Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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(ii) Trills, turns and related ornaments.

The elaborate systems of ornament signs developed by 18th-century keyboard players was not widely adopted, even in keyboard music, during the Classical period. For other instruments composers rarely employed anything but ‘tr’, the mordent sign and various forms of turn sign, the most common being those shown in fig.3. Only the last four were normally found in printed music. The sign ‘tr’ usually indicated a trill with a number of repetitions of the upper auxiliary, while the mordent sign indicated only one or two repetitions (depending whether it began with the auxiliary); however, each of these signs was sometimes used with the meaning usually applicable to the other. The various forms of turn sign cannot reliably be related to particular melodic and rhythmic patterns; sometimes they too could be synonymous with ‘tr’, and in manuscript sources the distinction between fig.3a and fig.3d or 3e is often unclear.

During the 19th century, as composers became concerned to take greater control of their music, they increasingly wrote out ornaments in full. The progression is neatly illustrated by Wagner's turns: up to Lohengrin he used signs, but in Tristan and his later operas he always incorporated the turns into the notation. Inverted mordents were often indicated either by small notes or in normal notation, and even trills were sometimes fully notated, for instance by Dvořák (op.106) and Tchaikovsky (opp.64 and 74).

Considerable controversy has been generated by the question of how trills in music from the period 1750 to 1900 should begin. Scholarship has clearly shown that, although the upper-note start was never quite as self-evident as advocates such as C.P.E. Bach implied, it was undoubtedly the dominant practice in the mid-18th century. When and where a general preference for a main-note start began to emerge remains uncertain. Moser identified the strongest support for the upper-note start as being in north Germany; he asserted, however, that in Mannheim the trill was to begin from above only if specifically notated, and that C.P.E. Bach's authority was countered by ‘the powerful influences which stemmed from the Viennese masters of instrumental music’ (Violinschule, iii, 19–20). What evidence Moser may have possessed for this statement, other than received tradition by way of Joachim, remains unclear. Certainly, a considerable number of the trills on the musical clocks from the 1790s containing Haydn's Flötenuhrstücke begin on the main note, but there is no consistency and no connection with Haydn's notation. Arguments for and against Mozart's preference have been advanced, and the matter has been exhaustively examined by Neumann (J1986). For Beethoven, too, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In 1828, however, Hummel published his unambiguous opinion that a main-note start should be the norm, and Spohr followed suit a few years later. Baillot offered four different beginnings without recommending the primacy of any. Some 19th-century composers took trouble to indicate the beginnings of trills, particularly to show a start from below, and their manner of doing this was used by Franklin Taylor in 1879 as evidence for their normal practice. It seems probable that among major 19th-century composers Weber, Chopin and Mendelssohn generally favoured an upper-note start. In this as in other aspects of performance, however, dogmatism and rigidity are undoubtedly out of place.

Trill endings were subject to much variation. By far the most usual was the two-note ending; in 1776 Reichardt, for instance, recommended that if no trill ending was marked orchestral players should automatically employ this type of suffix, and many musicians throughout the period considered this the default ending. In solo performance, on the other hand, more elaborate endings might commonly have been expected to be improvised until at least the middle of the 19th century, regardless of what a composer indicated.

