Part cxxxiii. Bulletin 1674Safety Manual for Career and Technical Education Programs 1




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Table of Contents

Title 28

EDUCATION

Part CXXXIII. Bulletin 1674Safety Manual for
Career and Technical Education Programs 1

Chapter 1. Introduction 1

§101. Purpose 1

§103. Intended Audience 1

§105. How Teachers Should Use This Publication 2

Chapter 3. Elements of a Successful Safety, Health and Environment Program 2

§301. Overview 2

§303. Identify, Prioritize Potential Hazards in Designated Areas 2

§305. Eliminate, Prevent, and Control Hazards 3

§307. Employee, Management, and Student Training 3

§309. Management Commitment 4

§311. Employee and Student Involvement 4

Chapter 5. Curriculum Content 5

§501. Introduction 5

§503. Two-Fold Objective 5

§505. Purposes of the Manual 5

§507. Curriculum Elements 5

Chapter 15. Emergency Procedures Worksheet 6

§1501. Worksheet Instructions 6

§1507. Injuries and Illnesses 6

§1509. Emergency Response 7

§1511. Training 7

§1519. Relative Risk Factors 7

§1529. Control Categories 8

Chapter 17. Environmental Protection Worksheet 9

§1701. Worksheet Instructions 9

§1707. Air Pollution Control 9

§1709. Indoor Air Quality 10

§1711. Hazardous Waste Management 12

§1721. Relative Risk Factors 14

§1731. Control Categories 15

Chapter 19. Hazard Communication Worksheet 16

§1901. Definitions 16

§1903. Worksheet Instructions 16

§1911. Elements of a Hazard Communication Program 16

§1921. Relative Risk Factors 17

§1931. Control Categories 19

Chapter 21. Fire Prevention and Protection Worksheet 19

§2101. Worksheet Instructions 19

§2111. Facilities 19

§2113. Materials and Equipment 20

§2115. Work Methods 21

§2127. Relative Risk Factors 21

§2135. Control Categories 22

Chapter 23. Hearing Conservation and Noise Protection Worksheet 23

§2301. Worksheet Instructions 23

§2311. Facilities and Equipment 23

§2321. Relative Risk Factors 24

§2331. Control Categories 25

Chapter 25. Mechanical Hazards Worksheet 25

§2501. Worksheet Instructions 25

§2511. General Requirements 25

§2513. Control of Hazardous Energy Sources (Lockout/Tagout) 26

§2515. Mechanical Power-Transmission Devices 28

§2517. Abrasive Wheel Machinery 29

§2519. Woodworking Machinery 30

§2529. Relative Risk Factors 34

§2537. Control Categories 35

Chapter 27. Walking, Working, Surfaces/Stairs/Railings Worksheet 36

§2701. Worksheet Instructions 36

§2711. Facilities 36

§2721. Relative Risk Factors 38

§2933. Control Categories 39

Chapter 29. Means of Egress/Escape 40

§2901. Worksheet Instructions 40

§2911. Self-Inspection 40

§2913. Exit Marking 41

§2923. Relative Risk Factors 41

§2937. Control Categories 42

Chapter 31. Ergonomics Worksheet 43

§3101. Worksheet Instructions 43

§3111. Evaluation 43

§3121. Relative Risk Factors 44

§3125. Control Categories 45



Title 28

EDUCATION

Part CXXXIII. Bulletin 1674Safety Manual for
Career and Technical Education Programs


Chapter 1. Introduction

§101. Purpose

A. Rapid changes are occurring in our world and economy. The increasing complexity of work that spans the entire work force of today's society demands that education for all students be made more relevant and useful to future careers.

B. To prepare Louisiana Agricultural Education, Technology Education and Trade and Industrial Education Students to meet the demands of society and the workplace in the twenty-first century, industry-based certification standards were developed to address content knowledge and the application of skills. These standards focus on what students should know, be able to do, and be able to demonstrate in the workplace. They promote and develop critical thinking processes, which students will use in the classroom and real work applications, address the diversity of educational needs of Louisiana students enrolled in Career and Technical Education courses, and address industry-based certification programs for employability. This must be accomplished in a safe environment.

