Preface introduction

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Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Turmeric constituents include the three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and Zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. While numerous Pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this Article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties and its use for inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this Article. Research has shown curcumin to be a highly pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Based on early cell culture and animal research, clinical trials indicate curcumin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis, as well as certain types of cancer. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.

Kar AC, Maity SK, Rao MM, Mishra AK. AC 4 - An Ayurvedic contraceptive Agent. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2002;23(3-4):76-81.


A study on AC-4 (Coded drug) was carried out CRI (Ay), Kolkata about the contraceptive effect for which 85 women were included. The cases were followed up to 36th cycle. Out of 85 cases, 22 cases are taking medicine and 5 cases show pregnancy due to drug omission. Only 2 cases show side effects and rest cases discontinued due to other reasons.

Kar AC, Rao MM, Devidas KV. Relevance of Proper Collection, Storage and PreserVation of Ayurvedaic Drugs in relation to GMP of ISM Drugs. B.M.E.B.R,New Delhi. 2000;21( 3-4): 66-70.


Therapeutic uses of plant products have gained considerable momentum in the world during the past decade and India ID one of the major produced and supplier of Ayurvedic Drugs. Since the quantum of the production increased and export market opened up, strict manufacturing practices are to be enforced to keep up quality of these products. This paper explains the quality control of raw drugs at the stage of its collection, preserVation and storage based on Ayurvedic classics and also the importance of its place of cultivation agro-ecological and agro climatic conditions etc. which will ultimately relevant to its therapeutic properties.

Kar AC, Rao MM, Devidas KV. Preventive and curative measures of Slipada (Filariasis) on the basis of Kriyakala. Sachitra Ayurveda.2002;(10): 71-75.


The disease Slipada , which is described in classical Ayurvedic literature is now well recognized as filariasis as described in modern medicine. Though this disease is not fatal but has a socio economic and psychological impact on the society. Ayurveda being true to its fundamental concept of diseases does not describe the causative factor as parasites but attributes the disease to doshic vitiation of Kapha involving mamsa and rakta. The objectives of Ayurveda are not only to cure the disease but also prevention of the same before its onset. This is only possible if one understands the evolution of disease process. The concept has been developed in relevance to the fundamental Tridosha theory of Ayurveda and the term satKriyakala has been described in reference to the respective changes n the three doshas. The approach behind the satKriyakala is the early detection of disease and earliest therapeutic intervention so that further progress may be checked as the treatment becomes difficult during the advanced stage of a disease.So before treatment it is more important to know the evolution of disease process. Here in this paper, it has been focused more to undertstand the evolution of Filariasis on the basis of satKriyakala by incorporating the description of Slipada as available in Ayurvedic texts to be presented under the heading of “Nidan” and “Samprapti”.

Khalsa KP. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):129-42. Http://


Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations.

Khan S, Balick MJ. Therapeutic plants of Ayurveda: a review of selected clinical and other studies for 166 species. J Altern Complement Med. 2001;7(5):405-515. Http://


This paper reports on the results of a literature survey involving 166 different species of plants used in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia, based on a sampling of the literature available to us. We found a wide range of clinical and other in vivo studies for many of the plant-based therapies utilized in the Ayurvedic system. Of the 166 plants investigated, 72 (43%) had at least one or more human studies and 103 (62%) had one or more animal studies. These results appear to contradict the generally held notion that herbal remedies used in non-Western systems of botanical medicine have not been evaluated in human or in vivo trials. Some of these studies are not always as large or methodologically rigorous as clinical studies reported in major medical journals. Indeed, a critical assessment of the research according to the standards of evidence-based medicine would eliminate many of these studies for lack of rigor according to criteria of randomization, sample size, adequacy of controls, etc. However, the studies do suggest which species might be appropriate for larger and better-controlled trials in the future. Accordingly, a synopsis of the plants, their therapeutic applications, and their clinical or experimental evaluations is presented.

Krishnamurthy MN, Telles S. Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and Ayurveda on older adults in a residential home. J Gerontol Nurs.2007;33(2):17-23. Http://


The effects of yoga and Ayurveda on geriatric depression were evaluated in 69 persons older than 60 who were living in a residential home. PArticipants were stratified by age and gender and randomly allocated to three groups: Yoga, Ayurveda, and Wait-list Control. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms prior to the intervention, and after 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. PArticipation in one of the three groups lasted 24 weeks. The yoga program (7 hours 30 minutes per week) included physical postures, relaxation techniques, regulated breathing, devotional songs, and lectures. The Ayurveda Group received an herbal preparation twice daily for the whole period. The depression symptom scores of the Yoga Group at both 3 and 6 months decreased significantly, from a group average baseline of 10.6 to 8.1 and 6.7, respectively (p < 0.001, paired t-test). The other groups showed no change. Hence, an integrated approach of yoga including the mental and philosophical aspects in addition to the physical practices was useful for institutionalized older persons.