The expressive effect of a turn depends on its position in the melody, its rhythmic configuration, its melodic shape and the speed with which it is executed. The relationship between the turn and the trill has always been close. C.P.E. Bach considered that the two ornaments were interchangeable in many instances. Most 18th-century authors stated that turns should be performed quickly, but a variety of speeds, depending on context, would certainly have been employed by musicians throughout the period. In general, turns, along with other short ornaments, would have been added at will by 18th- and early 19th-century performers, and they remain appropriate as improvised embellishment in some later 19th-century repertories, especially Italian vocal music. In the 19th century, just as there was a greater tendency for trills to begin with the principal note, there is evidence that in some circumstances performers may have been increasingly inclined to start turns with the main note. With respect to the positioning of accenting turns on or before the beat, many of the same factors apply as in the case of the grace note; the majority of authorities favoured on-beat performance, but some advocated performance before the beat. The turn in ex.104a might have been executed in any of the ways shown in ex.104bf. The form of turn for which Leopold Mozart used the conventional German term Doppelschlag (he used Mordent for the accenting turn) was clearly considered by him as a connecting ornament, its principal use, both in its direct and inverted forms, being as an extempore embellishment to an appoggiatura (ex.105); the same usage was still illustrated in the 19th century by Campagnoli. In the revised 1787 edition of his treatise Mozart also showed it as a simple connection between two conjunct or leaping notes (ex.106).

These patterns were standard, varying slightly from author to author in their exact rhythmic configuration and placement. In the 18th century it seems to have been generally accepted that the connecting turn, like the accenting turn, would be performed rapidly, and this remained true for many 19th-century musicians. There was, however, a growing tendency towards the middle of the century to execute some turns in a more leisurely manner. In the 1830s A.B. Marx thought that the turn should be ‘performed in moderately fast or even fast tempo’. Near the end of the century Dannreuther recorded:

The turn in Bellini's cantilena, both andantino and largo, was sung in a very broad way, so the notes formed part of the principal phrase, just as it is now to be found written out and incorporated in Wagner's Tristan. The ornamental notes, resembling a turn at the end of a long breath, were always given piano, diminuendo, leggiero as in Chopin (ex.107).

A number of 19th-century authorities, including Romberg and Marx, mentioned the possibility that a direct turn sign might equally well invite an inverted turn, depending on the musical context. Uncertainty about the implications of turn signs even extended to Wagner's music, and on various occasions in Rienzi and Tannhäuser (in the latter case at the composer's instigation in 1875) direct turn signs were interpreted as inverted turns.

In addition to the major classes of notated ornaments (which throughout much of the period might well have been introduced where they were not written) there were others that were only occasionally notated, though very frequently employed. Chief among these were vibrato, portamento and arpeggiando. A few composers marked vibrato with dots under a slur or by various accent signs under slurs (which in string playing probably indicated an unmeasured bow vibrato or portato), as well as with a wavy line (ex.108ac). The crescendo–diminuendo sign, in connection with a single note of shorter value was also used by many composers to invite, if not to instruct, string players to make an ornamental vibrato, as explained in the Joachim and Moser Violinschule. Portamento was sometimes called for by a verbal instruction, but 19th-century composers often implied its use either by fingerings (in string playing), by grace notes that were separated from their main notes by more than a tone, or by slurs (this may sometimes be the meaning of slurs between syllables in vocal music). Arpeggiando was frequently marked in keyboard music by the conventional signs, though many 19th-century composers indicated it in small notation. Arpeggiando signs or notation were probably intended to prevent its omission in places where it was vital to the expression; however, players throughout the period would have been expected to use it ad libitum in a range of contexts that were explained by many theorists.


10. 20th century.

