Photography sector administration as a sub-element of arts management and the application of quality function deployment how to construct a house of quality by lending ear to voice of customer in photography sector by Faik Basaran abstract

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Q. F. D.,



Faik Basaran
Today, like in many other fields, people working in the field of art also need a knowledge of business administration. Both the artistic and daily use of photography make the sector well known by all. As photographical products are widely used, different sections of the sector need different business techniques to satisfy customer expectations. In this paper, the establishment of a Quality House, which is an important tool of Quality Function Deployment, is considered with an example from the photography sector.
No matter which line of business you operate in, the concepts of art and management both examine how the organization of art activities are perceived from the managerial point of view. The operations of Arts Management are aimed at solving problems encountered in the sector. An artist who engages in arts management will have the opportunity to use both his mental and spiritual intuitions.
The discipline of arts management is developing rapidly throughout America, Europe and Australia. It has a function of improving the service quality of managers operating in the cultural sector. The sector includes multinational operations such as private museums, radio-television, motion picture companies, music companies, the press and multimedia, and companies that organize festivals as well as small scale non-profit groups working voluntarily.
At universities that offer education in Arts Management, students take courses from several faculties such as Arts and Humanities, Law, and Business Administration. Faculties of Business Administration support the subject with modules for finance, marketing, human resources and production management. During the latter years of their careers, artists who have completed their education in a specific field wish to work as advisors at universities in hope of using the practical skills they have acquired through the years. In such cases, they feel the need to gain knowledge about the legal and managerial aspects of arts management.
When applied properly the discipline of arts management can help to improve the economic nature of cities and regions. Beyond economic improvement it is also possible that arts management provides people with the need for culture and helps to develop their personalities.
It is also expected that arts management graduates produce suitable solutions to the varying appraisals concerning the aesthetic and artistic tendencies which are formed according to the demands of customer groups coming from different technological, economical and social ranks.
In the Arts Management Departments of various universities, the following topics are covered in the context of Production Management:
1) choosing a place for establishment,

2) organizing workplace,

3) work analysis

4) equipment management,

5) project planning,

6) demand estimates,

7) inventory control,

8) quality control techniques.

The topics are reviewed with case studies inspired by actual events that take place in the sector.
In today’s world, the knowledge of management with all of its functions has entered every aspect of our daily lives. The art sector as well as sectors like health, tourism, and sports all require personnel who are educated in their respective field and who at the same time have a knowledge of management. In this sense the topic Arts Management is an interdisciplinary field.
Aside from the daily usage of its products, the photography sector also takes part in the field of art. It is a sector which requires managers who have a knowledge of photography as well as photographers who have a knowledge of management. If they show interest in Photography Sector Administration, students who attend the Photography Department of the Faculty of Fine Arts may benefit from new areas of employment after they graduate. Graduates who do not limit their working area as only a studio can hereby find employment in international manufacturing companies of the photography sector.
In this paper, the topic Quality Function Deployment is examined with a case study taken from the photography sector. The association between the presumptions “What is expected from the product”, and “How can these expectations be actualized” is made and numeric rankings are given where needed. .
An essential problem about traditional production processes is that customers and production engineers speak differently. For example, a nature lover young customer may express his/her desire to buy a fine bicycle. When this demand is converted into technical language, the need to specify a series of technical details arises. These technical details may include features like the material used to manufacture the vehicle’s body, the suspension, the gear, and brakes. A customer of cosmetic products who has dry skin will have to decide whether to buy a night cream or day cream, and which pH value to choose. Whatever it is that customers wish to express in a colloquial language will be rephrased into terms and definitions used by design and production personnel.
The act of converting customer expectations into terms used in the design and production phases has been developed by the Japanese with the Quality Function Deployment approach. In this method the customer is the actual determiner of the design, production and marketing phases because the wish to actualize customer demand is fundamental in every activity. The data and information needed for applying the method are composed in matrix form.
The QFD approach which is being used today by many leading companies like General Motors, Ford, Mazdai Motorola, Xerox, Kodak, IBM, Procter&Gamble, Hewlett-Packard, and AT&T was put into practice for the first time by Mitsubishi in 1972. It was also used during the full production phase of 1992 model Cadillac cars. Toyota has been showing interest in the subject since 1977 and has obtained effective results.
Companies where QFD is being applied have experienced a decrease of 30-50% in average design activities, and 20-60% in production costs. Complaints about the products have also lessened by a rate of 20-50%.
For example Toyota discovered a 20% savings in new products during the

period January 1977-October 1979. With the year 1977 taken as a base, this rate of savings reached 38% in 1982, and 61% in 1984. Furthermore, production periods decreased by 30%. Along with reduced costs and time, the approach has provided an increase in quality standards. The application of QFD in the United States was first realized in 1986 by Xerox and Ford.