Kulkarni M, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ. Synergistic effect of Ayurvedic pearl preparation on enhancing effectiveness of antibiotics. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40(7):831-4. Http://


Studies were carried out with Ayurvedic preparations derived from pearl, which include preparations bhasma and pishti. The synergistic effect to reduce the dose of antibiotic was tested against E. coli the test bacterium with ampicillin antibiotic by bore well and disks diffusion methods. It was observed that pearl preparations do not show any antibacterial activity but when used at 200 microg/ml concentration with antibiotics, then even at sub-lethal dose, the antibiotic has effectively shown the results with reduced contact time. The protocol was also tested with the other bacteria like, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vibrio cholarae, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus and has shown similar results. The pearl bhasma synergistic effect was also tested with other antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin.

Kumar A, Singh G, Kumar N. Ayurvedic heritage of J and K: a review of Sri Ranbira Chikitsa Sudha Sara. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2001;31(2):133-8. Http://


This work reviews the contents of an Ayurvedic treatise "Sri Ranbira Chikitsa Sudha Sara" authored by Kaviraj Neel Kanth in the year 1931 of Vikrami, in 'Takari' script, the official script during the reign of his highness Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. A copy of the book is presently available with Raghunath Sanskrit Library, Jammu in torn condition. This is a humble effort by the authors for the exploration of hidden and old Ayurvedic literature of Jammu and Kashmir.

Kumar MS, Kirubanandan S, Sripriya R, Sehgal PK. Triphala promotes healing of infected full-thickness dermal wound. J Surg Res. 2008;144(1):94-101. Http://



Infection is a major problem in the management of wounds. Even though the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents persists, drug resistance and toxicity hinder their way. Many plants with multi-potent pharmaceutical activities may offer better treatment options, and Triphala (dried fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Phyllanthus emblica) are potential formulations evaluated for healing activity on infected wound as it possesses numerous activities.


Alcoholic extract of Triphala has shown in vitro antimicrobial activity against wound pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pyogenes. An ointment was prepared from the Triphala extract (10% w/w) and assessed for in vivo wound healing on infected rat model by rate of healing, bacterial count, biochemical analysis, and expression of matrix metalloproteinases.


The treated group has shown significantly improved wound closure. Assessment of granulation tissue on every fourth day showed significant reduction in bacterial count with significant level of collagen, hexosamine, uronic acid, and superoxide dismutase in the treated group (P < 0.01). Reduction of matrix metalloproteinase expression observed in the treated group by gelatin zymography and immunoblotting confirms our in vivo assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The above results showed the antibacterial, wound healing, and antioxidant activities of Triphala ointment, necessary for the management of infected wounds. Active principles of the Triphala may be further evaluated and used as an excellent therapeutic formulation for infected wounds.

Lahorkar P, Ramitha K, Bansal V, Anantha Narayana DB. A comparative evaluation of medicated oils prepared using Ayurvedic and modified processes.Indian J Pharm Sci.2009;71(6):656-62. Http://


Medicated oils prepared using process as mentioned in Ayurveda are used for external and internal administrations to treat various disorders. Taila pak vidhi provides detailed description of such processes. Medicated oils are prepared by prolonged cooking of sesame oil with pasty mass of herbs and decoction of herbs in presence of large quantity of water. We report preliminary findings of physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of changes brought out by such processes and the role of each component. Changes observed when the processes were altered to deviate from those prescribed in Ayurveda are also reported.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. RP-HPLC analysis of Jirakadyarishta and chemical changes during fermentation. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(11):1767-70. Http://


Jirakadyarishta, an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by the fermentation of a decoction of Cuminum cyminum (seeds) is traditionally used for intestinal disorders. RP-HPLC analysis of the decoction and the final processed formulation revealed that apigenin-7-O-[galacturonide (1 --> 4)-O-glucoside] and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide) were the two major constituents of the decoction of C. cyminum. Selective hydrolysis of 7-O-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin during fermentation resulted in an increase in the amount of luteolin and apigenin. The 4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide of luteolin and galacturonide deriVative of apigenin were not hydrolyzed during fermentation. Monomeric phenolics, together with 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), were also introduced into the formulation through the jaggery and other plant materials during fermentation. This communication highlights the importance of the ancient processing methods used in Ayurveda.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. Chemical changes during fermentation of Abhayarishta and its standardization by HPLC-DAD. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(4):575-9. Http://


Abhayarishta is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared traditionally by the fermentation of the decoction of Terminalia chebula (pericarp), Vitis vinifera (fruits), Embelia ribes (fruits) and Madhuca indica (flowers). In the present communication, chemical changes occurring during fermentation in Abhayarishta have been studied for the purpose of its standardization. An HPLC-DAD method for quantitative estimation of selected marker constituents in the formulation has been developed and validated. A comparison of decoction and final processed formulation revealed that major polyphenolics (chebulagic and chebulinic acid) of T. chebula were hydrolyzed to their respective monomers and, consequently, there was an increase in the amount of chebulic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid and ethyl gallate after fermentation. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) was also found in the formulation. Thus, emphasis is laid upon consideration of processing methods of formulation which has been lacking in the standardization of most of Ayurvedic formulations.