The study of ornaments and their manner of execution since the beginning of the 20th century has been predominantly a matter of charting different responses to the challenge of performing a historical repertory. The conditions of this study are fundamentally different from those of previous centuries, for although mechanical instruments preserve aspects of earlier practice the development of recording allows us to hear precisely how ornaments were applied and executed by individual performers. The continuing trend towards a literal interpretation of the composer's notation, which began during the 19th century, has sometimes led to profoundly unhistorical approaches to older repertory. In the first decades of the century a tradition of extensive improvised ornamentation in certain types of vocal music continued. Recordings of Rossini's ‘Una voce poco fa’ by such singers as Marcella Sembrich, Amelita Galli-Curci and Luisa Tetrazzini, for instance, involve much additional ornamentation, most of which is individual to the singer concerned. By the second half of the century such practices were regarded as unwarrantable liberties, and in Teresa Berganza's 1972 recording, for example, the aria is sung with virtually no modification of Rossini's text. The obsession with fidelity to the notation even led, in the middle decades of the century, to a widespread abandonment of the prosodic appoggiaturas that had earlier been taken for granted in vocal music. With the growing interest in historical performance during the later decades of the century, performers began to reintroduce these appoggiaturas, though they are still not employed as widely as they would have been at the beginning of the 20th century. As late as 1986 Neumann argued for the literal performance of many passages in Mozart, where the composer would almost certainly have expected his singers to employ appoggiaturas. The interpolated portamentos, involving the insertion of grace notes, that were still considered a mark of fine singing in the late 19th century, and can be heard on early recordings, disappeared during the early decades of the century and were not revived. In mid-20th-century string playing and singing portamento was used ever more sparingly and discreetly, and came in due course to be regarded as thoroughly tasteless. Little attempt was made to reintroduce portamento as an aspect of historical performance, despite abundant evidence for its integral role in many repertories. It is otherwise with vibrato. Although the notion of vibrato as an ornament can still be found in Leopold Auer's Violin Playing as I Teach it (1921) and Henry Wood's The Gentle Art of Singing (1927), the concept of continuous vibrato as an essential aspect of tone production had, in practice, made that notion largely irrelevant by the time Siegfried Eberhardt advocated continuous vibrato as the secret of a fine tone in Der beseelte Violin-Ton in 1910. Styles of continuous vibrato changed considerably during the 20th century, and it remains a standard aspect of most modern performance. Despite the untenable claims of Donington and others that continuous vibrato has always been an integral aspect of tone production in singing and string playing, many early music performers in the late 20th century revived an ornamental approach to vibrato within a basically vibrato-less tone, and their example influenced modern performances of repertory from the 18th century. But there is still a widespread fallacy among performers that from Beethoven onwards a full-blooded continuous vibrato is stylistically appropriate.

The 20th century produced many studies of historical performing practice. In the first half of the century these had relatively little influence on the practices of professional musicians. In the second half of the century there was growing interest in traditions with which performing musicians have entirely lost contact; but it is an intrinsically hazardous business to try to unravel the relationship between written texts and aural phenomena, and scholarly studies of ornamentation have tended to breed controversy. The third quarter of the 20th century saw particularly passionate debate about such issues as when trills ought to start with the upper note and whether grace notes should precede or coincide with the beat, and the influence of personal taste on all sides of the argument has sometimes been stronger than scholarly detachment. However, recent studies of historical recordings (now more widely available, in transfers to CD, than before) have spread awareness of the mutability of musical taste, the diversity of practice and the scope for alternative aesthetics of performance. In the light of such experience there seems to be a growing appreciation that by their very nature ornaments are flexible, and that seeking hard and fast solutions in particular cases is often not only unrealistic but unhistorical.


11. Index to ornaments and table of signs.

The numbers are those of the sections above in which the ornaments are discussed.