C. The Safety Manual for Career and Technical Programs was written to fulfill the need for an up-to-date industry-based practical educational resource that focuses upon the needs of teachers, supervisors, and students involved in laboratory instruction at the secondary level in Louisiana public schools. It is also intended for use in:

1. universities;

2. career centers;

3. high schools; and

4. junior high school career and technical education laboratories.

D. Louisiana has made significant strides toward improving the education of our children. Our goal is to build our strengths as we continue to improve education in our state. By developing rigorous standards and challenging assessments that align with industry-based standards and by holding schools accountable for results, we are ensuring a better future for our children.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:45 (January 2007).

§103. Intended Audience

A. The Safety Manual for Career and Technical Programs is intended for a broad audience, including agriculture, technology, trade and industrial education teachers, parents, school and district administrators, school board members, policy makers, Louisiana Department of Education staff, college/university faculty/administrators, business/industry leaders, and government agency staff. The framework serves as a guide for safety curriculum and instruction, and as a general reference "checklist" to the safety and health concepts and skills taught and adhered to within Louisiana career and technical education courses. The intended users of the framework include:

1. career and technical education teachers to use in planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment;

2. parents to use as a means of assessing the safety and effectiveness of their children's career and technical laboratories;

3. school and district administrators and school board members to use as a vision for safety and health education and a basis for planning resource allocations, materials purchases, local curriculum development, teachers' professional development, and faculty recruitment;

4. policy makers and state education staff to use as a basis for:

a. developing and obeying laws;

b. health and safety policies;

c. professional development activities and materials;

d. assessment strategies; and

e. funding priorities to support local program development;

5. university faculty and administrators to use as a basis for the content and design of pre-service and in-service teacher education programs regarding safety and health instruction;

6. business/industry leaders and government agency staff to use as a basis for developing effective partnerships for supporting safety and health education programs and professional development.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:45 (January 2007).

§105. How Teachers Should Use This Publication

A. This Part outlines the appropriate content to be taught in Louisiana Career and Technical Education programs that require laboratories. Local needs will determine how this should be taught in local career and technical education programs. Teachers will be able to use this framework to guide them in the restructuring of their laboratory curricula. This document contains specific performance criteria essential to laboratory safety education. These specific assessment criteria must be supported on the local level by all individuals involved in the educational process.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:45 (January 2007).

Chapter 3. Elements of a Successful Safety, Health and Environment Program

§301. Overview

A. The key to preventing harm to school employees, students, and the environment is to establish a good occupational safety, health, and environmental program.

B. A good program may take years to put in place, but the guidelines below are a good place to begin. Start with individual items or parts of items. The guidelines are divided into five sections:

1. identify and prioritize potential hazards;

2. eliminate, prevent, and control hazards;

3. train employees, students, and management;

4. assure management commitment;

5. assure employee and student involvement:

a. the occupational safety, health, and environmental safety program should be tailored to the needs of the school, department, or school system. Small schools with limited resources may form safety and health cooperatives with other schools to help manage all or parts of their programs.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:45 (January 2007).

§303. Identify, Prioritize Potential Hazards in Designated Areas

A. Designated Areas. Divide the school and associated structures into designated areas and sub-areas.

1. Designate structural or functional major areas of the school (i.e., administrative offices, classrooms, labs, etc.)

2. Designate sub-areas of each major area (i.e., specific office, classroom or lab, etc.).

B. Conduct walk-through inspections.

1. Each designated sub-area should be inspected to identify potential hazards associated with the equipment, materials and function of the area.

2. Checklists specific to the equipment, materials and function of the area (See Inspection Worksheets) can help identify hazards and determine whether the organization complies with applicable safety and health or environmental regulations.

C. Compile and/or update a hazardous material inventory.

1. Record:

a. the names and amounts of all hazardous materials used;

b. the means of their disposal; and

c. the occurrence of any spills or releases on the premises.

2. Collect and maintain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for all hazardous materials listed in the inventory.

3. Determine which hazardous materials are regulated by federal, state or local agencies. These include:

a. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA);

b. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and

c. the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ).

D. Maintain and update a process and equipment inventory.

1. Record the location of hazardous processes or equipment, and the dates when maintenance or monitoring must be performed.

2. Keep an inventory of safety equipment related to specific equipment and those who use it.

E. Establish a purchase screening procedure.

1. Establish a procedure for consideration of health and safety elements when purchasing goods and services and leasing new space. Avoiding a hazard is easier than controlling it.