When analyzed strategically the QFD approach has provided an opportunity for top management to avoid the abundance of post production results. Management has acquired a larger perception about how and under which conditions the results are obtained. When the QFD approach is put into practice all the operations of the company are actualized according to customer demands instead of the directives coming from top management and the foresights of product designers. In traditional structures, a lot of time is spent redesigning products until the products satisfy the needs of customers. Yet, according to the QFD approach, if customer demands can be defined properly at the beginning of the production process, the waste of labor and time will be avoided.
In companies where QFD is applied, the communication and cooperation between raw material suppliers, design, production and marketing units will increase. Expectations from the product can be better understood during the production process and hereby it will become easier to perform whatever is needed. Details that do not meet customer expectations will be used as guiding tips by top management as to how the quality standard can be increased. Hereby, both quality standard and productivity will increase, and this will significantly prevent the waste of time.
The QFD approach deals with the relationship of “what is done and how it is done” in product design. While the customer defines “what” he/she wants, design engineers must determine “how” this demand can be actualized. Establishing the “Quality House” is an essential phase of the QFD approach. It requires the assistance of design, production and marketing departments and it is based on determining the interrelated functions of these departments.
Four separate quality house matrices can be formed relating to product design and the production process:
1) The planning matrix contains product design features. The relative degrees of importance that take place during the design and production processes are determined.

2) The information contained in the planning matrix is divided into sub-component systems in the product matrix. The critical relationship between the components and the product are determined.

3) The data from the component matrix and the design features of the components are determined.

4) The information that takes place in the final stage are the definition of employee working instructions and inspection activities.

According to the general definition, quality is the total features and characteristics of a product or a service. It must have an ability to satisfy the needs of the customers with a reasonable price.
In traditional product development systems, customers and production authorities may speak different languages. A photography sector customer may want a camera that is easy and reliable for quick shooting. Technical people will understand this requirement as "He wants a camera which will make exposure decisions correctly even in hard working conditions like snowy days with a lot of white, backlighting conditions etc.
Q. F. D. approach makes it more possible to meet customer requirements. Efforts will begin from the designing process and continue in the design of production systems. This approach, Q. F. D., is a customer oriented planning process for designing, production and marketing of all types of goods, including photographic ones. According to Q. F. D. point of view every decision and attempt has something to do with reflecting the customer needs. Under this mentality top managers and designers become secondary role-wo/men in product planning process, if compared to customers. Time and effort of design, research and development groups are on duty till customer needs are met. It uses a type of matrix diagram. For an effective work and time usage, it is necessary to identify the customer needs first. Customer needs concept is the principal focus of Q. F. D.
To determine the reasons of customer dissatisfaction may become a useful tool for the top managemers of companies. By using this benefit, companies may reduce the development time for new and / or redesigned goods and gain competitive advantage.
To see and determine what type of products will satisfy the customers and where to have some quality attacts, it is advisable to use Q. F. D. system. By using this system it is possible to determine:
1) Customer's true needs, the factors that will satisfy the potential customers,

2) To translate the last chain's real customer needs to the managers.

To be successful in the points above, some matrices is used to complete the "House of Quality".

Quality Function Deployment and the House of Quality are important concepts and tools to combine the views of customer and Product Development Team. It helps the members of the company to walk through the same direction.
During the application of the Quality Function Deployment approach a series of matrix structures are used. The aim is to transform customer demands into technical details referring to the final product and component parts. By this means, it will become possible to actualize the inspection plans and production steps of the process. The first matrix is the one that contains customer demands and it comprises the fundamental structure of QFD. This matrix is referred to as “House” due to its graphic appearance.
The establishment of the “Quality House” requires six essential steps.
1) The definition customer demands,

2) The definition of the technical necessities,

3) The conversion of customer demands into technical necessities,

4) The evaluation of competing products,

5) Determining the objective and developing the technical necessities that can actualize customer demands in conformity with the objectives.

