Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)




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Otis, Johnny [John Veliotes]


(b Vallejo, CA, 8 Dec 1921). American songwriter, drummer and bandleader. He immersed himself in black American musical styles although he himself came from a Greek immigrant background. He formed his first orchestra in the mid-1940s and from 1949 he toured the United States with his R&B Caravan whose corps of singers included Jackie Wilson, Little Willie John, Hank Ballard, Big Mama Thornton and Johnny Ace. Otis also provided the house band, and produced recordings, for the Duke record label. He composed a number of hit songs including Double Crossing Blues, Roll with Me Henry, Every Beat of my Heart, Willie and the Hand Jive and Ma He's Making Eyes at Me, while his recordings for Capitol included Willie and the Hand Jive, Casting my Spell and Crazy Country Hop. He was one of the great animateurs of black American music in the 1950s, discovering and promoting such singers as Esther Phillips and Etta James, and later formed his own Blues Spectrum label to record veteran rhythm and blues singers such as Charles Brown and Louis Jordan. His own 1969 album Cold Shot featured his son Shuggie on electric guitar. Otis subsequently trained for the ministry and became pastor of a church in Los Angeles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


J. Otis: Listen to the Lambs (New York, 1968)

J. Otis: Upside Your Head! Rhythm and Blues on Central Avenue (Hanover, NH, 1993)

DAVE LAING


Otker of Regensburg [Ratisbon]


(fl Regensburg, 11th- or 12th-century). Cleric and theorist. He was a monk at St Emmeram, and wrote two short treatises dealing with the monochord and its graphic representation, Mensura quadripartite figure (GerbertS, i, 348 and PL, cli, 691–2) and Encheriadis monochordum (PL, cli, 693–4). The former is one of a series of explanations of the modes which use diagrams of the monochord for their exposition. Often called cribrum monochordi, they approach with remarkable clarity the modern system of solfège based on the movable doh. Here the eight modes are discussed in terms of the maneriae, and the drawings of the monochord are adjusted to show the finals of the modes in a straight line and to allow vertical identification of the initial and final notes of each tetrachord (see Table 1). This and similar diagrams, such as those offered by Wilhelm of Hirsau and Theogerus of Metz, represent a high point in medieval pedagogy. This technique of using the monochord may be likened to the modern practice of explaining scale patterns and intervals in relation to keyboard instruments.

table 1



























Mixolydian


















Lydian


















Phrygian















Dorian


















Hypomixolydian


















Hypolydian


















Hypophrygian















Hypdorian




























































a



c

d




Γ

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

a



c

d

e

f

g





























































a



c

d






















































a







Γ

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

a



c

d

e

f

g




Tetrardus

















































a































































a










Γ

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

a



c

d

e

f

g




Tritus




















































a































































a










Γ

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

a



c

d

e

f

g




Deuterus




















































a































































a










Γ

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

a



c

d

e

f

g




Protus




















































a

































Graves







Excellentes



















Finales



















Superiores



BIBLIOGRAPHY


L. Bronarski: ‘Die Quadripartita figura in der mittelalterlichen Musiktheorie’, Festschrift Peter Wagner, ed. K. Weinmann (Leipzig, 1926/R), 27–43

C. Adkins: The Theory and Practice of the Monochord (diss., U. of Iowa, 1963), 349–50

CECIL ADKINS


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