Possibility of Solidago gigantea Aiton chemical control on fallow area in Poland




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Possibility of Solidago gigantea Aiton chemical control on fallow area in Poland

Marek Badowski, Krzysztof Domaradzki

Institute of Soil Sciences and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute

Department Weed Sciences and Soil Tillage Systems, Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland




Summary


Solidago gigantea Aiton was brought to Europe from North America. It is a invasive weed species which perfectly acclimatizes and displaces native species. Presently, S. gigantea is very common in the whole area of Poland. It appears particularly in ruderal habitats and on fallow lands. In Poland, there are above 400 000 ha of fallow lands. The surface of this area decreases each year because of its being restored to agriculture production. Therefore, it is a very important issue to eliminate oppressive weed species (like S. gigantea) which appear in this areas.

In the years 2009-2010 the trials were carried out. In this experiments possibilities of S. gigantea chemical control in fallow lands were estimated. In the trials, 9 herbicides (used single and in the tank mix) were applied. The efficacy of herbicides in 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after treatment was evaluated.

The best effect of S. gigantea control (100% efficacy) after application of trichlopyr and mixtures [trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid] and [flazasulfuron + glyphosate]. Very good results (90-98%) provided application of herbicides containing glyphosate and mixture [flumioxazine + glyphosate]. Another experiment with examined herbicides and their mixtures had a weak effect. Its efficacy oscillated at the level 15-65%.

Introduction


S. gigantea is a species naturally occurring on the area of the USA and southern Canada (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). It was brought to Europe in the 18th century as a decorative plant. The first introduction place was the Botanic Garden in London in 1758 (Weber 1998). After almost one hundred years the expansion of this species in Europe started. In the first half of the 19th century S. gigantea was observed in France. Half a century later the species occurred in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, to appear in central Europe at the end of the 19th century. The speed of S. gigantea expansion is estimated to amount to 910 km2/year (Weber and Jakobs 2005). In Poland its cultivation in gardens started at the end of the 19th century. From there, in the 40s and 50s of the 20th century, it started expansion first to the ruderal areas, then to undergrowth and riverside areas (Grime 2002).

S. gigantea is an invasive species, it perfectly acclimatizes and crowds out the indigenous species. At present it is a common plant on the whole Poland area, especially in its south-west part, where it crowds out other species of Solidago genus. In the recent years it is also observed in balks, in mid-field shrubs and fallow areas (Szymura and Wolski 2006). The expansion of S. gigantea causes it to grow in compact fields, occupies larger and larger areas which are not used for agriculture and threatens indigenous plants, eliminating them from ecosystems (Guzikowa and Maycock 1986).

In Poland there are almost 500 thousand ha of fallow lands. Every year there are fewer of those because they are reinstated for agricultural production. That is why the problem of elimination of noxious weeds, as S. gigantea is so important.

The aim of this research was to analyze the possibility of chemical control of S. gigantea in fallow lands, and to assess the plants regrowth after the herbicide application.

Methods


In years 2009-2010 the research was conducted, in which the possibility of chemical control of S. gigantea in fallow areas was assessed. It was conducted with the use of method of random blocks, in four replications, on fields of 25 m2. All the experiments were located in fallow lands, on grey-brown podsolic soils of class V. In the research 9 herbicides were used, applied separately and in mixtures. The characteristics of tested herbicides , i.e. the content of the active substances and the doses, are presented in table 1. All the herbicides were applied in spring, after the vegetation started, in phase up to 8 leaves in S. gigantea. The application was performed with the use of backpack sprayer Gloria with the steady pressure of 0,25 MPa and the liquid expenditure of 250 l/ha.

The efficiency of the tested herbicides was assessed after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the application. The regrowth of S. gigantea plants was analysed in autumn after 3 and 5 months from the application of the tested herbicides. In both cases the estimated method of assessment was used. The reduction of the fresh weed weight by at least 85%, compared to the control field which was not treated with herbicides, was accepted as the minimum required efficiency level, according the Polish law regulations (Regulation 2004, 2005).




Results


S. gigantea treated with herbicides, after 2 weeks reacted the strongest to the mixture of [flazasulfuron + glyphosate] and [flumioxazine + glyphosate], which eliminated this weed in 82-86%. After 4 and 6 weeks the high efficiency (91-100%) was observed after the used of glyphosate, trichlopyr and the mixtures [trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid], [flazasulfuron + glyphosate] and [flumioxazine + glyphosate] (tab. 2).

