1) We must seriously consider to merge this with the preceding subspecies. (Elven)

WARNING! Will probably be merged with subsp. multifida under the former name.  Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. subsp. angustifolia (Turcz.) Scheutz (1888), K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 22, 10: 74.

B P. angustifolia Turcz. (1840), Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 13: 61.

S P. patens (L.) Mill. subsp. flavescens (Zucc.) Zamels (1926), Acta Hort. Bot. Univ. Latv. 1: 95 [basionym: Anemone flavescens Zucc. (1826), Regensb. Zeitg. 1: 371]; P. flavescens (Zucc.) Juz. in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 296.

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list three non-arctic Russian counts; Chupov (1974 Rs); Lavrenko & Serditov (1986 N Rs).



(1) This plant is here included as another subspecies of P. patens. (Elven)

(2) We would prefer to keep it as species. (Rebristaya)
50.10.2  Pulsatilla dahurica (Fisch. ex DC.) Spreng. (1825), Syst. Veg. 2: 663.

B Anemone dahurica Fisch. ex DC. (1824), Prodr. 1: 17.


2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list three counts, two as arctic.



50.11  Clematis L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 543. [OR]

S Atragene L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 542.


(1) In style with Anemone, a wide generic concept is tentatively applied here, with Atragene included in Clematis. See the arguments for this solution by Pringle (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3). (Elven)

(2) We prefer to recognize Atragene as a genus distinct from Clematis. (Rebristaya)

(3) We will take up and consider the alternatives later, in connection with a general discussion of wide or narrow genera. In this draft I keep Clematis but with all relevant Atragene names included. (Elven)

50.11.1  Clematis sibirica (L.) Mill. (1768), Gard. Dict., ed. 8, no. 12.

B Atragene sibirica L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 543.

S C. alpina (L.) Mill. subsp. sibirica (L.) Kuntze (1885), Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenb. 26: 162; Atragene alpina L. subsp. sibirica (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 512.

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Meurman & Therman (1939); Lavrenko & Serditov (1985, 1986 N Rs).



(1) The prevalent European view is to treat C. sibirica as a subspecies of C. alpina (L.) Mill. (1768), Gard. Dict., ed. 8, no. 9; basionym: Atragene alpina L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 542. I am, however, very open for acceptance of it as a separate species and it has been entered as such here. (Elven)

(2) Atragene speciosa Weinm. might also be a relevant name for consideration. (Rebristaya)

50.12  Oxygraphis Bunge 1836, Verz. Suppl. Fl. Altai 46. [BY]

S Ranunculus L. subg. Oxygraphis (Bunge) L.D. Benson (1940), Amer. J. Bot. 27: 806.


(1) We have to discuss whether Oxygraphis is to be included in a widely defined Ranunculus (as done, e.g., by Flora Europaea 1 and Jalas & Suominen 1989) or kept apart (as proposed by Dave Murray and Russian sources). I am in favour of the latter. (Elven)

50.12.1  Oxygraphis glacialis (Fisch.) Bunge (1836), Verz. Suppl. Fl. Alt. 46.

B Ficaria glacialis Fisch. in DC. (1817), Syst. Nat. 1: 305.

S Ranunculus kamchaticus DC. (1817), Syst. Nat. 1: 302.

T [Described from Siberia: Dahuria.]

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list one North American and several Russian counts, all as arctic.



(1) Hultén (1944) gives the first publication of the Oxygraphis combination as: Bunge (1935), Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pétersb. Divers. Savans 2: 557. (Elven)

50.13  Beckwithia Jepson (1898), Erythea 6: 97. [BY]

S Ranunculus L. (1753), p.p.; Ranunculus L. subg. Crymodes (A. Gray) A. Gray in A. Gray et al. (1895), Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1: 22.

50.13.1  Beckwithia glacialis (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1955), Acta Horti Gothob. 20, 4: 252.

B Ranunculus glacialis L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 553.



(1) There is a Beringian plant besides B. camissonis and in addition to the Atlantic plant. It is currently under publication as another subspecies of B. glacialis. (Murray, Rebristaya & Elven)  Beckwithia glacialis (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve subsp. glacialis

S Ranunculus glacialis L. subsp. glacialis; Ranunculus glacialis L. var. glacialis.

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, some of them as arctic; Küpfer (1974 Eur); Májovský et al. (1976 Eur); Huber (1988 C Eur).


Comments:  Beckwithia glacialis (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve subsp. alaskensis Jurtz., D. Murray & S. Kelso in print.





50.13.2  Beckwithia camissonis (Schltdl.) Tolm. (1971), Fl. Arct. URSS 6: 178

B Ranunculus camissonis Schltdl. (1819), Animadv. Ranunc. 1: 12.

S Ranunculus glacialis L. subsp. camissonis (Schltdl.) Hultén (1944), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 40, 1: 753; Ranunculus glacialis L. var. camissonis (Schltdl.) L.D. Benson (1948), Amer. Midl. Nat. 40: 226; B. glacialis (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve subsp. camissonis (Schltdl.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 512.

T [Described from Russian Far East: Chukotka Peninsula, St. Lawrence Bay.]

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Zhukova (1966); Zhukova et al. (1973).



(1) 'Camissonis' is the original spelling and it is admissible. (Elven)

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