6) Deciding which technical necessities can be deployed into consecutive phases within the production process.

Step 1: To Be Aware of the Customer Requirements:
In Q. F. D. process customer voice is the predecessor. This critical and difficult step has some sub-topics:
i) Customer requirements and priorities,

ii) Technical requirements and priorities,

iii) Relationships between customer and technical requirements,
The main question to be answered at Step 1: What do customers want to see when they buy this product ?
Step 2: Product Requirements to Meet the Customer Requirements:

Customer requirements must be transferred to engineering language. Product requirements are the characteristics which will satisfy customer needs. For example, it is known that there is a strong relationship between the coverage angle and the weight of a zoom lens. To increase the range of a zoom from ultra wide angles to telephoto lenses, will make the size bigger and the weight heavier. One can see the relations between factors collectively with the house House of Quality matrix.

The main question to be answered at Step 2: Which and how goods and / or services will satisfy customer needs ?
Step 3: Relationship Matrix Which Shows the Customer and Technical Requirements:
In the matrix there are some symbols to indicate the degree of relationship. If there is no relationship built between the customer and technical requirements, it means the final product will not satisfy the customer throughly. On the other hand every technical requirement must have a reflection on some customer requirement.
The main question to be answered at Step 3: Do the connections between the customer requirements and product abilities created through a matrix ?
Step 4: Market Evaluation:
Priorities for design process is important. With this step, product engineers and designers can have the opportunity for improvement as they can find customer requirement importance ratings. If all competitors' products has a weak point at the same function, improvements on this factor may become a real advantage. For example if competetive zoom lenses A and B are weak in carrying and hand helding with their shape or length or weight, and it is observed that this speciality creates focusing problem during hand held shots, using it as a key marketing factor, the producer of brand C may gain a competetive advantage.
The main question to be answered at Step 4: Are the relationship between the requirements connected to each other to form a importance or priority scale ?
Step 5: To Evaluate Technical Requirements:

Customer requirements are compared to in-production efforts. The mentioned in-production activity is about develeoping a product. Sometimes products fit well the customer requirements but get poor grades from the departments. If this is the condition, there may be 2 reasons. First of them is the measures used to determine the needs of the customer may be wrong. The second reason is about the appereance of the product which points out that changes (or developments) are only about the physical appereance.

The main question to be answered at Step 5: Are priorities of the customer translated to the companies' prosess structure in the same order ?
Step 6:
Determine the Technical Requirements for the Rest of the Process:

This step identifies customer focused technical requirements which have a highest priority.

The main question to be answered at Step 6: Are competetive products that the company produce really provide customer satisfaction ?
As a summary, we can say that Q. F. D. information provides information about customer needs. The management uses this information for the strategic direction of the company. After this first step production process employees must also hear the voice of the customer.

The establishment of the Quality House and an application of the QFD approach is examined below with two examples from the photography sector.

Step 1: What does the customer expect from the product? Defining and determining customer demands (expectations):
Anybody who has their pictures taken for a number of reasons like portrait, family photos or wedding photos has a natural demand which is simply expressed as “I want to look good in this picture”. Obviously this kind of a definition which comes only from people at the level of users, consumers or ordinary photographers lacks technical meaning and is simply a colloquial expression of customers’ desires. But it is exactly this expression which in itself lies at the heart of the QFD approach. The toughest phase of the approach begins as soon as this expression is declared. It must be fully and clearly understood by everyone who takes place in the production process.
When the matter is taken from the photographer’s point of view, it becomes clear that the photographer’s real customer is not only the person who has his/her portrait picture taken. Since this picture will most probably be used for office records, it should also come at certain standards that fulfill the needs of the official business place.
In other words, the picture must “look good” to the customer who has it taken and at the same time it must carry certain features for the real user, i.e. the official business place. For example, it must have a specific size, it must be a color photo, and it should be clear and bright enough to distinctly identify its owner. Under these conditions we can conclude that, “The photographer’s real customer is not only the person who has his/her portrait picture taken and pays for it, but also the official business place where this picture will be used”.
When commercial and industrial photography is considered, the phases and activities performed in general to produce correct and suitable results can be listed as follows:
Starting point,





Determining the objective and signing the contract,

Getting the necessary permissions; composing the layout drafts; recruiting the team members; preparing the setting and background details; making the costumes; providing the missing equipment,

Doing the makeup when working with photomodels; adjusting the lights; forming different compositions; taking Polaroid previews,