The efficiency assessment conducted after 8 weeks from application of herbicides allows to state that the best effect of S. gigantea elimination (100% efficiency) was achieved using the herbicide containing trichlopyr and mixtures [trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid] and [flazasulfuron + glyphosate]. Very good results (93-97%) were obtained after the use of the herbicide containing glyphosate and the mixture [flumioxazine + glyphosate]. Other of the used herbicides and their mixtures worked much weaker. Flazasulfuron eliminated S. gigantea in 65%, the mixture [foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron methylsodium] – in 50%, and dichlobenil and the mixture [propoxycarbazone sodium + iodosulfuron methylsodium + amidosulfuron] in 15-30% (tab. 2).

The weak efficiency of some herbicides was the reason for the regrowth of S. gigantea. The assessment performed after 3 months from the application of the herbicides shows that the strongest and the fastest regrowth of this species (90%) occurred after the use of the herbicide containing dichlobenil. A bit weaker regrowth (45-60%) occurred after the use of flazasulfuron and the mixtures [foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron methylsodium] and [propoxycarbazone sodium + iodosulfuron methylsodium + amidosulfuron]. On the other fields the regrowth was minimum and amounted to 0 up to 9% (tab. 3).

The next assessment performed after 5 months from the application allows to state that on the fields where flazasulfuron and dichlobenil were used S. gigantea regrew in 100%. The weeds treated with the mixtures [foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron methylsodium] and [propoxycarbazone sodium + iodosulfuron methylsodium + amidosulfuron] regrew in 60-70%. S. gigantea treated with glyphosate in 27%, and a mixture [flumioxazine + glyphosate] regrew in 40%. The weakest regrowth (not exceeding 5%) was observed on fields where trichlopyr and the mixtures [trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid] and [flazasulfuron + glyphosate] were used (tab. 3).



Discussion


In Poland in 2010 the fallow lands amounted to 498,4 thousand hectares which is 4,1% of arable lands and it was less than in year 2000 by 790,4 thousand hectares (Yearbook... 2010). This tendency shows that there is a significant interest in reinstating fallow areas for agricultural production. It especially occurred after 2004, when Poland joined the European Union. It is mainly connected with the direct farming subsidies for farmers who conduct agricultural production on arable lands.

S. gigantea crowds out the indigenous plants in fallow lands and restricts the biodiversity of habitats (Guzikowa, Maycock 1986). Thanks to the effective vegetative propagation, intensive development of aboveground part and thus large competitive abilities, this species belongs to noxious weeds requiring control (Szymura and Wolski 2006). Species of Solidago genus have allelopathic potential which can hinder the development of other plants (Abhilasha et al. 2008). Moreover, it has been confirmed that this species may modify the carbon and phosphorus circulation in soil (Ehrenfeld 2003). It affects the content of nitrate nitrogen, the available phosphorus forms and the durability of soil aggregates in a negative way and causes the bulk density of soil to increase (Zhang et al. 2009).

One of the fastest and more efficient methods of elimination of S. gigantea, occurring in fallow areas is chemical treatment. The conducted research proves that the best effects in S. gigantea elimination were obtained with the use of herbicides containing trichlopyr and glyphosate and the mixtures [trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid], [flazasulfuron + glyphosate] and [flumioxazine + glyphosate]. 8 weeks after the treatment the efficiency of these herbicides amounted to 93-100%. Unfortunately, on some fields S. gigantea started regrowing It took place in the case of the use of glyphosate (27% plant regrowth) and the mixture [flumioxazine + glyphosate] (40% regrowth). The weakest regrowth of plants after 5 months from the treatment was observed on the fields where trichlopyr and the mixtures [trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid] and [flazasulfuron + glyphosate] were used. The regrowth did not exceed 5% on these fields.

The research conducted in China on the areas not used for agriculture shows that species of Solidago genus spread on larger and larger country areas and constitute a significant problem for the natural communities. The strongest expansion of Solidago species occurs in the eastern part of the country (Mei et al. 2006). Therefore, the actions have been taken, aiming at developing the chemical methods of Solidago species control on fallow areas. From the tested herbicides, the best effects were obtained with the use of metsulfuron-methyl, sulfomethuron-methyl, imazapyr, flazasulfuron and chlorsulfuron (97-100% efficiency). Also, in these tests, the regrowth after the use of herbicides was observed. It occurred after the application of chemicals containing glyphosate, fluroxypyr, MCPA, bentasone and oxyfluorfen (Shen et al. 2005, Yuan 2008).

Authors’ own observations prove that, regardless of chemical methods applied, the intensive mechanical land cultivation and competitive interaction of the cultivated crop causes S. gigantea to be eliminated from the community within a few years on the areas reinstated for agricultural uses.



