(b Toledo, c1510; d ?Naples, c1570). Spanish theorist and composer. He was at Naples by 10 December 1553, when he dedicated his Trattado de glosas to the Spanish nobleman Pedro de Urríes, Baron of Riesi (Sicily). This work appeared simultaneously in Spanish and in an Italian version full of hispanicisms suggesting that Ortiz served as his own translator. If so, he must already have spent an extended period in the part of Italy under Spanish rule.
By February 1558 Ortiz was maestro de capilla of the viceregal chapel maintained at Naples by Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba and Spanish Viceroy from 1556 to 1558. In 1565 he was still maestro de capilla to the conservative Pedro Afán de Rivera, Duke of Alcalá, Alvarez de Toledo's successor as Spanish Viceroy (1559–71) to whom he dedicated his Musices liber primus. A book of masses promised in the preface to this work never appeared.
The Trattado de glosas, or ‘treatise on the ornamentation of cadences and other types of passage in the music of viols’, is the first printed ornamentation manual for the player of bowed string instruments. It teaches neither how to improvise nor how to add ornamentation at sight, but provides numerous written-out ornaments fitting exactly prescribed time limits. The player is told in book 1 to inspect the dozen or more ornamented variants provided after each simple cadence or passage, to choose the most apt and to write it into his part at the appropriate place. The accidentals shown in the simple cadence are to be retained in whatever ornamented variant the player selects. The second book begins with four solo recercadas (studies) for bass viol, followed by six recercadas on the bass La spagna in which agile tenor-clef counterpoints for violón are accompanied by keyboard harmonizations of the theme. Next come four recercadas (ornamented versions) of Arcadelt's four-voice madrigal O felici occhi miei for viol and keyboard, followed by four of Pierre Sandrin's four-part chanson Douce mémoire. Book 2 concludes with eight recercadas for bass viol and keyboard over passamezzo basses. Neither book quotes any distinctively Iberian air. Ortiz's preoccupation with bowed rather than plucked instruments contrasted with contemporary Spanish preference. The sole 16th-century peninsular manuscript that cites his ornamentation formulae is a Portuguese keyboard source (P-C Mus.242), not a Spanish viol source.
The hymns, psalms, Salves and alternatim Magnificat settings of Ortiz's Musices liber primus, for four to seven voices, are without exception based on plainsong. Although one setting of Pange lingua gloriosi quotes a Spanish chant, few other native traits are evident in the collection. His use of accidentals (the same note may be unaltered in one verse and sharpened in the next) agrees with Infantas's treatment of plainsong cantus firmi in Plura modulationum genera (1579). In his dedication Ortiz encouraged the Spanish predilection for accompanying sacred polyphony with instruments. In his preface he referred to Ockeghem, Josquin Des Prez and Mouton as the ‘true doctors of music’, a view in accord with the conservative style of his compositions, which show the distinctive influence of Morales.
A five-part funeral motet, Pereat dies (ed. H. Eslava in Lira sacro-hispana, Madrid, 1869), is not in the book of 1565 and may be by another Ortiz, like the three long six-part motets of I-Rvat C.S.24, copied in 1545. Vicente Lusitano, the probable author of an anonymous treatise (ed. in Collet), mentioned a Missa ‘L'homme armé’ by ‘Ortiz’. Two intabulations in Valderrábano's Silva de sirenas (1547) are ascribed in that collection not to Diego but to Miguel Ortiz.