2. Before any purchase of chemicals, equipment, or services, develop a system that may be reviewed by a safety representative or committee member.

3. Similarly, review plans for renovating, constructing, or leasing new facilities.

F. Investigate incidents, spills, and releases.

1. A safety representative or committee member should investigate every incident or release to determine how to prevent such a problem in the future.

2. A "Chemical Release" and other incident report forms should be developed. At a minimum, the form should have a space to answer, "What were the causes of the incident or release?" and "What precautions or controls could have prevented the incident or release?"

3. Employees and students should be encouraged to report near hits or close calls as well.

G. Record Evaluation

1. Evaluate injury and illness records.

a. The OSHA Log 300, a required employee occupational illness and injury record-keeping system, should be reviewed by persons responsible for safety and health on a regular basis.

b. Personal injury claims and workers' compensation claims may also identify whether certain classrooms, buildings, or processes pose an undue risk.

2. Evaluate environmental records.

a. Review existing records such as the hazard communication inventory, air permits, hazardous waste records, solid waste records, and medical waste records to identify chemicals or processes that should be substituted, recycled, or prevented.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:46 (January 2007).

§305. Eliminate, Prevent, and Control Hazards

A. Hazard Elimination

1. Perform routine housekeeping.

a. Get rid of trash by disposing of it properly.

b. Make sure that hazardous chemicals and other materials are stored safely.

2. Provide regular equipment maintenance, repair, and replacement.

a. Equipment includes:

i. hazardous machinery;

ii. safety gear; and

iii. ventilation system.

b. Check that machine guards are in place.

c. Implement a maintenance and repair record-keeping system.

B. Hazard Control

1. Engineering Controls

a. The safety and health controls that are built into a process are referred to as "engineering controls". Engineering controls are the first in the hierarchy of controls that are used to reduce teachers' and students' exposure to a hazard.

b. Incorporate safety and health controls in the design of the process or operation rather than have students follow certain rules, wear protective gear, or clean up excess pollution.

c. Engineering controls may include:

i. substitution;

ii. isolation;

iii. enclosure; and

iv. ventilation of a process or equipment.

2. Work Practice Controls and/or Programs

a. Written safety procedures may be developed for specific operations or tasks to control or eliminate the associated hazards.

b. Written general programs for respiratory protection, vehicle safety, etc., will help to emphasize the importance of specific controls.

C. Hazard Protection

1. Provide personal protective equipment (PPE).

a. Respiratory Protections

i. Respiratory protection should be used only as a temporary or last-resort solution when engineering controls are inadequate to control the hazards.

ii. Respirators could be used routinely if job hazards require it.

b. Other forms of PPE could be required depending on the job and hazards involved and include:

i. hearing protection;

ii. welders' masks;

iii. hard hats;

iv. safety glasses or goggles.

c. Using PPE involves careful selection, maintenance, and user training.

2. Eyewash Facilities and Showers. Install eyewashes and/or showers near battery-changing stations, maintenance operations, heating and ventilating operations, and other processes that use corrosive chemicals or emit irritant aerosols.

D. Develop Emergency Response Plans and Procedures. (Additional guidance material may be found in Appendix F, Emergency Procedures, in the Safety Manual for


Career and Technical Programs on the Louisiana Department of Education website (http://www.doe.state.la.us/lde/ index.html).

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:46 (January 2007).

§307. Employee, Management, and Student Training

A. Train all new employees and students. This training can be built into basic orientation and the curriculum.

B. Provide mandated training programs to employees and students.

1. Depending on the types of classes the school provides, training may be required on the following:

a. emergency procedures;

b. fire prevention and the use of fire extinguishers;

c. respiratory protection;

d. occupational noise exposure;

e. woodworking machinery;

f. welding;

g. asbestos handling;

h. hazard communication;

i. hazardous waste handling.

2. Training is also recommended for video display terminal operators.

3. Direct supervisors should receive the same training as the students or subordinates.

C. Train safety representatives and hazard prevention committees.

1. Training can enhance the ability of students and employees to carry out the functions listed in Subparagraphs a-i above. In particular, they may wish to obtain training in:

a. computerizing the program;

b. investigation of injuries or other incidents;

c. safety and environmental record keeping;

d. hazard identification and control;

e. industrial hygiene fundamentals; or

f. environmental regulations.

