Sign used in pairs, or paired with the teleia, in Byzantine Ekphonetic notation.
Sign used in pairs in Byzantine Ekphonetic notation.
(b Camberwell, London, 12 Aug 1812; d Southwark, London, 21 Feb 1877). English dramatist, librettist and critic. He wrote librettos for G.A. Macfarren and Edward Loder, and collaborated with Dion Boucicault on The Lily of Killarney for Benedict. Oxenford was unquestionably the best-read English librettist of his day, though his scholastic stance sometimes detracted from the dramatic force of his stage pieces. Nevertheless, he succeeded in raising the literary qualities of British opera to a level which greatly narrowed the gap between native and continental products. He was aided in this by the highly professional attitude of Macfarren, for whom he wrote eight librettos, 1834–64; in Robin Hood (1860) the two men created so thoroughly nationalist a work that the way lay open for composers such as Stanford and Ethel Smyth. For more than 30 years Oxenford was dramatic critic of The Times, but in this role his ‘excessive kindliness of disposition induced such leniency of judgment as was fatal to the value of his verdict’ (Athenaeum, 24 February 1877). His fine essay ‘Iconoclasm in German Philosophy’ (Westminster Review, new ser., iii, 1853, pp.388–407), which remains one of the most lucid introductions to Schopenhauer ever written, helped to advance the cause of Wagner in Britain.
DNB (R.H. Legge)
GroveO (N. Burton)
Men of the Time (London, 9/1875), 779
Obituaries: The Times (23 and 26 Feb 1877); The Athenaeum (24 Feb 1877); The Academy (3 March 1877); The Era (4 March 1877)
‘John Oxenford’s Dramatic Works’, Musical World, lv (1877), 172ff [incl. list of works; see also pp.196, 231 for addenda]
E.W. White: A Register of First Performances of English Operas and Semi-Operas (London, 1983)
English cathedral and university city, on the River Thames (known locally as the Isis).
2. Choral foundations.
3. Theoretical tradition.
4. Music-making in the university and city.
5. Academic tradition.
6. Libraries and collections.
7. Printing and publishing.
The first documented reference to Oxford is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the year 912. Parts of the medieval fortifications survive today in the remains of the city walls (some of which were incorporated into the colleges) and castle tower (built for William the Conqueror in 1071). Among the medieval monasteries were St Frideswide's (within the city, to the south) and Oseney Abbey (beyond the city walls, to the west). These centres of learning, together with the exclusion of English students from France (1167) and dispersal of the University of Paris (1229), contributed to the development of the new university. The chancellor (first mentioned in a document of 1214) was originally appointed by the Bishop of Lincoln (in whose diocese Oxford was then situated), but the right of nomination passed to the masters of the university, until in 1367 the university was given formal dispensation from episcopal control. By the mid-15th century the medieval ‘academic halls’, based in rented accommodation, were displaying greater specialization, with some halls dedicated exclusively to students of the liberal arts. The decline of the academic halls coincided with the rise of the colleges, which possessed the advantages of endowments, land and buildings, and statutory ordinances, combining to create a more permanent institution. The statutes drawn up for the earliest colleges, which included University College (1249), Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264), generally made provision for liturgical music.
2. Choral foundations.
Musically the most significant of the early foundations was New College (1379) where scholars entered from the founder's school, Winchester. As the first of the three major choral foundations, New College had statutory provision for ten chaplains, three clerks and 16 choristers: the clerks and choristers also performed domestic duties. An informator choristarum was first documented in 1394–5. The first mention of part-music seems to have occurred in the founder's statutes (1340) for The Queen's College, which prescribed 13 chaplains and two clerks to give instruction in plainsong and polyphony to the ‘poor boys’. The second of the major choral foundations to be established, Magdalen College (1458), was provided with four chaplains, eight clerks, 16 choristers and their informator. The informator from 1490 to 1492 was Richard Davy; some of the music he wrote for the choir survives in the Eton choirbook. At Cardinal College (1525) on the site of St Frideswide's, Wolsey provided for 13 chaplains, 12 clerks (one of whom was to act as organist), 16 choristers and an informator. From 1526 to 1530 the informator was John Taverner. After Wolsey's fall the college was refounded by Henry VIII (1532) as King Henry's College. From 1542, when Oxford was created a diocese, Oseney Abbey served as its first cathedral. In 1546 the old priory church of St Frideswide's was designated Christ Church Cathedral, thenceforth serving as both diocesan cathedral church and college chapel for Henry's new college, now called Christ Church (or Aedes Christi), the third of the great choral foundations. Also in 1546 Henry established the cathedral school for the free education of the choirboys, with a complement of fee-paying pupils. The three choral foundations, New College, Magdalen and Christ Church, together with their choir schools, have remained among the focal points of the English choral tradition.