References


  1. Abhilasha D., Quintana N., Vivanco J., Joshi J. 2008. Do allelopathic compounds in invasive Solidago canadensis s.l. restrain the native European flora? J. Ecology, 96: 993-1001.

  2. Ehrenfeld J. G. 2003. Effect of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems, 6: 503-523.

  3. Gleason H. A., Cronquist A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

  4. Grime J. P. 2002. Plant Stratiegies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties. 2nd Edytion, Wiley: pp.456.

  5. Guzikowa M., Maycock P. F. 1986. The invasion and expansion of three North American species of Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. sensu lato, S. gigantea Aid. and S. graminifolia (L.) Salisb.) in Poland. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol., 55 (3): 367-384.

  6. Mei D., Jian-Zhong L., Wen-Ju Z., C., Bo L. 2006. Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis): An invasive alien weed rapidly spreading in China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 44 (1): 72-85.

  7. Regulation of Ministry of Agriculture from 4.08.2004 (Dz. Ust. Nr 183 poz. 1890) and 14.04.2005 (Dz. Ust. Nr 76 poz. 670).

  8. Shen G.-h., Yao H.-m., Guan L.-q., Qian Z.-g., Ao Y.-s. 2005. Distribution and Infestation of Solidago canadensis L. in Shanghai Suburbs and Its Chemical Control. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 21 (2): 1-4.

  9. Szymura M., Wolski K. 2006. Zmiany krajobrazu pod wpływem ekspansywnych bylin północnoamerykańskich z rodzaju Solidago L. Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu, XVI: 451-460.

  10. Yearbook of Agriculture 2010. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Warszawa 2010, pp. 389.

  11. Yuan G. 2008. Study on the Control of Solidago canadensis by Spraying Metsulfuron-methyl. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 32: 14188-14189.

  12. Weber E. 1998. The dynamics of plant invasions: a case study of three exotic goldenrod species (Solidago L.) in Europe. J. Biogeogr. 25: 147-154.

  13. Weber E., Jakobs G. 2005. Biological flora of Central Europe: Solidago gigantea Aiton. Flora 200: 109-118.

  14. Zhang Ch. B., Wang J., Quin B. Y., Li W. H. 2009. Effects of the invader Solidago canadensis on soil properties. Applied Soil Ecology, 43: 163-169.

Table 1. Characteristic of tested herbicides

Active substances

Contain of active substance

Dosage of herbicide per hectare

gliphosate

360 g.l-1

5 l

dichlobenil

170 g.l-1

6 l

trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid

100 g.l-1 + 75 g.l-1 + 50 g.l-1

4 l

trichlopyr

480 g.l-1

4 l

flazasulfuron

250 g.kg-1

300 g

flumioxsazine + gliphosate

100 g.l-1 + 270 g.l-1

3 l

flazasulfuron + gliphosate

1.33 g.kg-1 + 28.8 g.kg-1g

3 kg

propoxycarbazone sodium + iodosulfuron methylsodium + amidosulfuron

140 g.kg-1 + 6.3 g.kg-1 + 60 g.kg-1

0.3 kg

foramsulfuron + + iodosulfuron methylsodium

300 g.kg-1 + 10 g.kg-1

150 g + 1 l

Table 2. Efficacy of S. gigantea control by estimated herbicides and its mixtures.



Active substances

Dosage of herbicide per hectare

Efficacy of S. gigantea control at weeks after treatments (%)

2 weeks

4 weeks

6 weeks

8 weeks

gliphosate

5 l

69

98

99

97

dichlobenil

6 l

15

18

21

15

trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid

4 l

68

91

100

100

trichlopyr

4 l

69

94

100

100

flazasulfuron

300 g

42

56

66

65

flumioxsazine + gliphosate

3 l

82

91

92

90

flazasulfuron + gliphosate

3 kg

86

98

100

100

propoxycarbazone sodium + iodosulfuron methylsodium + amidosulfuron

0,3 kg

10

48

50

30

foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron methylsodium

150 g + 1 l

28

50

60

50

Table 3. Regrowing of S. gigantea treated by estimated herbicides and its mixtures.



Active substances

Dosage of herbicide per hectare

S. gigantea regrowing at months after treatments (%)

3 months

5 months

gliphosate

5 l

4

27

dichlobenil

6 l

90

100

trichlopyr + fluroxypyr + chlopyralid

4 l

0

3

trichlopyr

4 l

0

4

flazasulfuron

300 g

45

100

flumioxsazine + gliphosate

3 l

9

40

flazasulfuron + gliphosate

3 kg

0

5

propoxycarbazone sodium + iodosulfuron methylsodium + amidosulfuron

0,3 kg

60

70

foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron methylsodium

150 g + 1 l

50

60







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