Prepared by: Shazia Ferdous and 8th Grade students




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Prepared by: Shazia Ferdous and 8th Grade students

Teacher: Shazia Ferdous and her students from Pakistan in cooperation with the Teacher and students of Romania and South Africa

Content:

Topics: page

  1. Travel Guide of

  1. Pakistan.......................................3-15

  2. Romania……………………………16-22

  3. South Africa……………………….23



  1. Travel Itinerary of



  1. Pakistan …………………………..1-4

  2. Romania…………………………...5

  3. South Africa……………………...6

3) Names of schools, teachers and students



Introduction:

Assalam o Alaikum is the Pakistani welcome greeting and as a prologue we welcome all our friends from overseas to our great country Pakistan.

Visitors would love to see Pakistan and meet Pakistani people. To make out the best from the tour, the foreign visitors shall find the geographical introduction very useful and help in enjoying the tour.

God in his bounty has blessed Pakistan with great physical and human resources and charms. It is the land of mighty mountains, murmuring and gurgling rivers, sparkling springs, deep and dense forests, lush green fields, meadows, and rugged high lands and parch low lands. Pakistan is famous for her folk lore, folk dances and songs. You can hear and see them on the national network of television. But you can find and discover the best on your tour.

An itinerary of tour must include a visit to the various historical places and attractive, unforgettable scenic spots and picnic points worth seeing and fit ever to ruminate and remind:

“They flash upon the inward eye which is the bliss of solitude”? (Wordsworth.)

.


  • Overview


Learn about Pakistan’s geography, history, people, culture, cuisine, festivals and holidays.



  • Exploring

Explore different places of Pakistan

        • Travel info

All the essentials you need to spend a perfect holiday

Before describing the beautiful spots and historical places in Pakistan it is in fitness of things to introduce the land





The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is situated between 23.30 and 36.45 East latitudes and between 61 and 75.31 North longitudes, sharing borders with China in the north, Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and Arabian Sea in the south. Pakistan covers an area of 805,000 sq km and has a population of about 163 millions. It comprises of four provinces: The Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province and Balochistan. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.





History makes man wise”

Pakistan is proud of her great and glorious historical past. The land had been the cradle of the oldest civilization in the world. Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa have been the centers of ancient civilizations (5000 years old). The tourists will be impressed by the ruins and relics treasured by Pakistan near Quetta. The new remains unearthed Archeological Department, are over 8000 years old and of great academic interest for the scholars. The Shah Jahan Mosque at Thatta, the ancient capital of Sindh, Bambore at a distance of about twenty miles from Karachi offer a good insight into ancient mosaic art and history respectively. On the way to Thatta is the biggest grave yard of world having some majestic graves of carved red stones that repeat the tale. “The paths of glory but all lead to grave”







The Pakistanis are simple, hospitable, loving and traditional

People. The dawn of modernity has made the educated Pakistanis very broad minded, enlightened and socially compatible. As guests, the visitors shall be welcomed and meet with warm affection wherever they go and will not fail to appreciate typical oriental hospitability and unreservedness. Urdu is national language of the country but English is understand and spoken by the educated Pakistanis.





Having inherited the culinary traditions of the Moguls, the Turks, the Central Asians and the Iranians, food in Pakistan is a rich and unique experience. Meat, fish and vegetable dishes are seasoned with spices. Particularly palatable are grills and barbecues, Seekh Kebab (minced meat grilled on skewer), Shami Kebab (minched meat), Tikka (barbecued mutton, beef or chicken) and Sajji (barbecued leg of lamb). Pakistani mutton and chicken curries and the oriental rice dish called, Pulao, are also popular with natives and foreigners alike and is used both as everyday and ceremonial food.

The everyday food includes daal (lentils),sabzi (vegetables)

And dahi (yogurt), and scooped up with roti or chapattis or nan (various type of breads usually made with wheat flour). Though spices are commonly used in Pakistani food yet it is not as hot with chilies as Indian dishes. Besides local food, Chinese and European dishes are also consumed in the major cities of Pakistan. Black tea with milk & Green tea are the staple drinks of Pakistan and Chai- Khanas (tea houses) can be found everywhere in Pakistan.