Performing the final shooting; developing and printing; choosing the most appropriate among the samples.
The pre-production and production phases begin as soon as the scenario for the photograph shooting is determined, the art director and photographer have discussed the details, and the legal and financial matters have been settled. Working for the actual shooting begins after the permissions are granted for the place where the shooting will be performed, the setting and costumes are prepared and the missing equipment is provided. Trial shootings and actual shootings are performed under different compositions and light adjustments. The photos are developed and printed. Actually, the production phases will continue within special activities in areas like exhibitions, catalogues, magazines, newspapers, encyclopedias and working reports where the photos will be used. The Quality Function Deployment approach will relate each process to customer expectations respectively. A majority of the personnel taking place in the process will work in the pre-production and production phases. The QFD approach needs to be supported by the personnel and their experiences. Otherwise, it will not be possible to make use of valuable information that can help to actualize customer expectations.
The aspects behind customer wishes present secondary demands. Underneath the demand “I want to look good in this picture” lies secondary demands like “I want my picture to look clear”, “I want a picture with appropriate lighting conditions”, “I want a picture with a proper composition”. In fact, it is possible to divide for example the demand “I want a picture with appropriate lighting conditions” into sub-components like “The lights should be arranged so that my eyeglasses do not shine”, “Different spotlights should be arranged so that my hair can be visible on the background”. The situation expressed with that simple sentence, i.e. all aspects of the product quality that can or cannot be defined by the customer are each an input in the QFD process.
Step 2: How the product or service will actualize customer expectations, determining and defining design characteristics of the product in order to fulfill customer wishes:
This is the step where customer wishes must be stated in measurable design and engineering terms. Measurable terms make it possible to interfere, supervise, and control. The measures are compared with the objectives. This is the step where the answers to the question “what is demanded” are associated with the list of “how to actualize the demands”.
Going back to our example, in order to actualize our customer’s wish to “look good in his/her picture” a number of technical features must be kept under control. These include, the grain structure of films, appropriate film formats, correct size lens, forming a proper composition, resolution power of lenses, cleaning, number of lights used, diffusers for light heads, kelvin degrees of the lights, the positioning of lights, background color, accurate hand-held meter, additional accessories for various print sizes in the mini-laboratory, and the size of the studio.
The roof of the Quality House shows the interrelationship between the technical necessities. Different presentations are used to express the power of these relationships. The answer to the question ‘what effect the alteration of one of the product features will have on the other features’ is sought in the roof of the Quality House. For example, a strong relationship exists between camera format, the wide variety of lenses, film formats, grain structure of films, resolution power of lenses, and a clean working environment and equipment.
Step 3: Converting customer wishes into technical features, setting up the matrix of the relationship between customer wishes and technical necessities:
While customer wishes are listed on the left side of the matrix, the technical necessities are written on the top part. The degree of relationhip is shown in the cells created within the matrix and the roof of the Quality House. The reason for setting up a relationship matrix is to determine the extent to which customer wishes can be met with the foreseen technical necessities.

Photography equipment consists primarily of a camera and a lens. While cameras come in different sizes, lenses are classified according to the width of the area they cover as well as the size of camera they can be used with. For example, a 46 degree 105 mm. lens, resembling the sight of the human eye, used on a 6x7 cm. size camera is a normal lens. A 105 mm. focus length for 35 mm. cameras is the equivalent of a long lens which can view angles of approximately 100 degrees. Since the mounting systems of lenses come in various sizes, it is not possible to use lenses that are manufactured for 6x7 cm. cameras on 35 mm. cameras. Therefore there is a strong positive relationship between the size of the camera and the appropriate variety of lenses. The same applies to the size of the film.

