Order: Artiodactyla Suborder: Ruminantia Family: Cervidae




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Orders: Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla Mammalogy Lab

* know to species, know all listed Orders, Suborders, and Families



Order: Artiodactyla

Suborder: Ruminantia

Family: Cervidae

*Cervus elaphus Elk

- antlers have large main beams that sweep back towards posterior

- lower incisors distinctively differentiated in size and form

- canines present (0/3, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3)
*Alces alces Moose

- antlers large and palmate

- lower canines incisor like

- nasals short, premaxillary region greatly lengthened

- dental formula: 0/3, 0/1, 3/3, 3/3

- dewlap present

* Rangifer tarandus Caribou

- maxillary canine usually present

- lower incisors relatively small

- posterior lobe of last molar small

- main hooves large, almost circular when held together

- lateral hooves functional

- dental formula: 0/3, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3
Odocoileus hemionus Mule or black-tail deer


  • black tip on tail

  • dental formula: 0/3, 0/1, 3/3, 3/3

  • antlers branch in separate forks instead of points originating from a main beam as in white-tailed deer


Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer

  • dental formula: 0/3, 0/1, 3/3, 3/3

  • wide distribution through temperate and semi-tropical NA

  • antler points originate from main beam


Hydropotes inermis Chinese water deer

  • large upper canines

  • found in China and Korea, introduced to England and France


Family: Antilocapridae

*Antilocapra americana Prognhorn (not an antelope!)

- keratinous horn sheaths are shed annually

- fastest New World mammal, 80+ kmph



Family Bovidae

* Bison bison bison

- horns smooth and conical

- paraoccipital process widely separated from condyles

* Oreamnos americanus mountain goat

- lacrimal pits absent

- horns less than 6 inches around at base

* Ovibos moschatus muskox

- horns “parted” and extend ventrally along skull forming “J”

shape

- paraoccipital process not widely separated from condyles



*Ovis dalli Dall’s sheep

- lacrimal pits present

- horns of males may form full curls at maturity, females posses

smaller horns


Suborder Suiformes

Family: Suidae Pigs and warthogs

Phacochoerus aethiopicus warthog

Babyrousa babyrussa babirusa

  • large paraoccipital processes, modified canines form tusks


Family: Tayassuidae

Tayassu tajacu collared peccary or javelina


Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae horses, asses, zebras

Equus caballus domestic horse

  • dental formula: 3/3, 0-1/0-1, 3-4/3, 3/3

  • post-orbital bar present, prominent nasals

Equus burchelli zebra

Family: Rhinocrotidae

Diceros bicornis black rhino

  • nasal “horns” composed of dense, matted keratin fibers (not truly horns because there isn’t a bony core)


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