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Presented by Gordon Duguid, Secretary of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE)
February 17, 2011

Secretariat for Multidimensional Security (SMS)

Secretariat of the

Secretariat of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE)

Presentation to the Committee on Hemispheric Security on

February 17, 2011

(As prepared for delivery.)
Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Members of the Committee on Hemispheric Security,
Thank you for your invitation to address this Committee to present the efforts undertaken by the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security through the Secretariat of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (OAS/SMS/CICTE), in support of the efforts of Member States to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1540, and the initiative of the Committee on Hemispheric Security to promote compliance with it.
Today I would like to highlight the efforts of the OAS, especially of SMS through the CICTE Secretariat, in helping Member States to build national frameworks to implement Resolution 1540 and to prevent non-State actors from acquiring, transporting, manufacturing, possessing, transferring or using chemical, biological and nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, as well as related materials. (That is those covered by relevant multilateral treaties and arrangements which could be used for the design, development, production or use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery.)
The CICTE Secretariat is working towards this goal in partnership and in cooperation with international and regional organizations like the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), the UN 1540 Committee, the UN Counter Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED), the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), CARICOM—and its 1540 Coordinator—, the Central American Integrated System (SICA), as well as with Member States.
As the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy points out, successful, effective and efficient multilateral cooperation can only be achieved through regional and international frameworks that ensure consistency so that efforts are not duplicated, scarce resources do not go to waste, and advancements in one region are not undercut by a lag in another. In the Americas, the regional context and the forum the OAS provides gives Member States an opportunity to discuss and establish programs joint activities, and to exchange model legislation, to develop enforcement mechanisms for Resolution 1540 implementation.
The most common avenue for this type of cooperation is through the CICTE Work Plan. The Member States have issued a mandate to CICTE through General Assembly Resolution 2534 to develop and implement 1540-related capacity building activities. This mandate has been complemented by Member States through the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE), which has included in its Work Plan a mandate to develop a Program to assist in the implementation of Resolution 1540.
Within the OAS, the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security (SMS) and the CICTE Secretariat possess comparative advantages which greatly facilitate their efforts in the area of capacity building for Resolution 1540 implementation.
One advantage is that CICTE has a well-established and proven network of National Points of Contact that not only assists with the planning, coordination and execution of activities but also facilitates a high level of national buy-in based on the confidence that CICTE has built up with its Member States over the years.
Another advantage is that CICTE has developed, since 2002, sound programs that are significantly contributing, by delivering technical assistance and capacity building, to addressing terrorist and security threats that involve chemical, biological or nuclear weapons or materials—namely, projects on Border Controls, Legislative Assistance and Crisis Management Exercises.
Consequently the main mechanisms through which the OAS/GS can cooperate on supporting Member States’ efforts to implement UNSCR 1540, thus preventing terrorists from acquiring, transporting and using CBRN weapons or materials, are:

  1. At the international level, strengthening our collaboration with key actors. As agreed by Member States, regional organizations can serve as conduits for their members to approach their challenges collectively; therefore we must aim at strengthening regional cooperation within the Americas as well as with the United Nations system.

In this regard, I would like to announce the strategic partnership that has been formed between UNODA and the CICTE Secretariat, with the collaboration of the UNSCR 1540 Committee Group of Experts, to implement a technical assistance and capacity building pilot project in the Americas that will contribute to Member States’ efforts in the implementation of UNSCR 1540. The pilot project, which will be focused on the physical protection and accounting of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) related materials, aims at involving beneficiary countries in the design of capacity building activities that will be tailored—and subsequently delivered—in accordance with their priorities.

In addition to this major partnership, the SMS/CICTE Secretariat has also aimed—and will keep on doing so—at strengthening partnerships with other relevant actors such as the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). In this regard, last November the SMS/CICTE Secretariat participated in a Crisis Management Exercise organized by OPCW that took place in Warsaw, Poland.
In the same spirit, the SMS/CICTE Secretariat participated in a G-8 UNSCR 1540 Experts Meeting which was hosted by the government of Canada and was held in Vancouver last September, where one of the main topics discussed was the role of regional organizations like the OAS in Resolution 1540 implementation.