3. Theoretical tradition.
While the practice of singing plainsong and polyphony flourished from early in the history of the university, the medieval scholars also established a tradition of music theory in connection with the study of the seven liberal arts (in which music was studied as part of the Quadrivium alongside arithmetic, astronomy and geometry). The writings of John of Garland (not the French music theorist of that name), Robert Grosseteste (chancellor of the university in about 1224), Robert Kilwardby and Roger Bacon in the 13th century were mainly concerned with ideas of music derived from Aristotle and Boethius. A further series of treatises of Oxford provenance dating from the 14th century to the 16th – including the Quatuor principalia musice, as ‘set forth at Oxford by a certain Friar Minor’ and surviving in an anonymous 14th-century manuscript attributed to John Tewkesbury, and the related compilation (c1500) by John Tucke of New College, copied in 1526 by William Chell (an Oxford BMus) – deal not only with traditional theoretical ideas but also with more practical matters, such as the ornamentation of plainsong and the structure of polyphony. The De musica of Boethius retained its position in the Oxford curriculum from at least 1431 (when it was specified in the statutes that candidates for the MA must have studied ‘musicam per terminum anni, videlicet Boecii’) through to the 16th century. In the 17th century, a new wave of scholarship was represented by Oxford mathematicians and philosophers involved in both the study of ancient music theory and the modern science of music: the work of Edmund Chilmead (canon of Christ Church, 1632–48), John Wallis (Savilian Professor of Geometry, 1649–1703) and John Wilkins (Warden of Wadham College, 1648–60) and their colleagues showed a particular preoccupation with acoustic theory. Wilkins's Oxford group formed the nucleus of the early Royal Society (founded 1660).
4. Music-making in the university and city.
City waits were documented from medieval times (and through to the 19th century). From the early period there are references to both private and sociable music-making within the university. It was written of Robert Grosseteste that:
He loved moche to here the Harpe,
For mans witte yt maketh sharpe.
Next hys chamber, besyde his study,
Hys Harper's chamber was fast the by.
And Chaucer's Nicholas, the poor ‘Clerk of Oxenford’, possessed (according to The Miller's Tale) a psaltery,
On which he made a nightes melodye
So swetely that all the chamber rang:
And Angelus ad virginem he sang.
In 1381 three harp makers were documented in Oxford; various musical instruments, including harps and lutes, appeared among 15th- and 16th-century inventories of goods of university members. Music as social recreation formed part of early college custom, whereby members of the colleges sang songs around the fire in hall after supper on festivals and special occasions. During the period of the Reformation, secular entertainments may have provided extra employment for the members of the choral establishments, whose liturgical activity had been curtailed. Richard Edwards's play with music Palaemon and Arcyte was performed for the royal visit to Oxford in 1566. During the Civil War, Charles I made Oxford his military headquarters from 1642, setting up his court at Christ Church and remaining until the city eventually surrendered to the Parliamentary forces in June 1646. At his Oxford court the King was served by such talented musicians as the lutenist John Wilson and the organist George Jeffreys. For the period of the Civil War and Interregnum, when the choral tradition was disrupted and organs destroyed or displaced, evidence suggests that Oxford flourished as a centre of musical activity, as documented by Anthony à Wood. Wood joined various musical societies in the 1650s, such as the music meetings of William Ellis (formerly organist of St John's College) at which both professional musicians and university graduates, including John Wilson and Edward Lowe, gathered regularly to play chamber music. Although Ellis's meetings lapsed after the Restoration, when the professionals left to return to their posts, a new focus for weekly music meetings was created by Narcissus Marsh at Exeter College (as fellow from 1658) and then at St Alban Hall (where he was principal from 1673). Henry Aldrich (Dean of Christ Church, 1689–1710) ‘had concerts and rehearsals at his apartments weekly’ (Burney).