Pakistan is a multicultural country. Besides the religious festivals, there are many other cultural and festive events taking place all around the year in Pakistan.These events include exhibitions, festivals and local events. Here’s a list of festivals and events happening in Pakistan;



1: Eid- ul-Fitar:

Eid-ul-fitr is the biggest Muslim festival celebrated all over Pakistan. It is celebrated after one month of fasting during the month of Ramadan. Celebrated on the 1st of Shawwal, the 10th month of Islamic Calendar, The Eid day starts with the special Eid prayers. People exchange gifts and sweet with each other and alms to the poor and the needy.



2: Eid-ul-Azha:

Eid-ul-Azha is also another massive religious festival commemorating the great sacrifice offered by Prophet Ibrahim. It is celebrated on the 10th of Zilhaj, the 12th month in the Islamic Calendar. Collective prayers are offered after sunset and the sacrifice of goats, sheep, cows or camels is made and the meat is distributed among relatives, friends and poor.



3: Shab-e-Barat:

Shab-e-Barat is a religious festival celebrated on 14th of Shaaban, the 8th Islamic month. The day is celebrated with special Prayers and exchange of sweet dishes.



4: 23rd March- Pakistan Day:

Pakistan Day commemorates the anniversary of Pakistan’s Resolution, passed on March 23, 1940. Military parade is held at Lahore Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi. Its main feature however remains the grand parade at Islamabad.



5: Mela Chiraghan (Festival of lamps)

Mela Chiraghan is held for one week outside the Shalimar Garden in Lahore. It marks the birth day of the famous Sufi Port Shah Hussain. The festival is celebrated on the last week of March



6: Horse & Cattle Show:

Celebrated at Dera Ismail Khan (DIK), the festival includes local games, folk dances, music, cattles races and exhibition of local handicrafts. The Festival takes place at the end of March till 1st week of April.



7: Eid-e-Miland-un-Nabi:

The Birthday of Prophet Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) on 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal - the 3rd of month of Islamic Calendar. It is a very mellow festival and celebrated with humbleness.



8: Ashura:

The Two days mourning on the death anniversary of Imam Hussain, the grandson of Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) on 9th and 10th of Moharram, the first month of Islamic Calendar. The event is marked by Processions, rallies and meeting.



9: Independence Day: The National day of Pakistan is the Independence Day, celebrated every year on the 14th of August. The day is celebrated with various processions, rallies, decorations and lightings, debating contests and 14 August illustrations all over the country.

10: Defense Day:

Marking the great defense Pakistan held against India in the war of 1965, the Defense Day is celebrated on the 6th of September includes Parades and exhibitions of military equipment at Rawalpindi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi.



11: Airforce Day:

The Airforce day highlights the contributions, the strength and the bravery of the Air Force of Pakistan. Celebrated on 7th September many displays of latest aircrafts of Pakistan Airforce are displayed for the public eye. The air shows at Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta is another attractive highlight of the day.



12: Death Anniversary of Quaid-eAzam:

Marked as an official holiday, 11th September is celebrated as the death anniversary of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the father of the nation.



13: Lok mela:

Lok Mela is a famous folk festival held at Islamabad. Folk Music, songs music contests, folk dances, craftsmen at work, exhibition and sale of handicrafts are the highlights of the events. The festival presents a unique opportunity to watch the culture and craft of the whole country at one place. It is celebrated during the 1st week of October.



14: Birthday of Allama Iqbal:

9th November is celebrated as the birthday of the National Poet of Pakistan Dr. M. Allama Iqbal. The event is celebrated with a lot of debating and poetry contests held at different institutes all over Pakistan.



15: National Horse & Cattle Show Lahore:

Held at the Fortress Stadium Lahore, the Horse and Cattle show is a famous event in Lahore. The event’s highlights include Cattle races, cattle dances, tent-pegging, tattoo show, folk music, dances, bands, cultural floats and folk games. It takes place on the 3rd week of November for 15 days.