  1. Continuing developing and strengthening regional, sub-regional and national inter-agency cooperation as well developing public private partnerships and including the civil society and NGOs in these efforts. In this regard, last November the SMS/CICTE Secretariat participated in a sub-regional event on UNSCR 1540 implementation that took place in Lima, Peru, under the sponsorship of the Government of the United States of America and the UN 1540 Committee, and with the support of the Office of the OAS Assistant Secretary General.

  1. Continuing the delivery of technical assistance and capacity building projects (please see Annex for details of individual projects) in the following areas:

    1. Border Controls: by assisting Member States to strengthening security measures at borders (i.e. maritime and aviation security, document fraud, immigration and customs), which includes building capacities to detect the illegal smuggling of weapons of mass destruction and related materials, as well as their means of delivery.

    2. Emerging Threats- CBRN related Crisis Management Exercises: by continuing the development of CICTE’s program on Emerging Threats that focuses on incidents related to CBRN materials, with the objective of strengthening Member States’ crisis management and national response plans and capacity; and , increasing awareness among high-level government officials of the nature of a bioterrorism threat and the need for international cooperation to deal with bioterrorism preparedness and response capabilities, as well as to detect biological threats and mitigate their consequences.

    3. Legislative Assistance: by conducting technical assistance missions—which include assisting in the legal implementation of UNSCR 1540, as part of the international legal framework against terrorism—and undertaking capacity building activities such as specialized training courses.

    4. All areas related to UNSCR 1540 implementation and the controls to prevent the proliferation of CBRN weapons and materials—i.e. the new specialized Program that is currently being developed in compliance with the mandate given by the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism to its Secretariat.

In 2011 the CICTE Secretariat will continue providing support to activities organized by its partners and focused on the implementation of UNSCR 1540. As noted earlier, the CICTE Secretariat is planning to implement, jointly with UNODA and the Group of Experts of the UNSCR 1540 Committee, a pilot project to identify specific needs and challenges in regard to physical protection and accounting of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) related materials, to tailor specialized capacity building activities aimed at strengthening Member States preventive framework against the use of CBRN materials by non-State actors.

Also, one of the themes of the CICTE National Points of Contact (NPC) Meeting to be held in March 18, 2011 is “Cooperation on the implementation of the UNSCR 1540” and the Coordinator of the 1540 Committee Group of Experts is the invited speaker to fuel the discussion
In summary, the CICTE Secretariat has a developed expertise in delivering technical assistance and capacity building activities. In 2010 alone CICTE programs has trained more than 3,500 officials and conducted more than 100 activities.

All the activities and approaches to UNSCR 1540 implementation by the OAS, the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security (SMS) and the Secretariat of the Inter American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE) are driven by the conclusion that the capacities required to establish appropriate border controls and law enforcement legal frameworks and procedures to detect, deter, prevent and combat terrorism, organized crime, and related activities are very similar to the effective legal framework and border controls capacities required for developing and maintaining appropriate and effective domestic controls to detect, deter and prevent the illicit acquisition, trafficking, brokering and usage of chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological weapons, their means of delivery and related materials.

This effort also takes into account the similarities, but also encompasses technical expertise on the specificities of CBRN related issues for the health sector, tourist industry, and other key areas of a national society. This is what we call the OAS multidimensional approach to security: identifying and profiting from synergies between different security areas, as well as factoring in their specific requirements, complementing activities and efforts towards a broad approach to security threats, to build sound preventive, reactive and recovery framework while maximizing scarce resources.
This holistic approach needs an inclusive process of dialogue, awareness raising, capacity-building and decision making to maintain and increase the level of commitment and compliance in our societies. SMS and the CICTE Secretariat aim at supporting and encouraging Member States to work together in such an important issue as preventing the association in a single sentence of the words “terrorist attack” and “CBRN weapon or material”.
Regional Organizations’ effectiveness in advancing this objective depends on the particular strengths, presence, political constraints, technical capabilities, and management experience of each one. The OAS has a well established proficiency in these areas to help promote Member States compliance of Resolution 1540. SMS/CICTE is determined to uphold its mandated responsibilities in support of the Committee on Hemispheric Security work, the OAS General Secretariat and Member States efforts in that endeavor.
Thank you.

