|Physico-chemical Characterisation and Functional Properties of Acacia mellifera gum exudates from Sudan
S.O Mohamed Bilal 1; K.E.Ishag1; M.E.Osman2; S. Al-Assaf3. G.O . Philips3
1Department of Food Science and technology, University of Khartoum Sudan, Shambat, 2Department of Science, Sudan University for Science and Technology. 3Univsty of Glyndwr,Wales ,UK.
This study was conducted to investigate physico-chemial and functional properties of Acacia mellifera gym exudates from different locations of Sudan. Acacia mellifera gum samples were tapped and collected from AL-Dalanj- West of Sudan-(sandy soils) , AL- Hawata -East of Sudan -(clay soils)AL-Japallen - Southern Sudan-(heavy clay soils).Acacia senegal gum sample was introduced and studied as a refrence. Preliminary investigations were done and the results showed water insoluble values have a mean value of 2.09. These samples are leavelatory and have specific optical rotation mean value of 48.1 ,and the senegal sample have a value of -32.2 . Results for nitrogen content showed mean value of 0.94%, and value of 0.4 for senegal sample.PH values have a mean value of 4.87 and it is 4.72 for senegal gum. Ash content values showed 3.84mean value for mellifera samples, and a value of 3.96for senegal gum sample. Acid equivalent weight has mean value of 1308.94 and a corresponding average value of 14.9% of glucuronic acid was recorded. Molecular weight measurements were carried out, values of 7.73×105 and 9.34×105 were reported for AL—Dalanje and AL-Hawta mellifera gums respectively, the senegal sample exhibits a value of 1.23×106.
The emulsion stability of AL-Dalanj and AL-Hawata mellifera gums was investigated; the emulsion stability index showed that mellifera gums have good emulsion stability, and that Al- dalanj mellifera gum emulsion is more stable than AL-Hwata mellifera gum emulsion .
The rheological properties were investigated for AL-Dalanj, AL-Hawata, and the senegal gums using flow and small deformation oscillation measurements. The samples show Newtonian flow behavior and mellifera gum show higher elasticity than senegal gum . Enzyme linked immuno-response was carried for the samples from AL-Dalanj , AL-Hawata , AL-Japallen and Se gum, the response of the SY CC7 ELISA standard curve has been reported. The IC50 values were lower than the control, indicating greater affinity for the antibody. The two fractions of M2 showed very little affinity for the antibody