16: Christmas and Birthday of Quaid-e-Azam:

Celebrated on the same date of the year, the Christmas and the birthday of the founder of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam are two famous events in Pakistan, celebrated by the Christian minority and the whole nation.



Make the best out of your tour by visiting North West Frontier Province the bullet arm of India of British days and the area of the most beautiful and enchanting natural scenes and sights a panorama of scenic charms.



Your visit to the Khyber Pass on the great pass will tell you about the story of the inroads of the ambitious and haughty conquerors of India and the great races inhibiting the country.

For the nature lovers Pakistan’s Northern areas present a mighty feast and variety to the tourists eyes and adventures for the natural scientists and daring mountaineers. The changing terrain and the topography, the snow covered peaks and the gorges , mountains and valleys, table lands and terraces, rough and rugged tracks, the winding and narrow routes along the Malakand hills, the cataracts and the canyons, the riotous rivers, the thirst quenching springs, the brakes and the bushes, the essential like trees, chunar and poplar intermixed with fruits , orchids and well demarcated fields, will capture your imagination and make you click your cameras.

Tourists buses, private buses and jeeps will take you to Swat – the land of shy damsels. The scenic beauty is simply enchanting`.

The torrential Swat river gathering speed and volume from inflowing streams, cascading water falls and melting glaciers will remind you of Tennyson’s famous lines:

“For man may come and man may go,

but I go one forever!”

Swat is tourists paradise. You can stay in motels or firstclass hotels at Mangora and Murgzar. K alam, Madyan, Behreen attract a large number of tourists. If you want to enjoy peaceful

Or drowsy atmosphere, take detour towards Myandum and stay at first class tourists rest house. If you do not feel satiety travel further north to the state of Dir and Chitral for greater variety.

For the holders of the world tourists visa there are unending charms and sources of diversion for the tourists. Call at the Pakistan tourists Centre at Abbotabad for your next leg of journey for greater wealth of scenic beauty of Balakot, Kaghan, Narayan and the fairy lake of Saiful maluk

A visit to Pakistan will be incomplete without seeing the mentioned spots. The base, Abbottabad itself is a nerve soothing place. It is the kandy of Pakistan and is well connected with Rindi,Peshawar and Islamabad. The centre of tourism will furnish all the necessary information in form of printed matter for visit to Swat, Kaghan, Gilgit and Hunza.



It is a unique experience to drive along the Karakoram or silk route (the 8th wonder of the world) built with the cooperation of Pakistan and China; or you can fly to Gilgit by PIA. When you travel and drive along the Zig Zag Karakoram route under the bright eye of day, you will marvel at the unending treasures offered by PAN. The winding and gliding upper Indus, the dazzling streams and murmuring brooks, the gushing springs, the snow covered peaks of Nanga Parbat, the peeping K-2 and the breath taking old mountain serpentine car route willmake you chant-

“How beautiful are Natures phases! How wonderful are God’s images!”



As you stop under the spreading Chunar or a walnut tree, the captivating notes of the strange birds, the cackling of the pheasants fearlessly drifting in a trail across the road and the swelling songs of the rustics will make you forgetful of the worries and hurry of city life. Gilgit, Skardu, Astore and Hunza attract tourists, hikers and mountaineers from all over the world. Gilgit and Hunza are famous for fruits – apples, grapes, peaches, pears almonds, walnuts and apricots. Park and Rakaposhi are standard hotels and offer the best variety of English and Pakistani menus.

You may choose any other motel or hotel as base for unending adventures and photography.

The three pronged routes take the tourists to Swat, Gilgit and Kaghan. From Abbottabad drive to Balakot via Mansehra. Balakot, the mountain sheltered town is situated along the banks of roaring Kunhar river. It is the gate way to the Kaghan valley. The land of dreams stretching up to 90 miles. The flora changes according the terrain, the cyprus trees, lining against the sky, the verderous valleys, the glaciers, bushes and wild flowers will put you in Wordsworthian mood of refection-

“I gazed and gazed but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought”



At the foot of the glacier stands Narayan, fascinating and cooling spot for the tourists. A hired jeep will take you to the fairy lake Saiful maluk. Close by is the Niglam valley full of gorgeous and smiling flowers, fill the beholders with poetic mood. Few spots in the world can match the Kaghan valley in scenic beauty and grandeur.