Presentation to the Committee on Hemispheric Security on

February 17, 2011
Annex to Remarks: Summary of CICTE Activities

Border Controls:
In the area of Border Controls, the CICTE Secretariat has organized and is organizing sub-regional workshops on best practices in maritime and port security.  They cover pertinent topics of Resolution 1540 and include security in the supply chain, risk assessment and management, exchange of information at the sub-regional level, and container inspection. The CICTE has been also conducting Cruise Ship Facility Security Workshops along with experts in this field including Transport Canada, the Canada Border Security Agency (CBSA), the US Coast Guard and private sector. Two sub-regional workshops have taken place just these days in Jamaica (Feb 9-11) and Grenada (this very same week, from Feb 14-16), each one involving participants from the host country and a delegation of four participants from six other Caribbean countries. A third national workshop is planned to be held in Mexico in May 2011, and two sub-regional workshops (for Brazil and Andean region, and Central America and Dominican Republic respectively) are planned for June 2011.
The CICTE Secretariat is also holding workshops to present and explain the use of the Manual of Maritime Security Drills and Exercises for Port Facilities prepared by the Maritime Security Expert Subgroup of the Transportation Working Group of the Asia-Pacific Economic Conference (APEC), carried out under a contract with a private company from Singapore. The next workshop is planned to take place in Colombia in April, pending acceptance from the Colombian government to host the event, and another one has been offered to Chile for the second half of this year.
The CICTE Secretariat also uses private contractors and experts to do security assessments in the region’s ports with subsequent training and skill-building to mitigate vulnerabilities found in areas such as: maritime dominion, access controls, passenger and cargo security procedures, customs controls, container inspection (including nonintrusive X-ray inspection), contingency planning and emergency preparations, incident command system, crisis management, etc. We are actually carrying out this type of project in ports in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, and we will execute similar projects in 2011 for ports in Barbados, Panama, Colombia, Mexico, Costa Rica and El Salvador.
Under the Customs Controls program, the CICTE Secretariat is conducting national workshops on immigration and customs controls, in conjunction with the Executive Secretariat of the Inter American Drug Abuse Commission (CICAD) and the Department of Public Security (DPS) to strengthen law enforcement and customs capacities and procedures for detecting and preventing criminal activity to more effectively combat drug, human and other forms of illicit trafficking; to improve their controls over the movement of people and goods through the country’s airports and land border crossings, and therefore to prevent cross-border movement of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents (CBRN) that can be used for illegal and/or terrorist activities. In 2010, three workshops pertaining to this program took place: in the Dominican Republic (April 12-16), in Trinidad and Tobago (October 11-15), and the in Belize (December 15-17). In 2011, one has already been held in Costa Rica (January 17-20), and four more are scheduled; one in Jamaica (February 28-March 4), and three tentatively planned in Saint Lucia (May 23-27), Guatemala (July 11-15) and Colombia (August 1-5).
In 2010, under the Aviation Security Program, CICTE strengthened Member States capacities in passenger and baggage inspection techniques, risk management in all main areas of airport security, cargo security and crisis management to design and strengthen contingency plans and exercises, and instructor skills to be able to deliver national aviation security courses within the respective Member States. The training received was based on the standards and recommended practices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and facilitated by experts from the U.S. Transportation Security Administration. This training was implemented through 9 national courses and 6 sub regional courses which also allowed for the exchange of best practices in the specific sub regions. Also, 60 scholarships were issued to Member States to attend 8 courses led by the ICAO in drafting National Aviation Security Training Programs, Quality Control Programs, and providing inputs to cargo and mail security.
The CICTE Secretariat will continue to provide similar Aviation Security related training in 2011. Additionally, the Secretariat has initiated the contracting of the expertise of new training providers such as the Canada Border Control Services Agency (CBSA) and the Israeli Government to deliver specialized training within Central America and the Caribbean. CBSA will provide assessments of border control operations of all Central American airports and will subsequently conduct specialized training in air cargo interdiction in each respective country. Central American Member States are also expected to receive training in passenger interdiction methods and techniques on a sub-regional level in order to initiate exchange between countries in the region on their practices in this area. Israel’s experts will conduct a comprehensive needs assessment of a major international airport in Central America as well as one in the Caribbean. According to the results of this assessment, training will be developed to meet the needs of the respective airports in developing, improving, and operating their civil aviation security infrastructure, standards, procedures, policies, training and equipment.
Emerging Threats- CBRN related Crisis Management Exercises
In November 2009 and March 2010, in Cancun, Mexico, and in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago respectively, the CICTE Secretariat executed table top simulation exercises (TTX) of a bioterrorist attack on an international airport. In Mexico, 115 public officials participated in total, 80 nationals and 35 representatives from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama and Dominican Republic. In Trinidad and Tobago 98 public officials participated in total, 44 nationals and 54 representatives from Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Suriname.
Approximately 5 months after each exercise was completed, a follow-up was performed to ascertain if the TTX achieved their objectives. Based on the results of the follow-up evaluation, the CICTE Secretariat will conduct a technical assistance mission and workshop in Mexico and Trinidad and Tobago in February 23-25 and March 22-24, 2011, respectively, tailored to the specific needs of each country in order to specifically address the vulnerabilities and challenges identified, and effectively build capacity in those vulnerable areas.
Legislative Assistance:
The joint program of the CICTE Secretariat and UNODC on legislative assistance encourages member states to ratify the principal instruments against terrorist acts, and important United Nations resolutions such as 1540, and to adopt execution mechanisms that effectively address proliferation and other activities that stimulate terrorism. The three main UN Security Council resolutions against terrorism, 1267, 1373, and 1540, are a coherent body of law and are analyzed and promoted as such.


