Proportion surveyed for diet




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Appendix A1: Dietary carotenoid content and pigmentation indices for 141 families of birds, including the proportion of each family surveyed and the prevalence of carotenoid pigmentation of plumage and bare parts within each family. Methods used to identify carotenoids are noted: A = assumption based on colour alone or on presence in related families; B = biochemical analysis; N = no colours indicative of carotenoids; O = assumption based on observations of colour changes in wild or captive birds; S = assumption based on presence of feather structures associated with carotenoid pigmentation. Asterisks indicate work conducted by the author. For pigmentation indices: All = all carotenoid-based colours; R = red carotenoids; Y = yellow carotenoids).


Family

# spp.

proportion surveyed for diet

Dietary carotenoid index

proportion surveyed for colour

carotenoid

ident.


method(s)

Plumage

Bare parts

All

R

Y

All

R

Y

Struthionidae

1

1.00

3.71

1.00

O

0

0

0

1

1

0

Rheidae

2

1.00

3.60

1.00

N

0

0

0

0

0

0

Casuariidae

4

1.00

4.51

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.75

0.75

0.25

Apterygidae

3

1.00

4.39

1.00

N

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tinamidae

47

0.53

3.55

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.55

0.21

0.21

Cracidae

50

0.72

4.77

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

0.92

0.24

Megapodiidae

22

0.59

3.77

1.00

O, A

0.05

0.05

0

0.95

0.91

0.91

Phasianidae

175

0.83

3.90

0.99

B, S*

0.11

0.09

0.06

0.90

0.59

0.34

Numididae

6

1.00

4.11

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

0.67

0.33

Odontophoridae

32

0.72

3.39

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.31

0.19

0.06

Anhimidae

3

1.00

3.97

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.67

0.67

0

Anseranatidae

1

1.00

4.00

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

1

0

Dendrocygnidae

9

1.00

3.41

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.33

0.33

0

Anatidae

136

0.93

3.73

1.00

B, S*

0.04

0.02

0.01

0.61

0.32

0.31

Turnicidae

16

0.81

2.86

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.75

0.13

0.56

Indicatoridae

17

1.00

2.93

1.00

S*

0.88

0

0.35

0.59

0.29

0.12

Picidae

214

0.79

3.78

0.99

B, S

0.97

0.92

0.66

0.60

0.03

0.24

Megalaimidae

26

0.58

5.68

1.00

S*

1

0.69

0.73

0.35

0.19

0.12

Lybiidae

42

0.93

5.24

1.00

S*

0.81

0.50

0.64

0.24

0.05

0.21

Ramphastidae

55

0.82

5.22

0.27

B, S*

1

0.78

0.78

0.78

0.56

0.78

Galbulidae

18

0.44

3.78

0.50

S*

0

0

0

0.25

0

0.25

Bucconidae

33

0.33

3.93

0.33

A

0

0

0

0.45

0.27

0.18

Bucerotidae

52

0.88

4.48

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.90

0.69

0.88

Bucorvidae

2

1.00

3.25

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

1

0

Upupidae

2

1.00

3.81

1.00

S*

0

0

0

0

0

0

Phoeniculidae

5

1.00

4.32

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

1

0.2

Rhinopomastidae

3

1.00

4.00

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.33

0.33

0.2

Trogonidae

39

0.82

4.80

0.69

B, O

1

0.8

0.24

0.60

0.16

0.44

Coraciidae

12

0.83

3.76

1.00

S*

0.60

0

0

0.9

0.2

0.4

Brachypteraciidae

5

1.00

3.71

1.00

S*

0.80

0

0

0.4

0.2

0.2

Leptosomidae

1

1.00

3.60

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

1

0

Momotidae

9

0.78

4.26

0.67

A

1

0

0

0.17

0

0.17

Todidae

5

1.00

4.16

1.00

A

1

1

1

1

1

0

Alcedinidae

22

1.00

3.52

1.00

B, S*

0.68

0

0.05

0.91

0.91

0.05

Halcyonidae

56

0.98

3.65

1.00

B, S*

0.52

0.04

0.20

0.59

0.46

0.23

Cerylidae

9

1.00

3.49

1.00

B, S*

0.11

0

0.11

0.33

0

0.33

Meropidae

24

0.96

3.93

1.00

S*

1

0.33

0.67

0.04

0

0.04

Coliidae

6

0.83

5.18

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

1

0.2

Cuculidae

76

0.99

4.11

1.00

A

0.12

0.01

0.03

0.78

0.30

0.49

Centropodidae

28

0.75

3.57

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.11

0

0.11

Coccyzidae

18

1.00

3.85

1.00

A

0

0

0

1

0.56

0.56

Opisthocomidae

1

1.00

5.08

1.00

A

0

0

0

0

0

0

Crotophagidae

4

1.00

3.57

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.25

0

0.25

Neomorphidae

10

0.80

3.71

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.90

0.30

0.70

Apodidae

92

0.71

4.00

1.00

N

0

0

0

0

0

0

Hemiprocnidae

4

1.00

4.00

1.00

N

0

0

0

0

0

0

Trochilidae

328

0.97

2.91

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.36

0.25

0.03

Tytonidae

16

0.69

3.28

1.00

N

0

0

0

0

0

0

Strigidae

189

0.86

3.60

1.00

A

0

0

0

0.65

0.03

0.61
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