Accent: (springer), 7; (appoggiatura), 8

Accent und Trillo (prepared trill), 8
Accento, 1, 4, 8
Accentuirte Brechung (broken chord with passing note), 8
Acciaccatura, 5, 8, 9
Acute (springer), 6
Aleado (mordent), 2
Anschlag (double appoggiatura), 8
Anticipazione della nota (passing note), 8
Anticipazione della syllaba (passing note), 8
Apoyamento (appoggiatura), 2
Appoggiatura, 5, 9, 10
Appuy (appoggiatura), 7
Ardire (?vibrato), 8
Arpeado, 2
Arpégé, 7
Arpeggiando, 9
Aspiration: (curtailed note), 7; (springer), 7; (vibrato), 7Backfall: (descending appoggiatura), 6; backfall and shake, 6; double backfall (slide), 6
Balancement: (tremolo), 7; balancement de main (vibrato), 7
Batement: (vibrato), 7; battement (mordent), 7; battements (trill), 7
Battery (broken chord), 6
Beat, 6
Bebung (vibrato), 8
Bombus (repeated note), 8
Brechung (broken chord), 8Cadence: (trill), 7; (turn), 8
Cadence coupée, 7
Cadent (note of anticipation), 6
Cadenza, 5
Cascata, 4
Cercar la nota (passing note), 8
Cheute (appoggiatura), 7
Circolo, circolo mezzo (turn), 8
Clamatione (portamento), 1
Coulé: (appoggiatura), 7; (slide), 7
Coulement (appoggiatura), 7
Crescere e scemare di voce, 4 Détaché (curtailed note), 7
Diminution, disminucion (ornamental division), 2, 5
Doppel-Cadenz (trill commencing with turn, or trill with turned ending), 8
Doppelschlag (turn), 8, 9
Doublé (turn), 7
Double cadence: (turn), 7; (compound trill), 7
Double cadence coupée, 7
Double cadence sans tremblement (turn), 7
Doublement du gosier, 7
Double relish, 6
Duplex longa florata, 1 Einfall (appoggiatura or passing note), 8
Elevation (slur), 6
Esclamazione: (strengthening of the relaxed voice), 4; (ascending passing note at end of main note), 8
Esmorsata, 2
Exclamatio, 8
Extrasino (vihuela portamento), 2Fermo, 5
Flaté, flatté, flattement (vibrato), 7
Florificatio vocis (trill), 1
Flos harmonicus (trill), 1
Forefall: 3, 6; forefall and shake, 6 Gedoppelter Accent, 8
Glosa, 2
Groppo, grup, gruppo (trill, often with turn), 1, 4, 6, 8Halbtriller (short, snapped trill), 8
Half-fall (appoggiatura), 6
Harpègement, 7
Harpeggio, 8 Intonazione, 4, 8Kette von Trillern (chain of trills), 8Langueur (vibrato), 7
Liaison: (tie), 7; (slur), 7
Longa florata, 1Martellement (mordent), 7
Messa di voce, 4, 5
Mordent, Mordant, mordente, 2, 5, 8, 9 Nachschlag, 8, 9
Nota procellaris (?vibrato), 1 Pasaje (ornamental divisions), 2
Passaggio (ornamental division), 1, 4, 8
Pincé: (vibrato), 7; (mordent), 7
Pincement (mordent), 7
Plainte (vibrato), 7
Portamento, 5, 9, 10
Portar la voce, 4
Port de voix (appoggiatura), 7
Port de voix coulée, 7
Prallender Doppelschlag (trilled turn), 8
Pralltriller (short, snapped trill), 8 Quiebro: (trill), 2; (mordent), 2 Raking play (form of lutenists’ broken chord), 6
Redoble: (ornamental division), 2; (trill), 2
Relish: single relish (variously a turn and a trill), 6; double relish, 6
Repicco, 4
Reverberatio (appoggiatura), 1
Ribattuta, 4, 8
Roulade: (appoggiatura), 6; (‘trilling’ or ‘quavering’), 6; single roulade (backfall), 6; double roulade (double backfall or slide), 6Schleifer (slide), 8
Schneller (inverted single mordent), 8
Shake: 3, 5, 6; close shake (vibrato), 6; open shake, 6; plain note and shake, 6; plain shake (reiterated note), 6; shake turned, 6
Sigh (springer), 6
Single relish, 6
Slide, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9
Slur, 6
Son coupé (curtailed note), 7
Son filé, 7
Springer, 6
Sting (vibrato), 6
Strascino, 4
Stroke, 3
Supposition, 7
Suspension (truncated note), 7Temblor, 2
Tenuë (tie), 7
Tierce coulé, 7, 9
Tirata (scale-like embellishment), 8
Tombé (descending appoggiatura), 7
Tour de chant (inverted mordent), 7
Tour de gosier (turn), 7
Tremble (bow vibrato), 6
Tremblement: (trill), 7; tremblement mineur (vibrato), 7; tremblement sans appuyer (De Machy; vibrato), 7; tremblement et pincé (trill with turned ending), 7; tremblement ouvert (trill resolving upwards), 7; tremblement fermé (trill resolving downwards), 7; tremblement continu (oscillates for a few bars), 7
Tremoletto: (trill), 8; (mordent), 8
Tremolino (repeated note), 4
Tremolo: (mordent), 1, 8; (repeated note), 4; (trill), 1, 4, 8; (vibrato), 8
Tremolo d’un tasto solo (mordent), 1
Trill, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Triller: (trill), 8
Trilletto (vibrato), 8
Trillo: (trill), 4, 8; (repeated note), 4, 5, 8; (vibrato), 8; Trillo und Mordant (trill with turned ending), 8
Trinado, trino (trill), 2
Turn, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Tut (curtailed note), 6 Vibrato (as ornament), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Vorschlag: (appoggiatura or passing note), 8; unveränderlicher Vorschlag (invariable or short appoggiatura), 8; veränderlicher Vorschlag (variable or long appoggiatura), 8Wholefall (slur), 6