2. Outside training opportunities provide an essential means for safety, health, and environmental personnel to network with and learn from programs in other schools.

D. Training assistance may be obtained from various safety and health organizations, local industry and regulating agencies.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:47 (January 2007).

§309. Management Commitment

A. Top administration must be involved. The school board, superintendent, school principal, and top school administrators should all be leaders in implementing the program. They should stay informed and involved.

B. Develop a written safety and health policy.

1. Top administration should issue a written policy supporting a safe and healthy environment in the schools.

2. This policy may take the form of one or more policy statements or a policy manual that covers issues ranging from safety procedures to energy conservation.

3. The policy should be posted and/or issued to all employees and students.

C. Assure adequate personnel resources.

1. Assign appropriate individuals responsibility for the functions listed in the remaining sections of this Chapter. It is important to select people who are competent and motivated, and who have the skills and adequate resources to do the job.

2. Make sure adequate time is given to do the job.

D. Assure adequate financial resources.

1. Money must be allocated for the safety and health program.

2. Make sure adequate time is given to do the job.

E. Evaluate program performance regularly.

1. The occupational safety and health and environmental safety program should be a part of all performance reviews, including those of top administration, teachers, and students.

2. Acknowledge those who have been involved in identifying and correcting hazards and working safely.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:47 (January 2007).

§311. Employee and Student Involvement

A. Establish a hazard prevention committee.

1. A Hazard Prevention Committee should be composed of:

a. representatives of management;

b. school employees; and

c. perhaps students.

2. For such a committee to succeed it should:

a. be selected carefully;

b. have a clear idea of its mission, power, and functions; and

c. be skilled in conducting effective meetings.

3. This committee can do the following:

a. take on many of the functions described below that are too much for any one person;

b. seek immediate input from all areas of the school, such as:

i. the classroom;

ii. maintenance; and

iii. purchasing;

c. brainstorm by creatively combining and modifying ideas from many perspectives;

d. improve communication among the various representatives;

e. prioritize hazard controls, training, and other activities in a way that is satisfactory to all parties;

f. establish a procedure for reporting potential hazards using a written form.

B. Communicate regularly.

1. Use newsletters, bulletin boards, paycheck envelopes, and class time to communicate new procedures and new safety assignments and to introduce new committee members.

2. Keep the program on people's minds. Make safety, health, and the environment a regular item on the agenda of staff, board, union, and PTA meetings.

3. Post committee minutes, reports, surveys, and (especially) memos referring to problems, solutions, and achievements.

C. Develop a hazard-reporting procedure.

1. Students and employees should be encouraged to look for and report potential hazards to the safety and health coordinator, or to the chairperson of the Hazard Prevention Committee.

2. Students may also report hazards to a teacher, the school principal, or to another responsible adult. The person who discovers the hazard should then fill out the designated form and submit it to the safety and health coordinator for follow-up action.

3. Students should fill out this form with the help of the safety and health coordinator.

NOTE: Teachers, safety committees, and supervisors should not be discouraged if only small parts of an occupational safety and health environmental safety program are in place early in the program. It takes time, money, and persistence to have a good program. Each new step is a great improvement over the way things were run before the program was in place.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:47 (January 2007).

Chapter 5. Curriculum Content

§501. Introduction

A. Career and technical instruction is important not only for the knowledge and skills it provides for the learner but, perhaps even more so, for the attitudes it imparts to the learner. These attitudes will, in large part, influence the manner in which the learner will employ his/her newly gained knowledge and skills. They become a formidable influence for the remainder of the learner's life.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:48 (January 2007).

§503. Two-Fold Objective

A. One of the most important attitudes a young person can pick up is a healthy respect for safety and health on the job. This attitude affects not only the learner, but all of the others with whom he/she will associate. Someday their very lives may depend on having assumed a deep-seated conviction that the only way to do a job is the safe way. Therefore, educators have a two-fold objective:

1. to provide the job knowledge base in the area of the educator's own expertise in the best possible manner possible. Both the manual and mental skills must be provided that will best prepare the future worker for his/her job in this increasingly complex, technical world; and

2. an integral part of the instructional process must be safe methods for doing each and every job. Students must be taught, not as the best way to do a job, but as the only way to do a job. In other words, if a job is not performed safely, it is not performed correctly.

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:6(A)(10).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 33:48 (January 2007).

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