In the late 17th century and the early 18th Oxford musical societies continued to flourish, attracting members of considerable musical and social distinction, such as Daniel Purcell (organist of Magdalen College, 1688–95) and James Brydges, later 1st Duke of Chandos. By the mid-18th century their performing activities and resources had outgrown their meeting-places in taverns and college rooms, and a subscription scheme was launched to finance a new venue. The Holywell Music Room (opened 1748), the earliest purpose-built public concert room in Europe, seating up to about 250, provided a permanent location for Oxford concerts (see illustration). Its acoustics make it ideally suitable for chamber music and for small choirs and orchestras. In the 18th century and the early 19th it was associated with a series of subscription concerts drawing together university and city under the auspices of the Musical Society, which maintained its own orchestra (the Holywell Band). The programmes typically presented a miscellany of vocal and instrumental items and featured both local and visiting performers. The Music Room was also the venue for performances of Handel oratorios: from 1754 it was customary to perform Messiah at least once annually (it received its first Oxford performance under William Hayes in 1749, for the opening of the Radcliffe Library). ‘Benefit concerts’ were performed periodically during the year at both the Music Room and the Town Hall (built 1751).
The Sheldonian Theatre, designed by Christopher Wren and built between 1664 and 1667 with seating for about 2000, was from early in its history associated with musical performances in connection with university ceremonial. For the original Encaenia (dedication of the building) in 1669 (the annual commemoration of this event became connected with the bestowal of honorary degrees) an organ was borrowed from Gloucester Hall, forerunner of Worcester College. In 1671 the Sheldonian acquired its own ‘Father Smith’ organ (periodically replaced since); among the benefactions of Lord Crewe (Rector of Lincoln College from 1668, Bishop of Oxford from 1671, d 1721) to the university was an endowment for organ playing at Encaenia. The university's degree ceremonies (the ‘Act’) traditionally featured incidental music: during the period 1669–1710, when the Act (which had been transferred from the university church of St Mary to the Sheldonian Theatre) flourished, composers who contributed Act-Music included Locke and Blow. It was for the 1733 revival of the Oxford Act that the Vice-Chancellor invited Handel: in a series of performances at St Mary's, the Sheldonian Theatre and Christ Church, over a period of several days, Oxford audiences heard Athalia (its première) and other oratorios and shorter works by Handel under the composer's direction, and possibly his first public performances of organ concertos. During the later 18th century it became customary to mark the annual degree ceremonial and commemorative events with a three-day festival featuring a series of ‘grand concerts’. In 1791 the ‘three grand concerts in the Theatre’ were distinguished by the presence of Joseph Haydn, who received the (then uncommon) award of the honorary DMus and ‘expressed himself very handsomely … on the manner in which his Overture [i.e. Symphony no.92, the ‘Oxford’] was performed’.
19th- and early 20th-century concert life in Oxford was characterized by the growth of numerous college, university and civic musical societies. ‘Dr [Charles] Corfe's Motett and Madrigal Society’ (founded 1847) was perceived as providing the future clergymen trained by the university with useful skills in reading music and singing at sight. Institutions of lasting significance to Oxford's musical life that were established during this period included the Oxford Harmonic Society (an amateur choral society founded in 1921), the Oxford SO (founded 1902), the Oxford Chamber Music Society (founded in 1898 as the Oxford Ladies’ Musical Society), the Subscription Concerts (from 1920), and the Oxford Silver Band (founded in 1887 as the Headington Temperance Band). Among university societies which have survived are the Oxford University Musical Club and Union, formed in 1916 from an amalgamation of the Oxford University Musical Club (founded by Charles Harford Lloyd in 1872), and the Oxford University Musical Union (founded by J.H. Mee in 1884) and renamed in 1983 the Oxford University Musical Society. The Balliol Concerts (founded by John Farmer in 1885) have now passed their 1500th concert. Local patrons of music included the Deneke sisters, Helena and Margaret (choirmaster of Lady Margaret Hall), who were associated with Ernest Walker (organist and director of music at Balliol from 1901) and P.V.M. Benecke (fellow of Magdalen from 1891 and grandson of Mendelssohn).
The Oxford Bach Choir, continuing to unite ‘town and gown’, was founded by Basil Harwood in 1896. In 1905 it incorporated the Oxford Choral and Philharmonic Society, itself an amalgamation (1890) of the Oxford Choral Society founded by Crotch in 1819 and the Oxford Philharmonic Society founded by Stainer in 1865. Under Hugh Allen's conductorship (1901–26) the Oxford Bach Choir gave performances not only of large-scale choral works of Bach but also of works by contemporary British composers, culminating in the première of Vaughan Williams's Sancta civitas in 1926. The choir under Allen fostered a special connection with the music of Parry.