A General. B Middle Ages and Renaissance. C Spain, 1500–1800. D English virginalists. E Italy, 1600–50. F Italian late Baroque. G English Baroque. H French Baroque. I German Baroque. J After 1750.

a: general

b: middle ages and renaissance

c: spain, 1500–1800

d: english virginalists

e: italy, 1600–1650

f: italian late baroque

g: english baroque

h: french baroque

i: german baroque

j: after 1750

Ornaments: Bibliography

a: general

MGG1 (‘Diminution’; H. Engel)

MGG2 (‘Verzierungen’; D. Gutknecht)

H. Goldschmidt: Die Lehre von der vokalen Ornamentik (Charlottenburg, 1907/R)

A. Beyschlag: Die Ornamentik der Musik (Leipzig, 1908/R)

A. Dolmetsch: The Interpretation of the Music of the XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuries Revealed by Contemporary Evidence (London, 1915, 2/1946/R)

R. Haas: Aufführungspraxis der Musik (Potsdam, 1931/R)

A. Schering: Aufführungspraxis alter Musik (Leipzig, 1931)

P.C. Aldrich: The Principal Agréments of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: a Study of Musical Ornamentation (diss., Harvard U., 1942)

T. Dart: The Interpretation of Music (London, 1954, 4/1967/R)

E.T. Ferand: Die Improvisation in Beispielen aus neun Jahrhunderten abendländischer Musik, Mw, xii (1956, 2/1961; Eng. trans., 1961)

W. Georgii: Die Verzierungen in der Musik: Theorie und Praxis (Zürich and Freiburg, 1957)

R. Donington: The Interpretation of Early Music (London, 1963, 4/1989)

G. Frotscher: Aufführungspraxis alter Musik (Wilhelmshaven, 1963, 8/1997; Eng. trans., 1981)

K. Wichmann: Vom Vortrag des Recitativs und seiner Erscheinungsformen: ein Beitrag zur Gesangspädagogik (Leipzig, 1965)

K. Wichmann: Der Ziergesang und die Ausführung der Appoggiatura: ein Beitrag zur Gesangspädagogik (Leipzig, 1966)

P.F. Williams: ‘The Harpsichord Acciaccatura: Theory and Practice in Harmony, 1650–1750’, MQ, liv (1968), 503–23

R. Donington: A Performer's Guide to Baroque Music (London, 1973)

H. Ferguson: Keyboard Interpretation from the 14th to the 19th Century (London, 1975/R)

B.B. Mather and D. Lasocki: Free Ornamentation in Woodwind Music, 1700–1775 (New York, 1976)

S.A. Sanford: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Vocal Style and Technique (DMA diss., Stanford U., 1979)