For a routine doze of pleasure andshort drive the nearest tourists spots from Islamabad and Abbottabad , are Murree and Ayubia famous for the electric lifts operating over the ever green hollow. You can thus enjoy the pleasures both of city and country life. For the foreign tourists, for whom the sea holds a great charm and who are accustomedto hear the two mighty voices of the sea and the land, the Arabian beach at Karachi offer beautiful picnic spots like Manora, Sandspit, Hawksbay and Paradise point for great adventure and sports.

(For full and detailed information the Pakistan Tourist Department and centers are always at the service of the

tourists and national guests.)




Way:

CLUJ-NAPOCA,

TARGUL MURES,

SIGHISOARA,

BRASOV,

BACAU,

SUCEAVA,

The monasteries . from north

CLUJ-NAPOCA

By Vlad Hurgoiu, 6th grade

International School Cluj




TARGUL MURES

Targul Mures is situated om the both sides of the Mures river , and you can see that the city is situated between the Mures river and the mountain Cornesti. Targul Mures is neighbor with Sangeorgiu of Mures Critesti , Livezeni, Santa Mures and Sancraiu of Mures .It is situated in the center of the country.




The big Temple of Tg.Mures (str.Aurel Filimon nr 23) was constructed in the years between was 1900 of that times Jewish community ‘’Status Qua ‘’, union –from the or the day community of the Jewish people of Transilvania , in the sec of XIX,of the before times monarchy Austro-Hungarien.

It was contemplated by the Jewish architecture Garner Iacob from Viena and celebrated it in the year 1900.




SIGHISOARA

A Dacian settlement near Sighişoara known as Sandova dates as far back as the 3rd century BC. It was the site of an Imperial Roman castrum and legion base from the 2nd century. During the 12th century, German craftsmen and merchants known as the Transylvanian Saxons were invited to Transylvania by the King of Hungary to settle and defend the frontier of his realm. The chronicler Krauss lists a Saxon settlement in the actual Sighişoara by 1191. By 1280 it was known by the Latin name of Castrum, and by 1298 by the Saxon name of Schespurch resp. Schaesbrich. By 1337 Sighişoara had become a royal center for the kings, who awarded the settlement urban status in 1367 as the Civitas de Segusvar.

T

he city played an important strategic and commercial role at the edges of Central Europe for several centuries. Sighişoara became one of the most important cities of Transylvania, with artisans from throughout the Holy Roman Empire visiting the settlement. The German artisans and craftsmen dominated the urban economony, as well as building the fortifications protecting it. It is estimated that during the 16th and the 17th centuries Sighişoara had as many as 15 guilds and 20 handicraft branches. The Baroque sculptor Elias Nicolai lived in the city. The Wallachian prince Vlad Ţepeş, probably born near Sighişoara in 1431, minted coins in the city and issued the first document listing the city's Romanian name, Sighişoara.

BRASOV



Braşov (Romanian pronunciation: /bra'ʃov/; German: Kronstadt; Hungarian: Brassó; Medieval Latin: Brassovia or Corona) is a city in Romania and the capital of Braşov County. The city's population is 284,596, according to the 2002 census.

Braşov is located in the central part of the country, about 166 km from Bucharest. It is surrounded by the Southern Carpathians, and is part of the Transylvania region. The oldest traces of human activity and settlements in Braşov date back to the Neolithic. Archaeologists, working from the last half of the 19th century, discovered continuous traces of human settlements in areas situated in Braşov: Valea Cetăţii, Pietrele lui Solomon, Şprenghi, Tâmpa, Dealul Melcilor, and Noua. The first three locations shows traces of Dacian citadels; Şprenghi Hill housed a Roman-style construction. The last two locations had their names applied to Bronze Age cultures.

Brasov is also an important summer and winter touristic place.