The Oxford University Opera Club was formed in 1926 following a production of Monteverdi's Orfeo ‘by members of the University and Friends' in 1925. It gave annual productions from 1926 to 1934, resuming in 1947. Under Westrup's conductorship (1947–62) it presented works ranging from A. Scarlatti's Il Mitridate Eupatore (1961) to Wellesz's Incognita (1951), many of them in their British premières. The Oxford University Orchestra grew out of the orchestra formed, from 1947, for the Opera Club performances: it was constituted as an independent concert orchestra in 1954. University-based choral activity was expanded by László Heltay's founding of the Kodaly Choir (1957) and the Schola Cantorum of Oxford (1960), originally the Collegium Musicum Oxoniense. The Oxford Pro Musica was formed in 1965 as a small professional orchestra. Principal concert venues are still the Holywell Music Room (restored to primarily musical use in 1901 after a hiatus), the Sheldonian Theatre and the Town Hall (rebuilt 1893–7), as well as the cathedral, the university church and numerous college chapels and halls. Touring opera and ballet companies regularly appear at the Apollo (formerly the New) Theatre, which opened in 1836. Local customs include the celebration of May morning with singing by the choristers from the top of Magdalen College tower and folk-dancing by Morris dancers. Morris dancing is an old tradition in Oxfordshire: it was Cecil Sharp's meeting with William Kimber and his team at Headington in 1899 that led eventually to the foundation of the English Folk Dance Society in 1911. In the 18th century J.B. Malchair, leader of the Holywell Band, collected local folksongs and dances, including the tune known as ‘Magpie Lane’, from which the modern performing group of that name is derived.
A series of festivals, conferences and exhibitions has marked Oxford's commemoration of musical anniversaries (of Haydn in 1932 and 1991, the latter for the bicentenary of his Oxford visit; of Bach and Handel in 1935; of Parry in 1948; of Wellesz in 1985) and of the Heather Professorship (1926 and 1976). The English Bach Festival was originally formed in Oxford in 1963; an annual ‘Handel in Oxford’ festival was founded in 1985; and an annual Oxford Contemporary Music Festival began in 1994.
5. Academic tradition.
Degrees in music (BMus and DMus, as distinct from BA and MA, awarded after four, then a further three, years' study of the liberal arts) are documented from the late 15th century. Among the 29 candidates awarded musical degrees in the period up to 1535 were Hugh Aston (1510) and Robert Fayrfax (incorporated DMus from Cambridge in 1511, the earliest recorded mention of the doctorate). Candidates normally supplicated for the BMus after many years' study (which could be external to the university) and on condition that they composed a mass, or mass and antiphon, customarily performed during the degree ceremony. The formal request, first documented in 1507, was ‘to be admitted to lecture on the musical books of Boethius’. Supplicants for the BMus in the later 16th century and the early 17th included Nathaniel Giles (1585), John Bull and John Munday (1586), Thomas Morley and John Dowland (1588), Giles Farnaby (1592), Francis Pilkington (1595), Robert Jones (1597), Thomas Weelkes (1602), Thomas Tomkins (1607) and Richard Dering (1611). The DMus was granted to, among others, John Marbecke (1550) and John Sheppard (1554), informator at Magdalen College; Christopher Tye (1548) and John Bull (1592) incorporated DMus from Cambridge. In 1622 William Heather took the BMus and DMus degrees simultaneously. The Laudian Statutes of 1636 codified the formula whereby candidates where required to have spent seven years in the study or practice of music for the BMus and a further five years for the DMus, and to submit a composition (‘Canticum’) of five parts for the BMus, and of six or eight parts for the DMus, to be performed publicly in the School of Music ‘tam vocibus quam instrumentis etiam musicis’. The School of Music, situated among the several schools of the various disciplines clustered around the Bodleian quadrangle (built 1613–24), where the inscription ‘Schola Musicae’ still stands over the doorway, was presided over by the Heather Professor of Music and housed Heather's collection of music books and instruments; it was periodically refurbished and the collection supplemented.
