Presidency Chart: William Howard Taft 27




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Presidency Chart: William Howard Taft (27th) 1909-1913
The Election of 1908

Taft- Republican = winner 

Bryan- Democratic

Debs- Socialist

Issue: economy




-First president of the “lower 48” 

-NM and AZ admitted


-Retires as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice 

 

Major Events in Taft’s Presidency:

Antitrust Cases – 90 suits


American Tobacco Co. (1911)

  • Supreme Court rules that Tobacco Co. is in violation of Sherman Anti-trust Act retraining trade

Standard Oil (1911)


Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)

  • Lowered tariff on a few items but ultimately raised tariffs overall (special interest legislation )

  • This disappointed the progressives in Taft’s party!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Taft chooses the conservative Republicans & party begins to split!!!

NAACP founded (1909)

  • civil rights organizations

  • The NAACP was founded by a diverse group including W.E.B. Du Bois (African American), Ida Wells-Barnett (African American), Henry Moscowitz (Jewish), Mary White Ovington (White), Oswald Garrison Villard (German-born Caucasian), and William English Walling (White, and son of a former slave owning family) after meeting in Niagra Falls (Niagra Movement) to work on behalf of the rights of minorities including Native Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, as well as Jews.

Conservation:

1. Continuation of TR’s policies

2. United States Bureau of Mines

  • founded in 1910 to deal with a wave of catastrophic mine disasters

  • USBM was the primary agency conducting scientific research and disseminating information on the extraction, processing, use, and conservation of mineral resources.

  • September of 1995, Congress voted to close the Bureau of Mines and to transfer its functions to other Federal agencies

3. Pinchot-Ballinger controversy

Speaker “Uncle Joe” Cannon controversy

  • Conservative HR leader hated by Progressive GOP. Taft gives in to him and angers progressives.

 Mann-Elkins Act (1910)

Dollar Diplomacy

  • puts businesses of America first: “The business of America is business”

  • the term used to describe the efforts of the United States—particularly under President Taft—to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. The term was originally coined by President Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin America went from 'warlike and political' to 'peaceful and economic.'

  • Interventions in Latin America: Nicaragua, Mexico, and Cuba

Split with Teddy Roosevelt

  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff angers Progressive GOP & TR

  • Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy angers TR

  • 1910 = Taft actively campaigns against progressive GOP Congressmen running for election & Democrats win control of HR & Senate

  • TR feels like Taft has joined conservative GOP and he needs to represent Progressive GOP, this he creates new party = Progressive Party (“Bull Moose Party”)

 


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