Order: Rhabditida Family: Strongyloidiae Genus




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Parasitology
Order: Rhabditida

Family: Strongyloidiae

Genus: Strongyloides

Species: S. stercoralis

Epidemiology:-

Present in small intestine of human, canine and feline. Juveniles present in faces more than eggs, eggs hatched either to infective stage which is parasitic or produce free living larvae(male and female) which is next off springs are parasitic also.


Morphology:-

  1. Small size reach to 2 mm long.

  2. Female longer than male.

  3. Vulva of free living larvae near middle of body.

  4. Eggs of free living larvae are few, large and with thin shell.

  5. Esophagus in free living larvae is Rhabditid form while in parasitic larvae is filariform esophagus.


Life cycle:-

Adult female present in mucous membrane of small intestine deposite eggs(translucent and thin shell) which maily hatched directly in the intestine to produce L1 passed with faces .L1 either develop to L3( infective stage ) directly in case of homogenous life cycle (Abnormal environment)or develop to male and female free living larvae in case of variance life cycle( normal environment) which is finally produce eggs hatched to produce parasitic larvae L3 penetrate skin of vertebral hosts(human, canine, feline) and with blood transmitted to lung, alveoli, bronchiole, trachea and finally esophagus and setting in small intestine ,develop to adult form producing eggs within one week. Sometimes infective stage swallowed orally.


Type of infection in human:-

  1. Hyper infection: eggs in small intestine hatched to L1 which developed to L3 penetrate in intestine ,and with blood migrate to lung ,than through esophagus return back to small intestine.

  2. Autoinfection: eggs hatched in small intestine to L1 which developed to L3 ,passed with faces ,and penetrate skin around anus and perineal origin, then by blood transmitted to lung and finally setting in small intestine.


Pathogenesis:-

  1. Catarrhal enteritis.

  2. Necrosis of intestine mucous membrane.


Clinical signs:-

  1. Severe bloody diarrhea.

  2. Dehydration may lead to death in puppies.


Diagnosis:-

Present of L1 in faces



Treatment:-

  1. Diethyl carbamazine 100mg/kg. B.W.

  2. Dithiazanine 5mg/kg .B.W. for 10 days.

Control:-

  1. Clean and dry pastures for animals.

  2. Good health culture for human.


Family: Strongylidae

Genus: Strongylus

Species: 1- S. equinus

Epidemiology:-

Present in caecum and colon of equines ,world wide distribution, infection stage (L3) is negatively geotropic and positively phototropic (fant light). Moisture is important for parasite migration.


Morphology:-

  1. Large size reach 5cm long.

  2. Female longer than male.

  3. Oral capsule is ovale. Contain external and internal leaf crown.

  4. There are 3 teeth at base of oral capsule, one is large with bifid apex, and located dorsally, other two teeth are small and located ventrally.

  5. Vulva located near posterior end, with 2 uterus, one extend forward, other extend backward.


Life cycle:-

Adult parasite in ceacum and colon of equines deposite eggs passed with faces ,and hatched within 24 hours to L1 which fed on bacteria, then molt to L2 which fed and developed and molt to L3(infective stage). L3not fed and depended on food stored in their intestinal cells L3 swallowed with food and water ,then penetrate mucous membrane of caecum and colon ,result in nodules, in which juveniles molt to L4 aand migrated to peritoneal cavity, liver and after 4 months in liver juveniles molt to L5 that return back to lumen of large intestine and become adult producing eggs within 260 days post infection.



Pathogenesis:-

  1. Hemorrhagic ulcer in the intestine.

  2. Hemorrhagic tract in liver in severe infection.

  3. Hemorrhagic tract in pancrease in severe infection.

Clinical signs:-

  1. Colic.

  2. Anorexia.

  3. General malaise.

  4. Anemia.

Diagnosis:-

Present of eggs in faces (oval with thin shell) difficult to differentiated eggs of strongylus spp. So always to diagnosis certain species of strongylus we use facal culture to obtain larvae that different from each other.



Treatment:-

Phenothiazine 66mg/kg. B.W.+ Piprazine 220mg/kg. B.W.



Control:-

  1. Clean pasture and un crowding.

  2. Remove wastes periodically.

  3. Continuous prophylactic treatment by thiabendazoole 1-2gm/day in ration for 3 first week of month, and leave fourth week for rest.

Species: 2- S. edeutatus

Epidemiology:-

Same as S. equinus


Morphology:-

Same as S. equinus except oral capsule have no teeth..



Life cycle:-

Adult parasite in large intestine of equines deposite eggs passed with faces and hatched to L1, then developed to L3 (infective stage) that swallowed with contaminated food and water, L3 penetrate intestine and migrated to liver and molt there to L4 which setting in liver foor 9 week, then moved toward right parieto peritoneal origin and stay init for one month, molt to L5 which casing hemorrhagic nodules(more than on cm in diameter), L5 return intestine wall, become adult producing eggs within 320 days post infection.