BACAU

Bacău (in Romanian: /ba'kəw/) is the main city in Bacău County, Romania. It covers a land surface of 41km² and has an estimated population of 210,469.

The city is situated in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the Bistriţa River, which meets the Siret River about 8 kilometres (5 miles) to the south of Bacău. The Ghimeş Pass links Bacău to Transylvania.

The earliest known reference to the city dates from 1408 during the rule of Alexandru cel Bun. The etymology is unclear, but one possibility is being derived from the name of a legendary medieval Hungarian innkeeper, Bakó, who, supposedly, had an inn on the current road from Bacău to Roman; around this inn houses began to be build, from which the town of Bacău was formed.

A second etymology, still legendary, presents it as being derived from the name of the Greek god Bacchus.

Another theory suggests that the name may have a slavic origin, pointing to the pre-slavic word "bîc", which means "ox", or "bull", the region being very suitable for raising cattle; the term "bîc" has changed later into "bîcau", the name by which the town is mentioned in some feudal documents.

During World War I and the occupation of Wallachia by the Germans, Bacău was the headquarters of the Romanian Army.



SUCEAVA

S



uceava
(pronunciation in Romanian: /su'ʧěa.va/; Polish: Suczawa, Ukrainian: Сучава, Yiddish: שאָץ Shots) is the capital city of the Suceava County, Bukovina, northeastern Romania.

View of the city from fortress remains. The Church of St. Demetrius is visible in the distance.

The city of Suceava was for long the capital of the Moldavian state and main residence of the Moldavian princes (between 1388 and 1565). During the rule of Alexandru Lăpuşneanu, the seat was moved to Iaşi







Vatra Dornei

Vatra Dornei is a city and a ski resort in the north of Romania, in Suceava County. Until the 1950's it had a mixed population of Romanians, Ukrainians, Jews and Germans. The big synagogue and a picturesque Jewish cemetery bear testimony to Jewish presence in the area.

Besides skiing you can visit the famous orthodox monasteries nearby:



H

umor - one of the renowned church with exterior frescoes, built in 1530





Voroneţ - is the most valuable painted church of Bucovina. It is called "Sistine Chapel of the East" and it has an unusual freshness due to the famous "Blue of Voronet" .





M

oldoviţa - one of the gems of the old Moldavian art, built in 1532, remarkable for its valuable exterior frescoes.

Suceviţa - it was built between 1582-1584 and is also covered with frescoes

P

utna - is a legendary monastery, built by Ştefan cel Mare, between 1466-1469. The tomb of the sanctified ruler is in this monastery. One may also see here an important museum of medieval art.

By Andrew Walker

It’s summer and you’re searching for the perfect vacation. South Africa is one of the worlds most highly recommended places to visit on travel guides. There’s something to do for everyone in South Africa. Anyone looking for top star resorts, beautiful beaches and anything aquatic related should try searching in Cape Town. The seafood in Cape Town is some of the finest in Africa.

While Cape Town is quite a quiet place, anyone who is more of a city type person can try searching in Johannesburg. Joburg (Johannesburg for short) is one of the largest cities in Africa. Joburg is crammed with malls and practically anything worth taking a look at. North Gate Mall has so much variety in all the stuff you can do like The Ice Skating Ring and The Coca Cola Dome (all major conventions and concerts happen there).

While South Africa is famous for the aparteid and rugby, Big Game drives and Safaris are one of the countries top tourist attractions. Pretoria is the capital of South Africa and one of the most beautiful cities in South Africa. Nelson Mandela is one of the world’s most famous freedom fighters, and he helped to stop the apartheid in South Africa.

Anyone who’s interested in anything to do with fossils will be happy to find home at the Maropeng Museum. Pretoria and Johannesburg have their own zoos. The zoos have all sorts of fascinating animals. Animal lovers will feel at home at zoos. South Africa has two countries in the middle of it. They are Lesotho and Swaziland. South Africa is rich with it’s old cultures. The Xhosa and the Zulu tribes are some of the tribes still left to this very day. Many people from all sorts of places around the world are found in South Africa. Afrikaans, English and Zulu are the main languages spoken in South Africa.





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