Mrs. P.Sreedevi M.Sc., M.Phil. 1, Dr. C.S. Parameswari M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D2
1Assistant professor in Biochemistry, Annai violet arts & Science College Chennai
2Reader in Biochemistry, Bharathi Women’s college Chennai
Heavy metals released by a number of industrial processes are major pollutants in marine, ground, industrial and even treated waste waters. Conventional techniques have limitations and often are neither effective nor economical especially for the removal of heavy metals at low concentration. Therefore, there is need for the development of a low cost process to remove heavy metals economically. Biosorption is a process that utilizes biological materials as absorbents and several researchers have studied this method as an alternative technique to conventional methods for heavy metal removal from wastewaters. In this study, the efficiency of tea waste has been determined in the process of heavy metal removing from single metal ion solutions and mixed metal ion solutions. Metals of interest are lead and cadmium. They were chosen based on their industrial applications and potential pollution impact on the environment. The research is a bench scale experiment type and analyses have performed by using fixed amount of adsorbent in solution with four different concentrations (5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 30 mg /L) of each metal and also in a mixed combination. Since the pH plays a major role in adsorption, it should be maintained at 4.5 throughout the experiment. Result indicates the removal efficiency is highest for lead than for cadmium. The adsorption data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm for 28.51 mg/L and for cadmium is 24.1 mg/L individually whereas in combination for lead is 28.37 mg/L and for cadmium is 27.27 mg/L. Though tea waste could adsorb 80 ± 2 % cadmium in single metal ion solution, but its adsorption of cadmium get increased to 90 ± 2 % in mixed metal ion solution. This indicates that lead act as the stimulator for cadmium adsorption. Comprehensive parameters indicate tea waste to be excellent parameters for biosorption of lead and cadmium to treat wastewaters containing low concentration of metals.
NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Tribulus terrestris ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED KIDNEY DAMAGE
J. Mercy Jasmine1 , G. Pramod Reddy2
1Institute of Bio-chemistry, Madras Medical College, Chennai, T.N. India.
2Department of Pharmacology, Siddha Central Research Institute, Chennai, T.N., India.
Tribulus terrestris is a perennial plant, found predominantly in India and Africa. T. terrestris has been widely used in the ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of various ailments. This study is proposed to investigate the nephroprotective effect of Tribulus terrestris on gentamicin induced kidney damage in rats.The kidney damage was induced by the i.m injection of Gentamicin at 80 mg/kg from 6th day onwards in Groups II, III, and IV. Group I and II were kept as normal (Saline) and nephrotoxic respectively. Group III and IV were treated with Tribulus terrestris at 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight in oral route respectively, for 10 days. The blood samples were collected and estimated for Creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Uric acid, Total protein, Albumin and Globulin. The kidneys were collected, weighed and processed for histopathology. In the Group III (P <0.05) and Group IV (P<0.02) there was a significant reduction in the BUN, Creatinine, Uric acid, Total Protein, Albumin and Globulin levels as compared to that of Group I and II. In the sections of the kidney obtained, there was a mild degree of damage in Group IV (+), followed by Group III (++) as compared to damage in Group II (+++).There was no damage in the sections obtained from Group I, which was normal control. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris showed a significant decrease in the levels of Non-Protein Nitrogen compound levels and Protein levels probably due to its antioxidant property, thus it may be an effective nephroprotector.
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF SOME SELECTED SEAWEEDS
FROM TUTICORIN COAST
Parthiban. C, P. Anantharaman and T. Balasubramanian
CAS in Marine Biology,Faculty of Marine Sciences,Annamalai University,Parangipettai 608502
The antioxidant potential of the acetone and ethanol extract of six seaweeds collected from Tuticorin coast were determined using total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power. The acetone (16.375±0.44 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and ethanolic extract (12.84±0.39 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) of brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma showed higher phenolic content than all the seaweeds used in this experiment. Higher antioxidant activity (232.76±3.80 mg ascorbic acid/g) was observed in acetone extract of D. dichotoma and Turbinaria ornata (231.70±2.64 mg ascorbic acid/g) followed by ethanolic extract of T. ornata (165.42±1.34 mg ascorbic acid/g). The higher DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetone extracts of D. dichotoma (57.153±1.87%) and T. ornata (52.071±1.05%). In the present study, the extracts from Dictyota dichotoma were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. The antioxidant mechanisms of seaweed extracts may be attributed to their free radical-scavenging ability. In addition, phenolic compounds appear to be responsible for the antioxidant activity of seaweed extracts. On the basis of the results obtained, seaweeds can be used for a variety of beneficial chemo-preventive effects. However, further studies on the antioxidative components of seaweed extracts and more in vivo evidence are required.