small-fruited pheasant’s eye (Adonis microcarpa)
Small-fruited pheasant’s eye is an annual with a limited distribution in rotational cropping paddocks.
Although its seed production is high, small-fruited pheasant’s eye depends on transport as a contaminant of fodder or seed for its dispersal.
Small-fruited pheasant’s eye is not a serious competitor with cereal crops, where it is easily controlled by herbicides. There is no herbicide treatment in the legume pasture phase, and control depends on pasture management and treatment in the cropping phase of the rotation.
Small-fruited pheasant's eye contains cardiac glycosides that may stock deaths when fed in hay, or as seeds contaminating grain fed to poultry or pigs.
Pheasant's eye needs an annual rainfall over 300 mm, winter monthly temperature minima over 4.5oC and calcareous soils. It has not yet reached its ecological limits in SA, being largely dependent on fodder and seed movement for any further dispersal.
Feasibility of Containment
The species was proclaimed for active control only in those board areas where it had been perceived as creating a problem in the pasture phase of rotational farming.
State Level Risk Assessment
Assessment using the Biosecurity SA Weed Risk Management System gave the following comparative weed risk and feasibility of containment scores by land use:
Feasibility of control
Response at State Level
Small-fruited pheasant's eye was introduced as a garden annual in the around 1890 and was first found naturalised at Roseworthy in 1915. It became a significant weed of rotational pastures before the introduction of modern herbicides because of its unpalatability and toxicity. It was declared noxious under the Weeds Act 1956 for certain areas, and remained declared under the Pest Plants Act 1975, the Animal and Plant Control (Agricultural Protection and Other Purposes) Act 1986 and the Natural Resources Management Act, 2004.
None of the NRM authorities have found it necessary to use any of their powers under the Act to manage small-fruited pheasant’s eye in their regions. Any control actions needed on properties are carried out at the discretion of land owners.
Therefore, small-fruited pheasant’s eye is not declared under the Natural Resources Management Act, 2004 in SA.
Adonis microcarpa DC., Syst. Nat. [Candolle] 1: 222 (1817).
Adonis dentata var. microcarpa (DC.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 276 (1939).
The names Adonis aestivalis, Adonis annua and Adonis autumnalis were sometimes misapplied to Adonis microcarpa in Australia.
Other common names include pheasant’s eye and red morocco.
Kloot, P.M. (1974) Studies in the ecology of Pheasant's Eye (Adonis microcarpus DC.) M. Ag. Sci Thesis: University of Adelaide.