Trattado de glosas sobre clausulas y otros generos de puntos en la musica de violones (Rome, 1553; also pubd in It. as: Glose sopra le cadenze et altre sorte de punti in la musica del violone); ed. M. Schneider (Kassel, 1967)
Musices liber primus hymnos, Magnificas, Salves, motecta, psalmos (Venice, 1565); ed. in Borrowdale
H. Collet: Le mysticisme musical espagnol au XVIe siècle (Paris, 1913)
R.J. Borrowdale: The ‘Musices Liber Primus’ of Diego Ortiz, Spanish Musician (diss., U. of Southern California, 1952)
P.G. Strassler: Hymns for the Church Year, Magnificats, and Other Sacred Choral Works of Diego Ortiz (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1966)
H.M. Brown: Embellishing Sixteenth-Century Music (London, 1975)
J. González López: ‘Diego Ortiz en su época: recercadas, tientos, fantasías’, Nassarre: revista aragonesa de musicología, vi (1990), 195–205
R. Stevenson: ‘Spanish Polyphonists in the Age of the Armada’, Inter-American Music Review, xii/2 (1992), 17–114, esp. 44–6
Ortiz (Fernández), Fernando
(b Havana, 16 July 1881; d Havana, 10 April 1969). Cuban ethnomusicologist, lawyer, ethnologist and writer. He spent his childhood in Minorca and studied law at the universities of Havana, Barcelona and Madrid, where he took the doctorate in 1901. After working in the Cuban diplomatic service (1903–9) he taught political science and law (1909–18) and later Cuban ethnography at the University of Havana. His interest in musicology dated from his early student years; he was self-taught in music, and became an authority on Cuban folk music and folklore, making outstanding contributions to Cuban ethnomusicology during a period of some 50 years. His interests were particularly in the Afro-Cuban tradition. He edited several periodicals, such as Revista bimestre cubana (1911), and founded others, such as Archivos del folklore cubano, Estudios afrocubanos and Ultra. He also founded the Society of Cuban Folklore, the Society of Afro-Cuban Studies, was president of the Academy of Cuban History and after the 1959 Cuban Revolution was made a member of the National Commission of the Academy of Sciences. His numerous publications all deal with Cuban studies; his music research primarily concerns Afro-Cuban musical instruments, traditional religious music repertories, and the study of African aspects of Cuban music.
Los negros brujos (Madrid, 1906)
Los negros esclavos (Havana, 1916)
Los Cabildos afrocubanos (Havana, 1921)
Glosario de afronegrismos (Havana, 1924, 2/1991)
‘El estudio de la música afrocubana’, Musicalia, i (1928–9), 115, 169
‘La música sagrada de los negros Yorubá en Cuba’, Estudios afrocubanos, ii (1928), 89
‘De la música afrocubana: un estímulo para su estudio’, Universidad de Habana, i (1934), 111
La ‘clave’ xilofónica de la música cubana (Havana, 1935/R)
‘La música sagrada de los negros Yorubá en Cuba’, Ultra, iii/13 (1937), 77
‘Afro-Cuban Music’, Inter-American Quarterly, i/3 (1939), 66
‘Preludios étnicos de la música afro-cubana’, Revista bimestre cubana (1947), no.49, p.5; no.50, p.123; (1948), no.51, p.41, no.52, p.131; (1949), no.53, p.63, no.54, p.87
‘La música y los areítos de los indios de Cuba’, Revista de arqueología y etnología, iii/6–7 (1948), 115
‘La música de las tumbas’, Bohemia [Havana], xli (1949), no.4, pp.22, 93, 98, 106; no.6, pp.20, 90, 97
La africanía de la música folklórica de Cuba (Havana, 1950, 2/1965)
‘Cuban Drumbeat’, Américas, ii/11(1950), 6
‘El kinfuiti: un tambor para “jalar” muertos’, Bohemia [Havana], xlii (1950), 20
‘El güiro de moyubá o jobá’, Homenaje al doctor Alfonso Caso (Mexico City, 1951), 299
Los bailes y el teatro de los negros en el folklore de Cuba (Havana, 1951, 2/1981)
Los instrumentos de la música afrocubana (Havana, 1952–5/R)
‘La música afrocubana’, RMC, no.43 (1952), 13–17
‘La transculturación blanca de los tambores de los negros’, Archivos venezolanos de folklore, i (1952), 235
Miscelánea de estudios dedicados a Fernando Ortiz (Havana, 1955–7) [incl. articles on Ortiz by B. Becerra Bonet, I. Castellanos, A. Iduarte, J. Price Mars]
J. Comas and B. Becerra: ‘La obra escrita de Don F. Ortiz’, Inter-American Review of Bibliography, vii (1957), 347–71
A. Garcis-Carranza, ed: Bio-bibliografia de Don Fernando Ortiz (Havana, 1970)
R. Moore: “Representations of Afrocuban Expressive Culture in the Writings of Fernando Ortiz”, Latin American Music Review, 15:i (1994), 32–54