On November 24-26, 2010, UNODC and the CICTE Secretariat jointly implemented a specialized workshop for 15 Caribbean countries on the international legal instruments against terrorism dealing with CBRN related issues. Additionally, other specialized workshops that included sessions on UNSCR 1540 and its implementation were held in Bahamas (sub-regional), Colombia, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis (sub-regional), and Trinidad and Tobago. These sessions will be replicated in other activities planned for 2011 in Costa Rica, Colombia (sub-regional), Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica (sub-regional), and Mexico (sub-regional).  

International Cooperation
Also SMS and its CICTE Secretariat have been collaborating with several international, regional, and sub-regional entities that are working for compliance with Resolution 1540. Some of the main activities recently undertaken include:  


  • February, 2010 – The Committee on Hemispheric Security of the Permanent Council of the OAS held a hearing on support for Resolution 1540 at the hemispheric level.

  • May, 2010 – The Stimson Center and the Stanley Foundation, in collaboration with the Office of the Assistant Secretary General of the OAS and the Secretariat General of SICA, convened a workshop in Panama City, Panama for SICA Member States on implementation of Resolution 1540. The workshop identified convergences between defined in-country needs related to drug trafficking, small arms and light weapons smuggling, and youth gangs, and paired those needs with novel streams of assistance available under UN Security Council Resolution 1540.

  • September and November 2010 - The CICTE Secretariat has developed good working channels of communication with the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), through its Office of Special Projects. This partnership was strengthened with a September 2010 high-level visit of CICTE’s Executive Secretary to the OPCW Headquarters in The Hague, The Netherlands. As a follow-up to this visit, the CICTE Secretariat was invited to participate in a Table-top Crisis Management Exercise--with a scenario consisting on an attack with chemical weapons--that OPCW held in Warsaw, Poland in November.


  • November 2010 - the CICTE Secretariat participated in a Regional Facilitation Event to Support the Implementation of UNSCR 1540, organized by the United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) with the financial support of the United States Government, which was held in Lima, Peru.


  • December 2010 - the CICTE Secretariat was invited to participate in a workshop organized by UNODA and the UNSCR 1540 Committee in Vienna, Austria. The workshop brought together international, regional and sub-regional organizations mandated to work in the implementation of UNSCR 1540, with the objective of finding synergies and ways of strengthening cooperation.

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