J. Tyler: The Early Guitar: a History and Handbook (London, 1980)

H. Krones and R. Schollum: Vokale und allgemeine Aufführungspraxis (Vienna, 1983)

R. Troeger: Technique and Interpretation on the Harpsichord and Clavichord (Bloomington, IN, 1987)

R. Jackson: Performance Practice, Medieval to Contemporary: a Bibliographic Guide (New York and London, 1988)

G. Moens-Haenen: Das Vibrato in der Musik des Barock: ein Handbuch zur Aufführungspraxis für Vokalisten und Instrumentalisten (Graz, 1988)

D. Gutknecht: Studien zur Geschichte der Aufführungspraxis alter Musik (Cologne, 1993)

S.A. Sanford: ‘A Comparison of French and Italian Singing in the Seventeenth Century’, Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music, i/1 (1995) 〈www.sscm.harvard.edu/jscm〉

S. Sanford: ‘Solo Singing, I’, A Performer's Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music, ed. S. Carter (New York, 1997), 3–29

Ornaments: Bibliography

b: middle ages and renaissance

P. Aaron : Thoscanello de la musica (Venice, 1523/R, rev. with suppl. as Toscanello in musica, 4/1562; Eng. trans. collating all edns, 1970)

M. Agricola: Musica instrumentalis deudsch (Wittenberg, 1529/R, enlarged 5/1545); Eng trans. by W. Hettrick (Cambridge, 1994)

S. di Ganassi dal Fontego: Opera intitulata Fontegara (Venice, 1535/R1969 in BMB, section 2, xviii; Eng. trans., 1959); ed. L. de Paolis (Rome, 1991)

S. di Ganassi dal Fontego: Regola rubertina (Venice, 1542/R); ed. W. Eggers (Kassel, 1974); Eng. trans. in JVdGSA, xviii (1981), 13–66

D. Ortiz: Trattado de glosas sobre clausulas y otros generos de puntos en la musica de violone (Rome, 1553); ed. Max Schneider (Berlin, 1913, 3/1961)

E.N. Ammerbach: Orgel oder Instrument Tabulatur (Leipzig, 1571, 2/1583); ed. C. Jacobs (Oxford, 1984)

G. Dalla Casa: Il vero modo di diminuir (Venice, 1584/R; Eng. trans. in HBSJ, i, 1989, pp.109–14)

G. Bassano: Ricercate, passaggi et cadentie (Venice, 1585); ed. R. Erig (Zürich, 1976)

I. Horsley: ‘Improvised Embellishment in the Performance of Renaissance Polyphonic Music’, JAMS, iv (1951), 3–19

W.H. Rubsamen: ‘The Justiniane or Viniziane of the 15th Century’, AcM, xxix (1957), 172–84

I. Horsley: ‘The Solo Ricercar in Diminution Manuals: New Light on Early Wind and String Techniques’, AcM, xxxiii (1961), 29–40

W. Dürr and U. Siegele: ‘Cantar d'affetto: zum Vortrag monodischer Musik’, GfMKB: Leipzig 1966, 208–15

E.T. Ferand: ‘Didactic Embellishment Literature in the Late Renaissance: a Survey of Sources’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 154–72

D. Poulton: ‘Graces of Play in Renaissance Lute Music’, EMc, iii (1975), 107–14

H.M. Brown: Embellishing Sixteenth-Century Music (London, 1976)

R. Erig and V. Gutmann: Italienische Diminutionen: die zwischen 1553 und 1638 mehrmals bearbeiten Sätze/Italian Diminutions: the Pieces with More than One Diminution from 1553–1638 (Zürich, 1979)

L. Brunner: ‘The Performance of Plainchant: Some Preliminary Observations of the New Era’, EMc, x (1982), 317–28

C. Page: ‘The Performance of Ars Antiqua Motets’, EMc, xvi (1988), 147–64

H.M. Brown and S. Sadie, eds.: Performance Practice: Music before 1600 (London, 1989)

