See Excetre, j.
English folk-rock group. Initially an informal dance band at Canterbury University during the 1970s, its three key members were Ian Telfer (b Falkirk, May 1948), Alan Prosser (b Wolverhampton, 17 April 1951) and John Longley Jones (b Aberystwyth, 19 Oct 1949). Under the name Fiddlers Dram, they gained chart success with the single Day Trip to Bangor (1979) before changing direction and becoming the Oyster Ceilidh Band. They recorded four albums for their own label, Pukka, including the wittily titled English Rock ’n’ Roll: the Early Years 1800–1850, in which they explored the idea of an ‘English roots dance band’. Using rousing guitar, melodeon and fiddle, and adding a drummer in the mid-1980s, their self-composed songs fused English influences with the energy of post-punk rock and roll.
In 1986, the Oyster Band released Step Outside, a mixture of traditional songs and their own high-energy dance tunes, on the Cooking Vinyl label. For the rest of the 1980s they led the British folk-rock scene. In albums such as Wide Blue Yonder and Ride, they expanded their often angry and political repertory by recording songs by Billy Bragg and Nick Lowe. In 1990, Freedom and Rain, a collaboration with the singer June Tabor, included songs by Lou Reed and Richard Thompson. Deep Dark Ocean (1998) showed them in calmer mood, with a sophisticated set of stirring but often sad ballads.
(b Fenytien [now Shenyang], China, 1 Sept 1935). American conductor of Japanese descent. He learnt the piano from an early age, studying Bach with Noboru Toyomasu from the age of 12. He entered the Tōhō School of Music in Tokyo at 16 as a pianist, but switched to conducting and composition, studying with Hideo Saito, when he broke two of his fingers playing rugby. In 1954 he first conducted the NHK SO and the Japan PO and in 1958 he won first prizes in both conducting and composition at the Tōhō School. He moved to Paris, where he took first prize in the International Conductors' Competition at Besançon and befriended two of the judges: Eugène Bigot, who gave him conducting lessons, and Charles Munch, who invited him to the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood, where he studied with Munch and Monteux and won the Koussevitzky prize. He then travelled to Berlin where he won a scholarship to study with Karajan; Bernstein noticed him there and offered him a job as an assistant conductor with the New York PO, a post he held from 1961 to 1965.
In 1962 Ozawa made his début with the San Francisco SO and soon began to work as a guest conductor with the Chicago SO during the Ravinia Festival, where he became artistic director (1965–9). He became music director of the Toronto SO (1965–9) and began appearing with the Boston SO, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Japan PO and the San Francisco SO, where he was music director from 1970 to 1976. In 1970 he also became artistic director of the Berkshire Music Festival, along with Gunther Schuller. Ozawa was appointed music director of the Boston SO in 1973 but managed to continue certain duties in San Francisco until 1978. In addition to his continuing appointment in Boston, he maintains an active musical life in Japan and Europe. He was made honorary artistic director of the Japan PO (now New Japan PO) in 1980 and in 1984 he founded the Saito Kinen Orchestra. Opera has been a growing interest with Ozawa since he made his opera début at Salzburg with Così fan tutte in 1969. In addition to concert performances of opera in Boston, he has appeared at Covent Garden (début 1974), La Scala, the Vienna Staatsoper and the Paris Opéra, and made his Metropolitan début in 1992.
Ozawa attributes his graceful podium style to his first conducting teacher, Saito, and to the language barrier which he feels he still faces. While audiences respond to his dance-like conducting, he is well respected by musicians for his skilled baton and rehearsal technique, his even temperament, and his detailed, intensive preparation. He routinely conducts even the most difficult scores from memory. His repertory favours large-scale works by Berlioz, Brahms and Mahler and much modern music. While in San Francisco, he performed nearly all of Schoenberg's orchestral music and a wide range of Stravinsky's works. Some of his best early recordings are of Lutosławski, Honegger and Messiaen's Turangalîla. Strauss, Bartók, Debussy, Ravel, Messiaen and Takemitsu have all remained in his repertory, and he has given the premières of new works by Peter Maxwell Davies, Lucas Foss and many others. In Boston he has improved technical precision and developed a darker, weightier sound for the Romantic German repertory; but he has been criticized for a lack of expressive depth on the relatively infrequent occasions when he conducts Mozart, Haydn and Schubert. Similarly, his opera performances, both on stage and in the recording studio, have received a mixed reception, a brilliant recording of Elektra being followed by a lush but lethargic Carmen. But his bold 1990s Boston Mahler cycle, recorded by Philips, has been widely admired, while his world première of Messiaen's St François d'Assise (1983, Paris) received worldwide acclaim.
