Peter the Great and Russia Peter had half brother Ivan V and half sister Sofia

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Peter the Great and Russia

  • Peter had half brother Ivan V and half sister Sofia

  • Was made co-ruler with Ivan V in 1682, when Peter was 10 years old

    • Sofia had all the power

    • Peter preferred to play war games.

  • “Peter foiled a plot to have Sofia crowned” in 1689, when he was 17

  • Ivan died in 1696, Peter became the sole ruler.

    • He wanted ports on the Baltic sea

  • While he was in Europe Sofia tried to seize the throne with the help of the streltsi (the royal guard)

  • Peter cut short his trip to return home and torture and kill hundreds who were involved.

  • Peter made peace with Ottoman Empire and attacked the Swedes in 1700 at the port of Narva on the Gulf of Finland.

    • The 8,000 Swedes under Charles XII beat the 40,000 Russians

    • The Russian army was outdated, and snow was blowing into their eyes.

  • Peter built his new capital at St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea coast in 1703

  • Peter defeated Charles XII at Poltava in 1709 by drawing the Swedish army deep into the Russian plains in the heart of a bad winter.

  • This was the decisive battle in the Great Northern War with Sweden, and with it Russia became linked by land to Western Europe with the lands it had acquired: Livonia, Estonia, and Ingria.

  • Muscovy was officially changed to the Russian Empire in 1721, when Sweden signed the Treaty of Nystad, which confirmed Peter’s new acquisitions.

  • Peter expanded the army by requiring nobility to serve for life.

  • In 1722 Peter formed the Table of Ranks, “which determined a person’s position and status according to service to the tsar rather than to birth or seniority.”

  • Peter took away the Church’s political influence by:

    • Taking away the patriarchate and putting in its place a council of bishops, called the Holy Synod

    • Appointing an official called the Procurator to preside over the Synod and make Peter’s decisions.

  • He required education for nobles and established schools.

  • He made his aristocrats “acquire the dress, tastes, and social customs of the West

  • Peter’s son Aleksey was an active opponent of his father’s reforms so…

    • Peter killed him and

    • Changed the rules of succession so that the tsar would pick his successor, as opposed to it passing on to the oldest son.

    • Peter died in 1725, before he could name his successor.

  • Rulers after Peter the Great:

  1. Catherine I, his wife

    1. Allied with Austria against Ottoman Empire

    2. Died in 1727

  1. Peter II, Peter’s grandson – Died in 1730 from smallpox

  1. Anna, daughter of Ivan V – Died in 1740

  2. Ivan VI, Anna’s infant grandnephew – was overthrown in 1741

  3. Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great

    1. Founded Moscow University and the Academy of Fine Arts

    2. “Russia’s first eminent scientist and scholar” emerged, Mikhail Lomonosov

    3. Westernized Russian culture came to surface

    4. In the Seven Years’ War (1756-63), Austria allied with France against Prussia, so Russia entered into war against Prussia.

    5. Elizabeth died in 1762

  1. Peter III was Elizabeth’s successor

    1. He was loyal to the Prussian emperor, Frederick the Great, so he allied Russia with Prussia.

    2. Peter III imposed Prussian practices and Lutheran beliefs on Russia, so people hated him.

    3. Peter III’s wife, Catherine II, overthrew him, and her lover Aleksey Orlov murdered him.

    4. Catherine II ascended the throne as empress of Russia.

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