The minimum focusing distance of various lenses having different angles differ from each other. Therefore, sharp focusing is related to the lens used and the area of shooting. If the area is small, the number of lenses that can be used is limited. A similar situation that causes a negative relationship exists between the largeness of the area used and the positioning of lights. This negative relationship is not strong because the problem can be solved to a certain extent by using field depth and neutral density filters.
If a relation between customer wishes and technical necessities has not been established, it is possible that all of these customer wishes may not be reflected in the form. In this case the final product will not fully meet customer wishes. Similarly, if a technical necessity is unessential for even one of the customer wishes, it means that either an unwanted value was added to the product or that product designers have failed to perceive an important customer wish.
Step 4: Ranking the priorities of the company, ranking customer expectations and determining key points to increase sales:
In this step, customer expectations are prioritized. The condition of the existing product is weighed against these priorities. This way it becomes possible to evaluate the strong and weak aspects of competing products in the market. This step enables design engineers to determine which features of the product need to be improved priorly. For example, if all of the products in the market are weak at meeting a particular customer expectation, the first product that satisfies this expectation will gain a distinctive superiority over the others. This method plays an important role in increasing sales.
Let us assume that in our case study example, both studios – Studio A and Studio B – located in the same neighborhood, cannot produce pictures at the desired level of quality due to Kelvin degree errors and deviations in the lighting system they use and that this causes all pictures to look bluish. From the customer’s point of view this is an unwanted situation for the appearance of their complexion, especially in portrait pictures that will be used for official purposes. The first studio to solve this problem will win competitive advantage over the other.

Step 5: Determining the aimed

values and evaluating competing products:
In this phase, the aimed values in the 5-grade scale are compared with the existing situation and competing products are evaluated as to what extent they meet customer expectations. If a product feature with low technical necessity meets a customer expectation considerably well, it is possible that the grading may be wrong or that the technical detail involved is over-improved.
Step 6: Determining the technical necessities to be deployed to consecutive phases:
Technical details that are closely associated with customer expectations, that do not show high performance or that have an effect on sales are defined as “technical necessities with high priority that must be deployed”.
Quality Function Deployment guides top management through strategic decisions. The first step of the QFD process requires the comprehension of customer expectations.This is followed by the conveyance of these expectations to the production phases. The Quality House is also used while contemplating the component parts, procedural phases and production planning.
In our example, customer expectations are determined as necessary conditions and necessary performance. These are ranked on a 1-5 grade scale according to their level of importance. The product design team has listed the technical features that will meet customer expectations. The appropriate corresponding ways to actualize these expectations are defined in the matrix. This information becomes important when a change in design is required and it is used for discerning the level of importance of the design characteristics.
The interrelationship between the product characteristics are ranked in the roof of the Quality House. When the values in the row for Absolute Degree of Importance are listed in a descending order they display the most critical factors concerning the product’s success. The matrix includes the customer wishes for competing firms and an evaluation of what factors are used to actualize these wishes. High grade values indicate favorable performance.
The photography sector’s customer expectations for the product are listed on the left side of the matrix. It is possible to separate these wishes into two or three levels of usefulness. In our example, this separation is realized as “usability” and “performance” and has been graded as such. The values for the two competing firms take place in the right side of the matrix.
Customer expectations that have a high capacity of improvement include, preparations for the shooting, size of camera, lenses, working area (since it will affect the number of lights used), and the background varying in color, pattern, size and durability. Concealing complexional imperfections and taking well-focused clear pictures are factors that will increase customer satisfaction and thereby improve sales considerably.
The engineering characteristics pertaining to our example are at the upper part of the matrix. The relationship between customer expectations and engineering characteristics are found in the body of the matrix, while the interrelationship of engineering characteristics alone are shown in the roof. You can notice that there are negative connections in the relationships found in the roof. This kind of a negative connection implies that a certain engineering characteristic must be given up for another. The competing firms’ actualization of customer expectations and technical necessities is evaluated on a 5 grade scale.
Cumulative values obtained by calculating the sum of relation values multiplied by importance values are shown at the base of the matrix. The opinions about aimed values of people involved with the product are also included. For example, 3 different lenses are needed to take portrait, full height, and group pictures. Yet this number can be reduced to 2 by efficiently applying several functions to only one lens. Therefore, 6 lenses are needed for the 3 different camera sizes, 35 mm., 6x7 cm. and 10x12,5cm. Accepting the concerning limitations, it is possible to use 6x7 cm. cameras for 35 mm. shots. In this case the aimed value becomes 4. Whereas in the present situation 2 lenses are being used. The essential engineering characteristic in our example is the light element with a 25% relative degree of importance.
According to customer evaluation Studio A is superior to its competitor in terms of lighting and area conditions, and technical knowledge. When evaluated in terms of engineering necessities Studio B has a superiority in variety of lenses, and is rich in terms of the various kinds of films used and the variety of print formats. Yet, the personnel must be better informed about composition, lighting, and useful equipment.
Terms for matrix:
Direction of improvement,