P. Hart: Conductors: a New Generation (New York, 1979), 165–94, 287–90
H. Matheopoulos: Maestro: Encounters with Conductors of Today (London, 1982), 384–404
B.L. Scherer: ‘Ozawa at the Met’, ON, lvii/7 (1992–3), 9–10, 54 only
J.A. Bowen: ‘Seiji Ozawa’, Twentieth-Century Conductors, ed. G. Greene (Westport, CT, forthcoming)
Ozgijan [Osghian], Petar
(b Dubrovnik, 27 April 1932; d Zagreb, 1 April 1979). Yugoslav composer. He completed composition studies at the Belgrade Academy under Rajičić in 1959, with further studies until 1964, including conducting with Predrag Milošević. From 1959 to 1964 he was also a teacher at the Slavenski Music School in Belgrade; from 1964 he was a lecturer at the Belgrade Music Academy. Ozgijan’s earlier works use a concise neo-classical style with fairly traditional harmony, classical forms and closely knit thematic structures. A period of intense atonal expressionism followed, shown very strongly in the Poema eroico. Even in his later works, especially in the prizewinning Silhuete and Sigogis, he further expanded his atonal harmonic language and explored many new orchestral techniques, while always controlling his forms with great motivic economy. His Nokturno (1977) posthumously won the October Prize of the city of Belgrade.
Orch: Conc. solenne, pf, orch, 1952; Conc. for Orch, 1953; Suite concertante, fl, str, 1954; Varijacije, 1958; Poema eroico, 1959; Simfonijeta, str, 1960; Meditacije, 2 pf, perc, str, 1962; Conc. for Orch ‘Silhuete’, 1963; Sigogis, chbr orch, 1967; orchestration of V. Vučković: Sym. no.2, 1967; Diferencias, vn, orch, 1970; Sym. ’75, 1975; Nokturno, str, 1977
Vocal: 2 solo pesme, 1v, pf, 1954; Šumske priče [Forest Tales], female chorus, 1954; Svadba, suite, female chorus, 1954; Svitac i Velika odluka [The Saint and Great Determination], children’s songs, 1963; Instrumentalne pesmi, female chorus, 1977; folksong arrs.
Inst: Suite concertante, fl, pf, 1954; Pf Sonata, 1955; Varijacije, pf, 1956; Str Qt, 1958; Str Qt [no.2], 1972; Divertimento, double str qt, 1973; Za mimu, cl, 1977
Principal publisher: Udruženje kompozitora Srbije
B. Dragutinović: ‘Petar Ozgijan: Meditacije za dva klavira, gudački orkestar i udaraljke’, Politika, lx (16 Oct 1963)
M. Živković: ‘Sigogis: novo delo Petra Ozgijana’, Pro musica (1967), no.23, p.7
V. Peričić: Musički stvaraoci u Srbiji [Musical creators in Serbia] (Belgrade, 1969), 364–70
A. Koci and others: Jugoslovanska glasbena dela [Yugoslav musical works] (Ljubljana, 1980), 368–71
Ozi [Ozy], Etienne
(b Nîmes, 9 Dec 1754; d Paris, 5 Oct 1813). French bassoonist and composer. He was not (as has been suggested) a son of the composer Pierre Iso (or Yzo), nor did he ever use the pseudonym ‘Yzo’. His parents were Marie Piala and Louis Ozy, a carder of floss silk. Like many wind instrumentalists in France at that time, he may have received his early musical training from a musical corps attached to a military regiment. According to Gerber he had settled in Paris by 1777. Ledebur indicated that he studied with G.W. Ritter, the Mannheim bassoonist, who was in Paris 1777–8. In 1779 he made a brilliant debut at the Concert Spirituel, where he played a bassoon concerto by P.D. Deshayes. His performance was described as: ‘free and confident; the beautiful quality of his sounds on such an unresponsive instrument and the perfect accuracy of his intonation have earned for him a place in the ranks of the best artists’. During the next 12 years he appeared as a soloist at the Concert Spirituel 36 times; on 19 occasions he performed his own concertos and symphonies concertantes. Throughout his career he was praised in the Parisian press for his performances and compositions.