D. Fallows: ‘Embellishment and Urtext in the Fifteenth-Century Song Repertories’, Basler Jb für historische Musikpraxis, xiv (1990), 59–85

B. Dickey: ‘L'accento: in Search of a Forgotten Ornament’, HBSJ, iii (1991), 98–121

C. Jacobs: ‘Ornamentation in Spanish Renaissance Vocal Music’, Performance Practice Review, iv (1991), 116–85

B. Thomas: ‘Divisions in Renaissance Music’, Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music, ed. T. Knighton and D. Fallows (London, 1992), 345–53

B. Toliver: ‘Improvisation in the Madrigals of the Rossi Codex’, AcM, lxiv (1992), 165–76

A. Haug: ‘Zur Interpretation der Liqueszenzneumen’, AMw, l (1993), 85–100

M.C. Bradshaw: ‘Giovanni Luca Conforti and Vocal Embellishment: from Formula to Artful Improvisation’, Performance Practice Review, viii (1995), 5–27

T.J. McGee: ‘“Ornamental” Neumes and Early Notation’, Performance Practice Review, ix (1996), 39–65

Ornaments: Bibliography

c: spain, 1500–1800

R. Strizich: ‘Ornamentation in Spanish Baroque Guitar Music’, JLSA, v (1972), 18–39

D. Preciado: Quiebros y redobles en F. Correa de Araujo (1575/77–1654): estudio sobre los adornos de la música de tecla española de principios del s. XVI (Madrid, 1973)

F. Cook: ‘Les batteries à la guitare baroque espagnole d'après Marin Mersenne’, Musique ancienne, vii (1979), 22–7

N.D. Pennington: The Spanish Baroque Guitar, with a Transcription of De Murcia's Passacalles y obras (Ann Arbor, 1981)

Ornaments: Bibliography

d: english virginalists

see also G: English Baroque

D. Stevens : The Mulliner Book: a Commentary (London, 1952)

E.P. Schwandt: The Ornamented Clausula diminuta in the ‘Fitzwilliam Virginal Book’ (diss., Stanford U., 1967)

J. Caldwell: English Keyboard Music before the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1973)

A. Brown: ‘Parthenia: Some Aspects of Notation and Performance’, The Consort, no.32 (1976), 176–82

P. le Huray: ‘English Keyboard Fingering in the 16th and Early 17th Centuries’, Source Materials and the Interpretation of Music: a Memorial Volume to Thurston Dart, ed. I. Bent (London, 1981), 227–57

D. Wulstan: Tudor Music (London, 1985)

B.A.R. Cooper: English Solo Keyboard Music of the Middle and Late Baroque (New York, 1989)

D. Hunter: The Application of Grace Signs in the Sources of English Keyboard Music, c.1530–c.1650 (diss., National U. of Ireland, 1989)

D. Hunter: ‘The Function of Strokes in Sixteenth-Century Sources of English Keyboard Music’, Musicology in Ireland, ed. G. Gillen and H.M. White (Dublin, 1990), 131–49

D. Hunter: ‘My Ladye Nevells Booke and the Art of Gracing’, Byrd Studies, ed. A. Brown and R. Turbet (Cambridge, 1992), 174–92

J. Harley: British Harpsichord Music (Aldershot, 1992–4)

A. Brown: ‘England’, Keyboard Music before 1700, ed. A. Silbiger (New York, 1995), 23–89

Ornaments: Bibliography

e: italy, 1600–1650

R. Rognoni: Passaggi per potersi essercitare (Venice, 1592)

L. Zacconi: Prattica di musica (Venice, 1592/R)

G.L. Conforti: Breve et facile maniera d'essercitarsi (Rome, 1593/R; Eng. trans., 1989, as The Joy of Ornamentation)