Importance degree for customer,

Technical performance,

Camera size,

Variety of lenses,



Developing and printing equipments,




Area, field, m2,

Aim, goal,




Print format,




Complexional Imperfections,

Appropriate background,

Sufficient area / field,

Dramatic lighting,

Measuring unit,

Technical evaluation,


Absolute value of importance,

Relative value of importance,

Present value,

Standard value,

Aimed value,

Strong positive,

Medium positive,

Medium negative,

Strong negative,



Quality House (Matrix)
With a market survey the managers of Great Shot Cameras Ltd. Co. want to find out what their serious amateur and semi-professional customers desire from their 35 mm. cameras.
According to the questionarries and face to face interviews with semi-professional 35 mm. users, some functions considered has top importance (Step 1). These functions are:
1) Reliable exposure meter,

2) Complex abilities with easy to use, functional switches,

3) Easy to hold structure,

4) Lightweight,

5) Quick and sharp focusing,

6) Quick and easy film loading,

When the product development team received these customer desires they thought on how to translate these wishes for product and process design levels. In the end they came to a conclusion that

1) using functional micro-processors,

2) aliminium body structure,

3) passive auto-focusing system,

4) matrix metering system with safety shift function,

5) motorized film advance system,

6) ergonomic design
can solve the problem and raise the quality standards of the camera to the desires of serious amateur and semi-professional customers. (Step 2)
The product development team must answer how each customer desire will be satisfied. These answers will form a relationship matrix (Step 3). By examining this relationship matrix, it will be possible to see how well the new design will meet customer needs.
Relationship between the attributes have to be developed (Step 4).
Each cell in the relationship matrix must have importance rating by assigning some numerical values, (5 for the highest - 1 for the lowest). At the same time customers have a importance rating too. Multiply these two values to find the most critical factors on the way to successful product (Step 5).
House of Quality considers the competitors. To answer the question "How well do they perform to meet customer demands ?". G for good, F for fair and P for poor will be their grades (Step 6).
What the Customer Wants, Customer Importance Ratings, (1 = highest)

  1. Reliable exposure meter, 1, using functional micro processors, high relationship, (weight= 5), aliminium body structure, low relationship, (weight= 1), passive auto-focusing system, low relationship, matrix metering system with safety shift function, high relationship, motorized film advance system, low relationship, ergonomic design, medium relationship, (weight= 3),

  1. Complex abilities with easy to use, functional switches, 2, using functional micro processors, high relationship, aliminium body structure, low relationship, passive auto-focusing system, high relationship, matrix metering system with safety shift function, medium relationship, motorized film advance system, medium relationship, ergonomic design, high relationship,

  1. Easy to hold structure, 3, using functional micro processors, low relationship, aliminium body structure, low relationship, passive auto-focusing system, low relationship, matrix metering system with safety shift function, low relationship, motorized film advance system, medium relationship, ergonomic design, high relationship,

  1. Lightweight, 3, using functional micro processors, high relationship, aliminium body structure, high relationship, passive auto-focusing system, low relationship, matrix metering system with safety shift function, low relationship, motorized film advance system, high relationship, ergonomic design, high relationship,

  1. Quick and sharp focusing, 1, using functional micro processors, high relationship, aliminium body structure, low relationship, passive auto-focusing system, high relationship, matrix metering system with safety shift function, low relationship, motorized film advance system, low relationship, ergonomic design, medium relationship ,

  1. Quick and easy film loading, 3, using functional micro processors, high relationship, aliminium body structure, low relationship, passive auto-focusing system, low relationship, matrix metering system with safety shift function, low relationship, motorized film advance system, high relationship, ergonomic design, high relationship.

Weighted Importance Ratings (Producer Company):

using functional micro processors,

Total [(Customer Importance Ratings) (Company Importance Ratings)]

= (1 X 5) + (2 X 5) + (3 X 1) + (3 X 5) + (1 X 5) + (3 X 5) = 53

aliminium body structure, 25,

passive auto-focusing system, 25,

matrix metering system with safety shift function, 21,

motorized film advance system, 47,

ergonomic design, 61.

According to these results, highest to lowest critical factor ranking is:
1) Ergonomic design,

2) Using functional micro processors,

3) Motorized film advance,

4) Passive auto focusing system and aliminium body structure,

5) Matrix metering system with safety shift function.
Faik Basaran

Submitted through: Arts Management Network, Weimar, Germany:

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