Plants for a Food Forest Key




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Plants for a Food Forest

Key: P = perennial B = biennial SSA = self-seeding annual
F = fruit S = seed N = nut R = root

 = should be steamed ** = should be cooked Plant Jobs M= Mulch NuAc = Nutrient Accumulators NF = nitrogen fixer NemaR= Nematode Repellant IP=Insectary Plant FP= Fortress Plant SR=Spike Roots Soilbusters WildN=Wildlife Nurturer

Z = hardiness zone, example: Z5 = hardy to zone 5


1. Tall Canopy- generally nut

Beech Fagus grandifolia Nuts

Black Locust -- Robinia pseudoacacia (N,Z3) NF

Black Walnut -- Juglans nigra (N,Z4) nut

Chestnut species Castanea ssp. (N,Z4-5)

Heartnut -- Juglans ailanthifolia c. (N,Z4) nut

Monkey Puzzle -- Araucaria araucana (S,Z8)

Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata Nuts

Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Syrup

White Oak Quercus alba Nuts

Walnut -- Juglans regia (N,Z5) nut
2. Understory Trees –smaller fruit, nut trees

Alder NF


California bayberry NF

Almond Prunus dulcis (N,Z3)

American Persimmon Diospyros virginiana (F,Z5) Fruit

Persimmon -- Diospyros kaki (F,Z8

Apple Malus pumila Fruit, flowers (F,Z5)

Apricot Prunus armeniaca (F,Z4)

Autumn olive -- Elaeagnus umbellata (F,M, NF,Z3)

Black Elderberry -- Sambucus nigra (F,Z5) WN

Cherry Prunus spp. Fruit, flowers

Chinese Dogwood -- Cornus kuosa (F,Z5) WildN

Sochi Green Tea Camellia sinensis Z8

Cornelian Cherry Cornus mas Fruit (F,Z5)

Crabapple Malus spp. Fruit, flowers

Fig -- Ficus carica (F,Z7)

Persimmon Diospyros kaki

Hardy Orange** -- Poncirus trifoliata (F,Z5)

Chokeberry WildN

Wild cherriy WildN

Hazelnut,,Filbert Corylus spp. Nuts (N,Z4)

Japanese Quince -- Chaenomeles speciosa (F,Z5)

Jujube -- Ziziphus ziziphus (F,Z5)

Kentucky Coffee Tree Gymnocladus dioica N-fixer

Medlar -- Mespilus germanica (F,Z6)

Paw Paw Asimina triloba Fruit, flowers, medicinal (F,Z6)

Peach -- Prunus persica (F,Z6)

Pear Pyrus communis Fruit, flowers

Plum Prunus domestica Fruit, flowers

Serviceberry -- Amelanchier spp. (F,Z4)

Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana Medicinal, flowers

Hawthorn WildN


3. Shrub Layer - generally small fruits

Autumn olive NF

Blackberry Rubus occidentalis Fruit, flowers

Blueberry -- Vaccinium corymbosom (F,Z2) WildN Buffaloberry NF

Cattails All parts are edible, NuAc

Ceanothus NF, WildN

Chilean Teaberries

Currant Ribes sativum Fruit Elderberry Sambucas nigra Fruit, flowers

False indigo Baptisia australis N-fixer

Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa Fruit

Goumi -- Elaegnus multiflora (F,Z6) NF

Green tea -- Camellia sinensis (P,Z8)

Himalayan Honeysuckle , Chocolate Berry, Leycesteria formosa

Huckleberry

Lupine NF

Mountain Mahogany NF

Maximillian Sunflower FP

Nanking Cherry

Native Rose WildN



T Raspberry -- Rubus idaeus (F,Z3)

Rose Rosa Rugosa spp. Medicinal, flowers, hips

Russian Olive NF

Serviceberry Amelanchor spp

Siberian pea shrub NF

Sunflower IP

Thimbleberry
4. Herbaceous Layer

Comfrey Symphytum uplandicum NuAc, M, FP, SR Rhubarb Rheum rhabarbarum M

Chickweed NuAc

African marigold Tagetes erecta NemaR

French Marigold Tagetes patula “Single Gold” NemaR

French Marigold “Nema-gone” NEmaR

Clover Nu,Ac, NF, M, IP

Vetch M


Artichoke P M SR

Asparagus -- Asparagus officinalis (P,Z4)



Medicinals

Alfalfa NuAc, SR

Wormwood

Valerian


Lavendar IP

Yarrow NuAc, IP

Yellow Dock NuAc
Spices

Dill Anethum graveolens IP

Coriander IP

Fennel Foeniculum vulgare IP

Licorice NF

Lemon Grass FP


Herbal Teas

Peppermint -- Mentha piperita (P,Z3)

