Olericulture Title




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Olericulture

Title

:

Influence of Organic Manures and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]”

Name of the student

:

Mushtaq Ahmad Chattoo

Guide

:

Dr. Nazeer Ahmed

Degree

:

PhD

Year

:

2006

Key words

:

Abelmoschus, growth, inorganic fertilizers, okra, organic manures, quality and yield

ABSTRACT

The present investigation “Influence of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]” was carried out at experimental fields of Division of Olericulture, SKUAST (K), Shalimar during kharief 2004 and 2005. Residual crop pea was immediately raised after the harvest of okra during rabi 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The experiment was laid out in simple square lattice design with two replications. The experiment comprised of 25 treatments. Observations in main crop okra were recorded on plant growth, fruit and seed yield, fruit and seed quality, nutrient uptake, soil physical and chemical characteristics, nutrient availability, rhizosphere microbial population of studied soil. In residual crop pea, observations were recorded on plant height, yield and yield related attributes and nodule number plant-1.



T
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reatment T24 (FYM 3t + SM 2t + PM 0.5t + VC 0.6t + BF 7 kg ha-1 + 60: 30: 30: N: P2O5: K2O kg ha-1) recorded significantly higher values for plant height (186.82 cm), number of branches plant-1 (3.08), internodal distance (6.99 cm), number of nodes plant-1 (main stem) (26.82), number of fruits plant-1 (28.93), fruit length (14.74 cm), fruit diameter (1.41 cm), average fruit weight (14.14 g), fruit yield ha-1 (272.71 q), seed yield ha-1 (26.62 q), protein content of dry seeds (22.65%), protein content of fresh fruits (3.01%), vitamin C (17.59 mg), dry matter content (12.95%), nutrient uptake (132.23 kg N, 31.91 kg P, 139.35 kg K, 21.51 kg S, 135.37 kg Ca and 70.58 kg Mg ha-1), porosity (45.81%), organic carbon content (1.65%), electrical conductivity (0.145 d sm-1), available nutrients (266.13 kg N, 52.36 kg P, 197.10 kg K, 29.20 kg S, 3526.08 kg Ca and 1078.87 kg Mg ha-1), rhizosphere microbial population (fungal 60.11 x 105 and bacterial 74.15 x 105 g-1 of soil) and pod yield of residual crop pea 123.56 q ha-1. Treatment T24 also registered significantly lower values for fibre content of fresh fruits (1.28%), bulk density (1.24 g cm3), particle density (2.29 g cm3) and soil PH (6.51). However, T1 and T21 were at par with T24 for some characters. Treatment T21, T22 and T20 were next best to T24 exhibiting superiority for most of the characters over rest of treatments. Organic integrations proved superior over sole applications of organics. Treatment T7 (FYM 6t + SM 4t + PM 1t + VC 1t + BF 7 kg ha-1) proved better followed by T15, T12, T16 and T17. Among sole application of organic sources, PM 6 t ha-1 (T4) proved better than FYM, SM, VC and BF. Organics either alone or in combination, recorded lower yield as compared to recommended fertilizer dose in main crop. In okra, T7 recorded maximum net returns of Rs. 1,25,140.80 ha-1 with returns Re-1 invested of 3.39. However, maximum cost benefit ratio of 3.63 Re-1 was recorded with T16. Minimum BEP (32.70 q ha-1) and maximum margin of safety (224.89 q ha-1) was recorded with T7 and T24, respectively. Lower values for relative shares of land (0.158), labour (0.093) and capital (0.072) were registered in T25, T7 and T16, respectively. In residual crop pea, T24 recorded maximum net returns of Rs. 22,944.30 with returns Re-1 invested of 1.59. Minimum BEP of 59.69 q-1 and maximum margin of safety 65.87 q ha-1 were recorded with T24. Lower values for relative shares of land (-0.125), labour (0.193) and capital were recorded with T25 and T24, respectively. In okra pea rotation T7 recorded maximum net returns of Rs. 1,44,125.10 ha-1 with returns Re-1 invested of 2.56. However, T16 registered highest cost benefit ratio of 2.59 Re-1. Thus, the present study revealed that integration of organics (farmyard manure, sheep manure, poultry manure, vermi compost and biofertilizers) with inorganic fertilizers in equal proportion (50:50) exhibited superiority over sole application of organics, inorganics and integration of organic sources with respect to almost all the characters of main crop, residual crop and soil health under study.


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