Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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Ortigue, Joseph (Louis) d’

(b Cavaillon, 22 May 1802; d Paris, 20 Nov 1866). French critic and writer on music. He studied music first under H.S. Blaze and his son (Castil-Blaze), then went to Aix-en-Provence to study law, where he also played second violin in quartet performances by amateurs who styled themselves Beethovenistes(as opposed to Rossinistes). During his probation as a lawyer in Paris in 1827 he began to write for the Mémorial catholique and soon after he decided to become a music critic. His first brochure, De la guerre des dilettanti (1829), set the tone for his criticism which often led to confrontations, namely with Fétis. In the same year his first article on Berlioz appeared in Le correspondant. He was to remain a close friend and ardent promoter of Berlioz all his life, although he disagreed with him on religious music. He also wrote the first Berlioz biography (Revue de Paris, December 1832, repr. in Le balcon de l’Opéra, 1833), known wrongly as the ‘autobiography’ since Berlioz merely contributed a sketch (less than half the final text).

In 1830 d’Ortigue, a liberal Catholic, spent six months studying with the controversial Abbé Lamennais, who later introduced him to Liszt (whose first biography he published in the Gazette musicale, 1835) and invited him to help write the third volume of his Esquisse d’une philosophie devoted to aesthetics. In 1837 d’Ortigue was commissioned to research music manuscripts in the Bibliothèque Royale and he collected material for his major work, the Dictionnaire liturgique, historique et théorique de plain-chant (1853). For nearly 30 years he devoted himself to the study of plainsong and religious music, advocated a reform of church music in various publications including La maîtrise, which he founded with Niedermeyer (1857–60), the Journal des maîtrises, which he founded with Félix Clément (1862), and through a congress for the restoration of plainsong which he organized in 1860.

D’Ortigue eventually contributed more than 700 articles to over 40 periodicals, an output comparable to that of Berlioz. He deputized for Berlioz as music critic for the Journal des débats, and eventually succeeded him early in 1864. A few months earlier he had also become chief editor of Le ménestrel. His writings include a novel (La Sainte-Baume, 1834) in which some chapters are introduced by musical quotes. He published a Messe sans paroles (Paris, 1864), a piece for organ and a few songs.


all published in Paris

De la guerre des dilettanti, ou De la révolution opérée par M. Rossini dans l’opéra françois, et des rapports qui existent entre la musique, la littérature et les arts (1829)

Le balcon de l’Opéra (1833)

La Sainte-Baume (1834)

De l’école musicale italienne et de l’administration de l’Académie royale de musique à l’occasion de l’opéra de M. H. Berlioz (1839, 2/1840 as Du théâtre italien et de son influence sur le goût musical françois)

Abécédaire du plain-chant (1841)

Dictionnaire liturgique, historique et théorique de plain-chant et de musique de l’église, au Moyen-Age et dans les temps modernes (1853/R)

Introduction à l’étude comparée des tonalités et principalement du chant grégorien et de la musique moderne (1853) [articles ‘Philosophie’ and ‘Tonalité’ from the Dictionnaire]

Aperçu sommaire de la littérature et de la bibliographie musicale en France (1855)

with L. Niedermeyer: Traité théorique et pratique de l’accompagnement du plain-chant (1857; Eng. trans., 1905)

La musique à l’église (1861)

Articles on Adam, Baillot, Berlioz, Chopin, Cramer, Czerny, David, dominante, Donizetti, Duport, Duprez, Erard, Farinelli, Fétis, Rossini, in the Dictionnaire de la conversation et de la lecture (1870)

Articles and reviews in over 40 journals, incl. L’avenir, Le correspondant, Le courrier de l’Europe, L’ère nouvelle, La France catholique, La France musicale, Journal de Paris, Journal des débats, Journal des jeunes personnes, Journal des maîtrises, Mémorial catholique, Le ménestrel, Le national, L’opinion publique, La quotidienne, Revue de musique ancienne et moderne, Revue de Paris, Revue des deux-mondes, Revue et gazette musicale de Paris, Revue européenne, Le temps, L’univers religieux, L’université catholique



C.-F.-H. Barjavel: Dictionnaire historique, biographique et bibliographique du département de Vaucluse (Carpentras, 1841)

J.L. Heugel: Obituary,Le ménestrel (25 Nov 1866)

A. de Pontmartin: Obituary,Revue de Paris (10 Dec 1866)

M. Barber: ‘Joseph d’Ortigue’, Mémoires de l’Académie de Vaucluse, 2nd ser., xviii (1918), 273–98 [with list of works]

H. Berlioz: Correspondance générale, ed. P. Citron (Paris, 1972–95)

J.-M. Bailbé: ‘La Sainte-Baume’, Cahiers mennaisiens, v (1975), 20–28

S. L’Écuyer Lavoix: ‘Joseph d’Ortigue et la linguistique de la musique’, Etudes littéraires, xv/1 (1982), 11–31

S. L’Écuyer: La vie et l’oeuvre de Joseph d’Ortigue (1802–1866): critique musical (diss., U. Laval, 1992)

S. L’Écuyer: Joseph d’Ortigue, critique musical: biographie et textes choisis (1827–1846) (Paris, 1999)


Ortiz, Cristina

(b Bahia region, 7 April 1950). Brazilian pianist. After early studies in Rio de Janeiro she won a fellowship to work with Magda Tagliaferro in Paris. At the age of 19 she won first prize in the 1969 Van Cliburn Competition, and after further coaching and advice from Rudolf Serkin commenced an intensive international career, making her New York début in 1971 and her London début (playing Rachmaninoff’s First Concerto with the LSO and Previn in 1973). Her exceptionally wide-ranging repertory extends from standard classics to more exotic fare, notably the music of her native Brazil. Early recordings of music by, among others, Alfredo Vianna, Guarnieri and Oscar Lorenzo Fernandez testified to a natural sympathy for this repertory, later confirmed in discs of works by Villa-Lobos (including the five piano concertos). Ortiz’s engaging fluency is also heard to advantage in recordings of music by Constant Lambert, Dohnányi, Shostakovich and Prokofiev, and in an album devoted to music inspired by children (Debussy, Kabalevsky, Khachaturian, Mompou etc.). She has appeared with many of the world’s leading orchestras and conductors and is also an experienced and sympathetic chamber musician.


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