The present work is focused to compare the antimicrobial activity of Calotropis gigantea Different extracts using acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous solvents are prepared from the plant part leaf. Disc diffusion method is used to find the antibacterial and antifungal activity.The acetone, ethyl acetate,methanol and aqueous extracts showed excellent activity against all the selected organisms and showed significant antibacterial properties. The methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited less activity against fungal organisms.Thus Calotropis gigantea L. may be exploited in the treatment of microbial diseases.
PG & Research Department of botany, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai-30
The increase in resistance to existing antimicrobial agents, herbal drugs are being looked as an imperative source for discovery of new agents for treating various diseases related to bacterial infections. S.occidentalis has been used as traditional medicine in Asia and found to posses wide range of pharmacological behaviors. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of S.occidentalis leaf extracts on the growth of various pathogenic microorganisms based on the inhibition zone using disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. In this, the aqueous leaf extract of S.occidentalis had antimicrobial effect against the test microorganisms when compared with other solvents like petroleum ether, methanol and ethanol.
MUTATION AND INSILICO ANALYSIS OF MYOC GENE (MYOCILIN) WITH PHYTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY
Glaucoma is a disease of major sense of vision which permanently impact vision. This was mainly caused by elevated IOP. This work is done to analyze the mutational (in protein level) analysis of aqueous humor sample from glaucoma patient .Estimation of protein was done from the sample and with SDS PAGE mutated myocilin protein was observed.Compuational analysis was done for MYOC gene (myocilin) using Protparam, Automated server mode. Mutation was observed in many of the aminoacids like Trp,Thr,Ser,Ala,Ile which was encoded by myogene. This gene will mutate myocilin protein mutation analysis was done by SWISS Pdv tool. Foeniculum vulgare, Coleus amobinicus plants were found to reduce elevated IOP level and treat glaucoma. The work can be extended by working on Trabecular meshwork cell culture or animal model and by proving the plant drug.
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF QUERCITRIN ON LIPIDS, LIPOPROTEINS AND GLYCOPROTEINS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
1Department of Biochemistry, K.M.G.College of Arts and Science, Gudiyattam – 632 602, 2IndiaFaculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia. The protective role of qurecitrin on lipids, lipoproteins, and glycoproteins in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats has been studied. A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg－) to rats led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids) in plasma and tissues (liver and kidney). The levels of low density and very low density lipoprotein (LDL and VLDL, respectively) cholesterol were increased, whereas the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in plasma. Streptozotocin injection also increased the levels of glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in plasma, liver and kidney. Oral administration of quercitrin to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of lipids in plasma and tissues. The levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol increased and the levels of LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The levels of glycoproteins were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in plasma, liver and kidney of quercitrin-treated diabetic rats. Quercitrin administration to normal rats did not exhibit any significant (P < 0.05) changes in any of the parameters studied. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of quercitrin on lipids, lipoproteins, and glycoproteins could be due to its antioxidant property.
ROLE OF SIRTUIN PROTEINS IN METABOLIC REGULATION
Nireesha Gundakaram, P.T.Srinivasan
Department of Biochemistry, D.G.Vaishnav College,Chennai- 106.
The sirtuins are a highly conserved family of NAD1-dependent enzymes that regulate lifespan in lower organisms. Recently,the mammalian sirtuins have been connected to an ever widening circle of activities that encompass cellular stress resistance, genomic stability, tumorigenesis and energy metabolism. Here we review the recent progress in sirtuin biology, the role these proteins have in various age-related diseases and the tantalizing notion that the activity of this family of enzymes somehow regulates how long we live. Sirtuins in metabolic regulation in mammals include, blood glucose concentration is maintained within a narrow range under a variety of physiological conditions. During starvation, maintenance of serum glucose is achieved in part by implementing a program of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests an important role for sirtuins in this physiological adaptation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammacoactivator-1a (PGC-1a) is a known target of SIRT1-dependent deacetylation, and this coactivator also plays a fundamental part in regulating gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathways within the liver. The ability of PGC-1a to modulate these latter two pathways appears to require SIRT1. Recently, distinct roles for protein acetylation and SIRT1-dependent deacetylation have been shown to regulate the hepatic response to both short term (,6 h) and long term (.18 h) fasting. In this case, the opposing actions of SIRT1 and the p300/CBP acetyltransferase choreograph hepatic glucose production in the setting of nutrient stress. Finally,the observation that SIRT6-deficient mice demonstrate severe hypoglycaemia suggests a potential role for other sirtuins in glucose production and homeostasis Although the role of sirtuins in regulating metabolism has centred on key metabolic organs, such as liver and pancreas, early studies in human subjects undergoing voluntary caloric restriction suggest that levels of SIRT1 rise in tissues as diverse as skeletal muscle and circulating mononuclear cells. The role of sirtuins in the metabolic adaptation of these cell types is largely unexplored. The intriguing connection between SIRT1 and circadian rhythms provides a glimpse. The observation that SIRT1 can directly deacetylate core components of the circadian clock machinery is particularly fascinating, as the ultimate goal of such rhythms is to coordinate the sleep-wake cycle of an organism with environmental cues, including coordinating and matching intracellular metabolism to external food availability.