When William Heather endowed the professorship of music at Oxford in 1626, he acknowledged the dichotomy of theory and practice by providing for the appointment of a choragus (by the 18th century called ‘professor’) to hold weekly music practices in term-time, and a lecturer in the science of music (the latter post fell into disuse in the course of the 17th century, although it was absorbed into the music lecture or ‘music speech’ delivered as part of the university Act). In the 19th century the duties and posts of professor and choragus became separated (from 1848) as they still are today, and a new post of coryphaeus was added (1856), but later allowed to lapse. The Heather professorship has been held since its foundation by Richard Nicholson (1626–39), Arthur Phillips (1639–56), John Wilson (1656–61), Edward Lowe (1661–82), Richard Goodson sr (1682–1718), Richard Goodson jr (1718–41), William Hayes (1741–77), his son Philip Hayes (1777–97), William Crotch (1797–1847), Henry Rowley Bishop (1848–55), F.A. Gore Ouseley (1855–89), John Stainer (1889–99), C. Hubert H. Parry (1900–08), Walter Parratt (1908–18), Hugh Percy Allen (1918–46), Jack Westrup (1947–71), Joseph Kerman (1972–4), Denis Arnold (1975–86), Brian Trowell (1988–96) and Reinhard Strohm (from 1996). Until the mid-19th century the professorship was usually held concurrently with one or more college organistships, and frequently also with the post of university organist at St Mary's. Oxford musical graduates in the 18th and 19th centuries were most characteristically church and cathedral organists, among them William Croft (DMus 1713), John Stanley (BMus 1729), Charles Burney (DMus 1769) and Samuel Sebastian Wesley (BMus and DMus 1839).
During the 19th century the trend towards increasing involvement in musical scholarship was reflected in the work of the professors. In the 18th century Philip Hayes's termly ‘lectures’ consisted of performances, usually of choral works, in the Music School. Crotch's Oxford lectures (1800–04) encompassed a series of scholarly investigations. The ‘opening’ of the new organ in the Sheldonian Theatre in 1877 was marked by Ouseley's lecture on ‘The History and Construction of the Organ’. Stainer (with W.H. Hadow) strove to provide systematic instruction in music history. Among publications in music history and theory produced from Oxford at this period were Ouseley's edition of the translation of Naumann's History of Music, Ouseley's treatises on harmony and counterpoint, Stainer's Dufay and his Contemporaries and Early Bodleian Music, and the Oxford History of Music (1901–5). The academic content of the music degrees gathered increasing weight during the same period. Ouseley's reforms (initiated in 1856) added a written examination to the statutory requirements. Until then the degrees were awarded solely on the basis of the ‘exercise’ in composition submitted for the professor's approval. (The public performance of the BMus exercise was abolished in 1870, and of the DMus exercise in 1891.) Those who took the Oxford examinations under the new conditions during the late 19th century and the early 20th included Donald Francis Tovey, Leopold Stokowski, Edmund Fellowes and Adrian Boult. The first two women who in 1892 ‘distinguished themselves by taking the degree’ (of BMus) would have been unable to receive it formally; it was not until 1920 that the university began conferring degrees on women.
In 1911 a new Board of Studies in Music was formed to regulate the degrees, which were still open to external candidates. Residence requirements eventually came into force after 1918. In 1944 the modern Faculty of Music was instituted, with premises in Holywell Street (next to the Music Room, with which it has been traditionally linked) until 1981, when it moved to the Linacre College building in St Aldate's. The Honour School of Music was set up in 1950: Westrup, together with colleagues such as Frank Harrison (from 1952), Frederick Sternfeld (from 1956) and Egon Wellesz, presided over the teaching and examining of a new BA syllabus requiring a wider knowledge of musical scholarship. Postgraduate research degrees in music were instituted; the BMus now became a postgraduate degree in composition, the DMus being awarded to composers more advanced in their careers. From 1879 the honorary DMus has been regularly awarded; early recipients included Sullivan (1879), Elgar (1905), Grieg (1906) and Vaughan Williams (1919, on the 250th anniversary of the Sheldonian Theatre), while more recent performers and composers honoured have included Janet Baker (1975), Alfred Brendel (1983), Andrés Segovia (1972) and Michael Tippett (1967). Composers on the faculty have included Egon Wellesz, Edmund Rubbra, Kenneth Leighton and Robert Sherlaw Johnson. Other 20th-century composers who have resided or studied in Oxford include Lennox Berkeley, George Butterworth, Geoffrey Bush, Gordon Crosse, Bill Hopkins, Joseph Horovitz, Nicola LeFanu, Stephen Oliver, Nigel Osborne and William Walton.