In 1783, while in the service of the Duke of Orléans, the first of his 32 suites d’harmonies (for two clarinets, two horns and two bassoons) began to appear in Boyer’s catalogues. Ensembles using the same instrumentation were also used extensively in French Masonic lodges, where they were called colonnes d’harmonies. Ozi held membership in three different lodges, one of which was the ‘Loge Olympique de la Parfaite Estime’, whose members participated in the famous Concerts de la Loge Olympique. Ozi was a soloist as well as a member of the orchestra for these concerts. From 1786 to 1788 he was Musicien ordinaire de la Chapelle et de la Chambre du Roy. During this time he married Marie Adelaide Du Pont, with whom he had six children. Shortly after the Revolution, he joined the Garde Nationale Parisienne and became a teacher in its affiliated music school, which became the Conservatoire National de Musique in 1795. He continued his activities in the 1790s as a soloist and orchestral musician in the concerts of the Cirque du Palais-Royal (1790), the Théâtre Italien (1792–4), the Théâtre Feydeau (1796) and the Théâtre de la République et des Arts (1799–1800). He apparently had a talent for administrative activities. Representing the musicians in the Parisian National Guard who had established the Magasin de musique à l’usage des fêtes nationales, he dealt with officials of the new revolutionary governments. In 1797 he was appointed manager of this publishing house, which had become the Imprimerie du Conservatoire. He retained that position, as well as giving bassoon lessons at the Conservatoire, until his death. From 1798 to 1806 he was a member of the virtuoses d’élite of the Opéra orchestra and in 1806 he became first bassoonist of Napoleon’s chapelle-musique.
Ozi’s influence as a performer, teacher, and composer of bassoon literature was international in scope. His music and Méthodes (written for a six- and seven-keyed bassoon) are the most comprehensive and informative source of instructions on bassoon performance of the late 18th century. As late as 1838 Schilling observed that his 1803 Méthode ‘was not only the first complete manual for learning to play the bassoon in France, but in most other countries as well’. The 20 pages devoted to embellishment and extempore variation have been cited as an important source dealing with late 18th-century improvisatory practices. His musical examples were used by Almenraeder as points of departure for improving the key mechanism of the bassoon. At least three of his concertos were published in Germany as well as France and editions of the Méthodes, sonatas and caprices continued to be published in Germany, France and Italy throughout the 19th century. Although his concertos and symphonies concertantes were intended for his own performance, they contain passages of virtuosic brilliance that contributed much to the development of the bassoon as a solo instrument during this time. As a soloist Ozi expanded the expressive as well as the technical capacity of the bassoon. It was observed that the bassoon took on ‘in his hands, a life, a soul, and an expressive character’ that was previously unattainable on the instrument. According to contemporaries, he was ‘le meilleur basson de son temps’.