Mint Mentha spp. Edible

Anise Hyssop -- Agastache foeniculum (P)

Lemon balm Melissa officinalis Tea

Mint IP


Korean Mint -- Agastache rugosa (P)

Bee Balm -- Monarda didyma (P,Z4) IP

Rose hips -- Rosa rogusa (P,Z2)

Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile Tea, flowers NuAc

Chicory SR

Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica Edible, mulch

Horsetail NuAc

Oats NuAc, NF




Salad and Greens

Arugula Eruca vesicaria Edible

Buckwheat

Kale Brassica oleracea (B)

Carrots NuAc, IP

Dandelion -- Taraxacum officinale (P,Z5) NuAc,SR

Lettuce Latuca sativa Edible

Lovage Levisticum officinale Edible

New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia expansa Edible

Parsley Petroselinum crispum Edible

Salad burnet Sanguisorba minor Edible

Sorrel Rumex scutatus Edible

Spinach Spinacea oleracea Edible

Cornsalad Valerianella locusta Edible

Musk Mallow -- Malva moschata (P,Z3) High Mallow -- Malva sylvestris (P,Z5) Perennial Arugula -- Diplotaxis erucoides (P) Good King Henry -- Chenopodium bonus-henricus (P,Z5,*) Salad Burnett -- Sanguisorba minor (P,Z5) Chicory -- Cichorium intybus (B,3) Earth Chestnut -- Bunium bulbocastanum (P,Z5) Miner's Lettuce -- Claytonia perfoliata (SSA) Corn Salad -- Valerianella locusta (SSA,Z5)

Parsley -- Petroselinum crispum (B)

Bellflower -- Campanula glomerata (P,Z2)

\Fennel -- Foeniculum vulgare (P,Z5) Japanese Forest Parsley -- Cryptotaeniajaponica (P,Z5)

Nasturtium M Mustard M NuAc, SR

Lamb’squarter NuAc

Borage NuAc

Frye Grass NuAc



5. Roots and Bulbs
Perennial Roots

Edible Canna Canna edulise

Salsify

Parsnip -- Pastinaca sativa (B,Z5)



Horseradish

Shallots and Garlic

Burdock

Daikonj Radish SR Jerusalem Artichoke tuberosus (P,Z4) FP Skirret -- Sium Sisarum (P,Z6)

Gobo -- Arctium Lappa (B,Z3)

Groundnut -- Apios Americana (P,Z3)


Bulbs

Chives Allium schoenoprasum Edible

Garlic -- Allium sativum (P,Z5)

Onion Allium cepa IP Welsh Onion -- Allium fistulosum (P,Z6)



Peruvian tubers

Ahipa Pachyrhizus ahipa

A

Cathe’ Fish, Permaculture Designer and Teacher since 1988 Practical Permaculture www.practicalpermaculture.com 530-478-1852




rracacha Arracacia xanthorrhiza

Oca Oxalis tuberosatuberosa

Ulluco Ullucustuberosustuberosus

Mauka or Chago Mirabilis expansa

Maca Lepidium meyenii

Yacun Smallanthus sonchifolius



Seasonal Roots Potato -- Solanum tuberosum (P, Z7?)

Sweet Potatoes

Yams


6. Ground Covers

Strawberry Fragaria spp. Fruit, flowers

Nasturtium Tropaeolum minus Edible lowers

Violet Viola spp. Edible flowers



Edible Shoots Asparagus -- Asparagus officinalis (P,Z4) Aralia -- Aralia spinosa (P,Z5,*) Aralia -- Aralia chinensis (P,*) Aralia -- Aralia elata (P,Z4,*) Udo -- Aralia cordifolia (P,*)

Edible Flowers Daylily -- Hemerocallis fulva (P,Z4) Dianthus spp.(P,Z4) Balloon flower -- Platycodon (P,Z4)

7. Climbers and Vines

Wisteria NF

Scarlet Runner Beans NF

Cinammon Vine

Passion fruits Passiflora spp

Scarlet Runner Bean Phaseolus coccineus Edible, N-fixer, flowers

Seasonal squashes, cucumbers and melon
Perennial Vines

Grape Vitis vinifera Fruit

Hardy Kiwi -- Actinidia arguta (F,Z4)

Akebia -- Akebia quinata (F,Z5)

Hops Humulus lupulus MedicinalMashua

Tuberous Mountain Yam -- Dioscorea batatas (R,F,Z4)

Nasturtium Tropaeolum tuberosum R,Z8)

Schizandra -- Schizandra spp. (F,Z4)



Wisteria Wisteria floribunda N-fixer, flowers


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