Maity SK, Kar AC, Rao MM, Mishra AK. A clinical trial on Vyana vala Vaishamya (Hypertention) by Ayurvedic drugs. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2000; 21 (3-4): 91-97.


Vyana Bala Vaishamya hypertension is a common health problem occurring in about 2-15% of population in India and many other countries. So many Ayurvedic physicians are treating this disease successfully. But to give rationales to the effectiveness of Ayurvedic drugs and to provide statistically viable scientific data in the subject, a blind trial had been conducted during the year 1992-1999 at CRI, Calcutta as per the direction of CCRAS, New Delhi. Tagaradi and Usheeradi churna were undertaken for this trial and it was found that Ushiradi Churna was more effective than Tagaradi churna. More than 50% cases showed good response to the treatment. Very few cases showed poor and no response. Regarding the response of individuals group is concerned Usheradi churana is more effective than Tagaradi churna.

Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121(5):683-90. Http://



Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime alertness. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric population.


Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three groups i.e.Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda (a herbal preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated for self-assessment of sleep over a one week period at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions.


The Yoga group showed a significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average decrease: 10 min, P<0.05), an increase in the total number of hours slept (approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of being rested in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months. The other groups showed no significant change.


Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.

Meena A K, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv and Rao M M. “Plants Herbal Wealth as Potential source of Ayurvedic Drug” .Asian Journal of Tradition Medicines.2009;4(4):51-69.


Nearly 80 % of the global population still depends upon the herbal drugs for their health care. There has been an increase demand for the pharmaceutical products of Ayurveda in all over the world because of fact that the allopathic drugs have a side effect. In the present context the Ayurvedic system of medicine is widely accepted and practiced by peoples no only in India but also in the developed countries- such as Europe, USA, Japan, China, Canada etc. Plant based therapy are marked due to its low cost, easy availability based on generation to generation knowledge. However, over commercial exploitation of these plant products and frequent degradation of natural resources are reported to be major threats to medicinal plants in India. The aim of the present review is to understand the knowledge of plants used for Ayurvedic preparations in relation to their use as therapeutic agents, Pharmacological properties, medicinal plants being imported; medicinal plant parts being exported, endangered medicinal plants and availability of medicinal plants in different bio-geographical zones of India so that the data and information of this review could be utilized in drawing strategies for rational and more scientific use of medicinal plants in a way that can be extended for future scientific investigation in different aspects. The development of this traditional Indian system of medicines with perspectives of safety, efficacy and quality will help not only to preserve this traditional heritage but also to rationalize the use of natural products in health care without side effects.

Meena A K, kaur Ramanjeet, Singh Brijendra, Yadav A K, Uttam Singh, Sachan Ayushy, Pal Bhavana, Rao M M. “ Review On Antifungal Activities of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants” Drug Invention Today.2010;2(2):146-148.


Infectious diseases represent a critical problem to health and they are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The resistance to antibiotics and with the toxicity during prolonged treatment with several drugs due to this medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. During the past several years, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections due to a growth in immune compromised population such as organ transplant recipients, cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the new profile of antifungal drugs obtaining from medicinal plants.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Kandale Ajit, Sannd R, Sharma Kiran , Niranjan U, Yadav A K. “Standardisation of Desmodium gangeticum – A Traditional Ayurvedic Plant” Drug Invention Today.2010;2(2):182-184 .


Desmodium gangeticum is a traditional Ayurvedic plant used for centuries as an anthelminthic, anti-catarrahal, diuretic, expectorant, astringent, febrifuge, nervine tonic, anti diarrheal, bronchiodilator, vasopressor, analgesic, antipyretic, cardio tonic, stimulant, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The whole plant, its extract and isolates have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their different biological activities. In addition researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and other Pharmacological effects of Desmodium gangeticum preparations/extracts.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Komal Preet, Padhi M M, Singh Arjun, Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants Used In Ayurvedic Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(2): 58-60.


The present Article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb.Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value. Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like PH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Rao MM, Rao V Nageswara, Komalpreet, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study of Various Plants of Piperaceae Family Commonly Used in Ayurvedic Formulations. Research Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2010; 2(5): 407-410.


The present Article attempts to compare TLC and physico-chemical parameters of P. nigrum Linn.Piper cubeba Linn.Piper longum Linn. and Piper chaba Hunter belonging to common family Piperaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value. Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants

is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanjeet, Pal Bhavana, Rao M M, Singh Brijendra and Mishra Santosh Kumar. Quality Assessment of Different Variants of Yogaraj Guggulu. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance. 2010;2(2):10-12.


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