Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)




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Ostrogórski [Ostrowski], Maciej.


See Szarfenberg, Maciej.

Ostrovsky, Aleksandr Nikolayevich


(b Moscow, 31 March/12 April 1823; d Shchelïkovo, Kostroma province, 2/14 June 1886). Russian dramatist. He was the son of a government clerk and was brought up in the merchant quarter of Moscow; he worked for eight years as a clerk of the commercial court, thus acquiring wide knowledge of the merchants and low-grade civil servants whom he later portrayed vividly in his plays. His first published work was The Bankrupt (1847–9), and his first work staged Poverty is no Vice (1854). From then until his death he wrote some 40 plays in prose and eight in blank verse, mostly social comedies (he is regarded as the creator of the Russian comedy of manners), but also dramas, historical plays and one poetic fairy tale The Snow Maiden (1873). His best-known work, the drama Groza (known in English as The Storm or The Thunderstorm), is his only play widely known outside Russia, although translations of other plays exist in most European languages. Ostrovsky’s unparalleled pictures of Russian life are perhaps too closely observed and specifically rooted in particular communities of the Russia of his day to appeal widely to foreigners; but his importance in the history of the Russian theatre is exceeded only by that of Gogol' and Chekhov, between whom he forms a vital link.

Ostrovsky was particularly interested in folksongs, which he collected and sometimes used in his plays. He was friendly with many musicians; in 1865, with Nikolay Rubinstein, he founded an Artists’ Circle in Moscow, in which the music critic Prince V.F. Odoyevsky also played a prominent part. Ostrovsky collaborated, unsuccessfully, with Serov, and also with Rimsky-Korsakov and Tchaikovsky; he wrote a scene for Ippolitov-Ivanov’s Ruf ’. His closest collaboration was with Kashperov, for whom he wrote the libretto of Groza. He was the first president of the Society of Russian Dramatists and Opera Composers, founded in Moscow in 1874 to protect authors’ and composers’ performing rights.


PRINCIPAL WORKS SET TO MUSIC


Bednost' ne porok [Poverty is no Vice] (1854): Svat [The Matchmaker], op. by N.N. Tcherepnin, Paris, 1937

Ne tak zhivi kak khochetsya [Do Not live as you Like] (1855): Vrazh'ya sila [The Power of Evil], op by Serov, St Petersburg, 1871

Groza [The Storm; The Thunderstorm] (1860): Ov. op.76 by Tchaikovsky, 1864; op by Kashperov, 1867; Kát’a Kabanová, op by Janáček, Brno, 1921; film music by Shcherbachyov, 1934, also arr. as sym. suite, 1934; op by Asaf'yev, 1940; op by Trambitsky, 1941; L’uragano, op by Rocca, 1942–5; op. by I.I. Dzerzhinsky, Moscow, 1956; op by V. Pushkov, 1962

Son na Volge [A Dream on the Volga] (1865): Voyevoda, incid music by Blaramberg, 1865; Voyevoda, opera op.3 by Tchaikovsky, 1869; incid music by Kashperov, 1886; opera op.16 by Arensky, 1888

Dmitriy Samozvanets [Dmitry the Pretender] (1867): incid music by Tchaikovsky, by 1867

Tushino (1867): Tushintsï [Inhabitants of Tushino], op by Blaramberg, 1895

Les [The Forest] (1871): op by Kogan, 1954; La forêt, op by Liebermann, Geneva, 1987

Komik XVII stoletiya [A Comedian of the 17th Century] (1872): Skomorokh [The Minstrel], op by Blaramberg, 1887

Snegurochka [The Snow Maiden] (1873): incid music op.12 by Tchaikovsky, 1873; op by Rimsky-Korsakov, 2 versions, 1880–81, c1895; incid music op.23 by Grechaninov, 1900; ballet by A. Kotilko, Saratov, 1946; Vesennyaya skazka, ballet by N. Nakhabin, Khar'kiv, 1954; vocal sym. suite by Yu. Rozhavskaya, 1955

Bespridannitza [The Girl without a Dowry] (1879): op by A. Novikov, 1945, unperf.; ballet by A. Fridlender, Sverdlovsk, 1958; op by D. Frenkel, Leningrad, 1959

BIBLIOGRAPHY


J. Patouillet: Ostrovski et son théâtre de moeurs russes (Paris, 1912) [incl. bibliography]

N. Dolgov: A.N. Ostrovskiy: zhizn' i tvorchestvo [Ostrovsky: life and works] (Moscow, 1923)

V.V. Yakovlev: Ostrovskiy i muzïkal'naya stikhiya [Ostrovsky and the musical element] (Moscow, 1923)

M.M. Ippolitov-Ivanov: Pyat'desyat let russkoy muzïki v moikh vospominaniyakh [50 years of Russian music in my reminiscences] (Moscow, 1934; Ger. trans., 1993 as Meine Erinnerungen), 63ff, 140–41

Ye.M. Kolosova and V. Filippov, eds.: A.N. Ostrovskiy i russkiye kompozitorï [Ostrovsky and Russian composers] (Moscow, 1937)

E. Lo Gatto: Storia del teatro russo, i (Florence, 1952)

A. Glumov: Muzïka v russkom dramaticheskom teatri [Music in the Russian theatre] (Moscow, 1955)

L.M. Lotman: A.N. Ostrovskiy i russkaya dramaturgiya yego vremeni [Ostrovsky and Russian drama of his time] (Leningrad, 1961)

G. Ivanov: A.N. Ostrovskiy v muzïke: spravochnik [Ostrovsky in music: a reference guide] (Moscow, 1976)

APRIL FITZLYON


Ostrowski, Feliks


(b Kraśnik, nr Lublin, 3 Jan 1802; d Warsaw, 14 Nov 1860). Polish pianist, teacher and composer. He received his early musical education, probably under Józef Lubaczewski at the suggestion of Józef's son Antoni, at Gościeradów near Kraśnik, and continued his studies at the Warsaw Conservatory under Würfel and Alojzy Stolpe senior (organ and piano). For a time he lived in Lithuania. He gave successful concerts in Poland, the Ukraine (one on 25 January 1827 at Kiev with Karol Lipiński) and St Petersburg, where he played Chopin's works. In about 1840 he gave up his career as a concert artist and became a piano teacher at the Aleksandryjski Institute in Warsaw. Only a small number of his compositions are extant. They are all for piano and include three polonaises (1821–4) after the style of Michał Ogiński, and an Adagio and Rondo op.11 (c1830), published in Warsaw after 1850. His Variations and Rondo and a Rondo à la valse, mentioned in the contemporary Warsaw press, are lost.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


SMP

Gazeta Korespondenta Warszawskiego i Zagranicznego (18 Dec 1821)

Kurier Warszawski (21 June 1822; 17 April and 16 May 1823; 21 April 1836)

Monitor Warszawski (26 Feb 1827)

I. Bełza: ‘Feliks Ostrowski’, Między oświeceniem i romantyzmem (Kraków, 1961), 253–64

BARBARA CHMARA-ŻACZKIEWICZ


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