published in Paris unless otherwise stated
Orch: 8 bn concs., incl. opp.3, 4, 6, 9, 11 (1785–1801), op.3 ed. A. Parcell (San Antonio, TX, 1995), op.11 ed. A. Ouzounoff (Paris, 1990); 4 symphonies concertantes, incl. opp.5, 7, 10 (1786–c1800), 1 for 2 solo bn, 3 for solo cl, bn, opp.5, 10 ed. in The Symphony 1720–1840, ser. D, x (New York, 1982), opp.7, 10 ed. A. Ouzounoff (Paris, 1990)
Wind band: 32 Nouvelles suites de pièces d’harmonie, 2 cl, 2 bn, 2 hn (1783–91); 2 Pas de manoeuvre, ou Rondeaux, 2 pic, 2 cl, 2 hn, 2 bn, serpent, tpt (1794–5)
Bn duos: 1er duo (1782), lost; Duo concertans (1783); Petits airs connus variés (1786); 8e duo (1788), lost; Duos … à l’usage des élèves (1795), ed. in RRMCE, lix (2000); Première suite d’airs civiques (1795); Seconde suite d’airs civiques (1795); Duo concertans (1797); Duos de Pleyel (1827)
Other works: Première suite d’airs variés, 2 fl (1799); 1er duo, 2 vc (1785), lost; 13e duo, 2 vc (1801), lost; 6 duos, 2 vc (Paris, 1805–9), ed. K. Stahmer (Hamburg, 1982)
Pedagogical: Méthode de basson … avec des airs et des duos (1788); Méthode nouvelle et raisonnée pour le basson (1787); Nouvelle méthode de basson adoptée par le Conservatoire (1803/R); Méthode de serpent (Paris, 1814) [collab. N. Roze, M.M. Gossec and Rogat]
L. Petit de Bachaumont and others: Mémoires secrets pour servir à l’histoire de la république des lettres en France (London, 1777–89), vii, 457–8
Almanach musical pour l’année 1781 (Paris, 1781), 74
Mercure de France (Feb 1784), 95
C. Ledebur: Tonkünstler-Lexicon Berlin’s (Berlin, 1861/R), 470
C. Pierre: Le Magasin de musique à l’usage des fêtes nationales et du Conservatoire (Paris, 1895/R)
C. Pierre: Le Conservatoire national de musique et de déclamation: documents historiques et administratifs (Paris, 1900)
A. Le Bihan: Francs-Maçons Parisiens (Paris, 1966), 380
H.E. Griswold: Etienne Ozi (1754–1813): Bassoonist, Teacher, and Composer (DMA diss., Peabody Institute, John Hopkins U., 1979)
H.E. Griswold: ‘Changes in the Tonal Character of the Eighteenth-Century French Bassoon’, JAMIS, xiv (1988), 114–25
HAROLD E. GRISWOLD
(b Ljubljana, 9 May 1931). Slovenian violinist. He studied from the age of eight with Leon Pfeifer at the Ljubljana Academy of Music, then (1949–51) with Rostal in London. He won the 1951 Flesch and the 1953 Munich international competitions, and has performed in Europe, the former USSR, the USA and Australia. He taught at the Ljubljana Academy of Music from 1960 to 1963, when he moved to Cologne to become a professor at the Hochschule. In 1984 he became professor at the Berne Conservatoire in addition. A refined executant with a pure tone and natural style, Ozim plays the Classical repertory. His recordings include Haydn, Beethoven, Brahms and Schubert, and he edited the Mozart concertos for the Bärenreiter complete edition. But he is strongly identified with contemporary music: among the first performances he has given of works composed for him are the Concertino for violin and chamber orchestra by Natko Devčić (1961, Zagreb), Inventiones ferales by Uroš Krek (1961, Zagreb, also recorded), the Violin Concerto by Manfred Niehaus (1965, Cologne), Trois images by Ivo Petrić (1973, Ljubljana), and many chamber works. From 1985 to 1990 he played in the Arion Piano Trio. He owns a 1737 violin by Domenico Montagnana. As a teacher Ozim has edited Pro musica nova: Studien zum Spielen neuer Musik für Violine (Cologne, 1975) with original contributions by leading contemporary composers. He has also made editions of many contemporary violin works, and has edited Mozart’s violin concertos for the Neue Mozart Ausgabe. (J. Creighton: Discopaedia of the Violin, Toronto, 1974, 2/1994)
See Ozi, Etienne.