Pathogenesis:-

  1. Hemorrhagic ulcer and hemorrhagic nodules in intestine.

  2. Hemorrhagic nodules in peritoneal cavity.

  3. Acute peritonitis lead to death.

Clinical signs:-

Same as S. equinus



Diagnosis:-

Same as S. equinus



Treatment:-

Same as S. equinus



Control:-

Same as S. equinus


Species: 3- S. vulgaris

Epidemiology:-

Same as S. equinus



Morphology:-

Same as S. equines except:



  1. Oral capsule contain two teeth(ear like shape teeth)located dorsally .

  2. Smaller than S. equines and S. edeutatus.



Life cycle:-

Adult parasite in large intestine of equines deposit eggs passed with faces and hatched to L1 which developed to L3 (infective stage) with contaminated food and water L3 penetrate intestine to peritoneal cavity and molt to L4 after 8 days post infection, L4 penetrate arterioles and migrated to cranial mesenteric artery and cause clot and aneurysm, then migrated again to intestines after 45 days post infection and molt to L5 within 3 month post infection that developed to adult producing eggs within 200 days post infection.


Pathogenesis:-

  1. Hemorrhagic ulcer in the intestine.

  2. Clot and aneurysm in arterioles.

Clinical signs:-

Same as S. equinus



Diagnosis:-

Same as S. equinus



Treatment:-

Same as S. equinus



Control:-

Same as S. equines


Family: Trichonematidae

Genus: Trichonema

Species: T. tetracauthum
Epidemiology:-

Present in ceacum and colon of equines, larval stage of pparasite are more pathogenic than adult parasite..


Morphology:-

  1. Small size reach to 2.5cm long.

  2. Female longer than male.

  3. Oral capsule short, without teeth and surrounded by leaf crown.



Life cycle:-

Adult parasite in ceacum and colon of equines deposit eggs passed with faces and hatched and developed to L3 (infective stage) that swallowed with contaminated food and water L3 formed nodules in mucous membrane of large intestine, after 3 months post infection present in the iintesttiine lumen and rapidly molt to L5 that developed to adult producing eggs within 4 months post infection.



Pathogenesis:-

  1. Huge number of nodules on mucous membrane of ceacum and colon effect on absorption .

  2. Catahal enteritis.

Clinical signs:-

  1. Faces is brown in color.

  2. Anemia and oedema.

  3. Constipation.

Diagnosis:-

Present of eggs in faces.

Treatment:-

Piprazine 200mg/kg B.W.



Control:-

Same as S. equines


Family: Trichonematidae

Genus: Oesophagostomum

Species: O. columbianum (nodular worms)
Epidemiology:-

Present in colon of ovine and caprine. Larval stage are not survive in abnormal environment.



Morphology:-

  1. Small size reach to 2cm long.

  2. Female longer than male..

  3. Parasite have large cervical alae.

  4. Oral capsule is not deep, its anterior end wider than its posterior end, and contain external leaf crown consist of 20 pieces ,and internal leaf crown consist 40 pieces.

  5. Male contain developed bursa with 2 equal spicules.

  6. Tail of female is slender and pointed.


Life cycle:-

Adult parasite in ceacum and colon deposit eggs passed with faces and hatched to larvae developed as strongylus spp. to L3 that swallowing and reach intestine, L3 penetrate intestines to peritoneal cavity and molt there to L4 that return back to intestine after 5-7days post infection, molt to L5 which developed to adult producing eggs within 41 days post infection.


Diagnosis:-

  1. Present of eggs or sometime fourth larval stage in case of diarrhea.

  2. Facal culture to produce infective stage (larvae have double sheet, long flagella like shape tail).


Pathogenesis:-

  1. Huge number of nodules in the intestine effect on absorption.

  2. Supportive nodules that rupture towards peritoneal cavity may be cause fatal peritonitis.

  3. Congestion and thickness of intestine wall.


Clinical signs:-

  1. Continuous diarrhea and faces with dark green coluor and contain mucous or blood.

  2. Severe emaciation ended with death.

Treatment:-

Thiabendazole 50mg /kg. B.W.



Control:-

  1. Bast management for lambs.

  2. Clean food and water.


Family: Trichonematidae

Genus: Chabertia

Species: C. ovina
Epidemiology:-

Present in colon of ovine, coprine and bovine. World wide distribution.



Morphology:-

  1. Small size reach to 2cm long.

  2. Female longer than male.

  3. Anterior end curved to ventral side slightly.

  4. Oral capsule surrounded by double rows of leaf crown.

  5. Male have developed bursa and 2 equal spicules.

  6. Vulva located near posterior end.



Life cycle:-

Adult parasite in colon deposit eggs passed with faces and hatched and developed to infective stage (L3) which have sheet with long tail, L3 swallowed to intestines and accumulated in mucous membrane of colon, after 18 days post infection molt to L4, after 25 days molt to L5 which become adult producing eggs within 51 days post infection.


Diagnosis:-

Eggs in faces.



Pathogenesis:-

  1. Damage of glandular layer in ceacum membrane of colon.

  2. Mucous membrane of colon congested, oedematus and cover with mucous.


Clinical signs:-

  1. Anorexia

  2. Abnormal quantity and quality of wool.

Treatment:-

Phenothiazine 25mg/animal.



Control:-

Same as O. columbianum


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