6. Libraries and collections.
World-famous collections of manuscript and printed music (incorporating the old Music School collection) are held by the Bodleian Library, which is one of the national deposit libraries. Foremost for music among the college libraries is that of Christ Church (to which Aldrich's and Goodson sr's collections were bequeathed). The Music Faculty Library is one of the most substantial university music libraries in the country, comprising a wide-ranging collection of books, scores and periodicals as well as recorded music and rare reference materials. The Faculty of Music also houses a fine collection of musicians' portraits, dating from the 17th to the 19th centuries and originally built up as part of the Music School collections. Important collections of musical instruments are housed in the Music Faculty's Bate Collection of Historical Instruments, the Ashmolean Museum (the Hill collection of string instruments) and the Pitt-Rivers Museum (mainly ethnic instruments).
7. Printing and publishing.
Books on music were printed at Oxford from the late 16th century; printed music appeared from 1659 with John Wilson's Cheerful Ayres or Ballads. The Oxford University Press (housed at first in the Sheldonian Theatre from 1669, although the origins of printing in Oxford go back much further) is one of the leading publishers of music and music books.
Publications of the Oxford Historical Society (Oxford, 1884–)
P.C. Buck, J.H. Mee and F.C. Woods, eds.: Ten Years of University Music in Oxford … 1884–1894 (Oxford, 1894)
C.F. Abdy Williams: A Short Historical Account of the Degrees in Music at Oxford and Cambridge (London, 1894)
E.S. Kemp and J.H. Mee, eds.: Ten More Years, 1894–1904, of University Music in Oxford (London, 1904)
J.H. Mee: The Oldest Music Room in Europe (London, 1911)
S. Gibson: Statuta Antiqua Universitatis Oxoniensis (Oxford, 1931)
R. Hughes: ‘Haydn at Oxford’, ML, xx (1939), 242–9
The Oxford Madrigal Society 1936–45 (Oxford, 1945)
C. Bailey: A Short History of the Oxford Bach Choir (Oxford, 1948)
R. Ponsonby and R. Kent: The Oxford University Opera Club: a Short History, 1925–1950 (Oxford, 1950)
R. Fasnacht: A History of the City of Oxford (Oxford, 1954)
H.E. Salter and M.D. Lobel, eds.: The University of Oxford (London, 1954)
The Oxford Madrigal Society 1946–1955 (Oxford, 1955)
D.J. Reid: ‘Some Festival Programmes of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, 2: Cambridge and Oxford’, RMARC, no.6 (1966), 3–21
F. Howes: Oxford Concerts: a Jubilee Record (Oxford, 1969)
V.H.H. Green: A History of Oxford University (London, 1974)
E.W. White: ‘A Note on Opera at Oxford’, Essays on Opera and English Music in Honour of Sir Jack Westrup, ed. F.W. Sternfeld, N. Fortune and E. Olleson (Oxford, 1975), 168–76
J. Buxton and P. Williams, ed.: New College Oxford: 1379–1979 (Oxford, 1979), esp. 267–92
A. Crossley, ed.: The City of Oxford, Victoria History of the County of Oxford, iv (Oxford, 1979)
D. Burrows: ‘Sources for Oxford Handel Performances in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century’, ML, lxi (1980), 177–85
R. Pacey: The Organs of Oxford (Oxford, 1980)
S. Wollenberg: ‘Music in 18th-Century Oxford’, PRMA, cviii (1981–2), 69–99
J. Bergsagel: ‘Music in Oxford in Holberg's Time’, Hvad fatter gjør … essays tilegnet Erik Dal [Dad's always right … essays dedicated to Erik Dal], ed. H. Glahn and others (Herning, 1982), 34–61
The History of the University of Oxford (Oxford, 1984–): i: The Early Oxford Schools, ed. J.I. Catto (1984); ii: Late Medieval Oxford, ed. J.I. Catto and R. Evans (1992); iii: The Collegiate University, ed. J. McConica (1986); v: The Eighteenth Century, ed. L.S. Sutherland and L.G. Mitchell (1986); viii: The Twentieth Century, ed. B. Harrison (1994)
A. Burns and R. Wilson: The Balliol Concerts: a Centenary History (Oxford, 1985)
R. Judge: ‘May Morning and Magdalen College, Oxford’, Folklore, xcvii (1986), 15–40
S. Wollenberg: ‘Music in Oxford in the Time of Dorothy L. Sayers’, Dorothy L. Sayers Society Seminar [Oxford 1993] (Hurstpierpoint, 1994), 19–30