G. Diruta: Il transilvano (Venice, 1593/R); ed. M.C. Bradshaw and E.J. Soehnlen (Henryville, PA, 1984)

G.B. Bovicelli: Regole, passaggi di musica (Venice, 1594/R); ed. in DM, 1st ser., Druckschriften-Faksimiles, xii (1957)

E. de' Cavalieri: Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (Rome, 1600/R); ed. in CMI, xxxv–xxxvi (Milan, 1919)

A. Virgiliano: Il dolcimelo (MS, c1600/R)

A. Banchieri: Cartella, overo Regole utilissime à quelli che desiderano imparare il canto figurato (Venice, 1601, 3/1614 as Cartella musicale; Eng. trans., 1981; 4/1615 as La cartellina musicale; 5/1623 as La banchierina, overo Cartella piccola del canto figurato)

G. Caccini: Le nuove musiche (Florence, 1601/2/R); ed. in RRMBE, ix (1970)

G.L. Conforti: Salmi passaggiati (Venice, 1601–3, 2/1618 as Passaggi sopra tutti li salmi); ed. M.C. Bradshaw (Neuhausen-Stuttgart, 1985)

A. Agazzari: Del sonare sopra 'l basso con tutti li stromenti e dell'uso loro nel conserto (Siena, 1607/R, 2/1608 in Sacrarum cantionum … liber II; Eng. trans. in StrunkSR1); ed. V. Gibelli (Milan, 1979)

O. Durante: Arie devote (Rome, 1608)

G.G. [J.H.] Kapsberger: Libro primo di arie passeggiate (Rome, 1612)

G.G. [J.H.] Kapsberger: Libro primo di mottetti passeggiate (Rome, 1612)

A. Notari: Prime musiche nove (London, 1613)

A. Brunelli: Varii esercitii (Florence, 1614); ed. R. Erig (Zürich, 1977)

G. Frescobaldi: Toccate e partite d'intavolatura di cimbalo et organo … libro primo (Rome, 1615, 4/1628); prefaces in SartoriB; Eng. trans. in Dolmetsch, A1915

F. Rognoni: Selva di varii passaggi (Milan, 1620/R)

G.P. Foscarini: Il primo, secondo, e terzo libro della chitarra spagnola (n.p., n.d. [after 1628])

J. Crüger: Synopsis musica (Berlin, 1630, enlarged 2/1654)

G.B. Doni: Trattato primo sopra il genere enarmonico (MS, 1635); ed. in A.F. Gori and G.B. Passeri: Lyra Barberina amphichordos, i (Florence, 1763/R)

G. Frescobaldi: Fiori musicali (Venice, 1635)

D. Mazzocchi: Madrigali (Rome, 1638)

P. della Valle: Discorso della musica dell'età nostra (MS, 1640); ed. in A.F. Gori and G.B. Passeri: G.B. Doni: Lyra Barberina amphichordos, ii (Florence, 1763/R)

J. Crüger: Musica praticae praecepta brevia (Berlin, 1660)

G. Rose: ‘Agazzari and the Improvising Orchestra’, JAMS, xviii (1965), 382–93

H.W. Hitchcock: ‘Vocal Ornamentation in Caccini's Nuove musiche’, MQ, lvi (1970), 389–404

R. Greenlee: ‘Dispositione di voce: Passage to Florid Singing’, EMc, xv (1987), 47–55

S. Carter: ‘Francesco Rognoni's Selva di varii passaggi (1620): Fresh Details Concerning Early Baroque Vocal Ornamentation’, Performance Practice Review, ii (1989), 5–33

S. Carter: ‘On the Shape of the Early Baroque Trill’, Historical Performance, iii/1 (1990), 9–17

S. Carter: ‘The String Tremolo in the 17th Century’, EMc, xix (1991), 49–60

B. Dickey: ‘Ornamentation in Early Seventeenth-Century Italian Music’, A Performer's Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music, ed. S. Carter (New York, 1997), 245–68

Ornaments: Bibliography

f: italian late baroque

G.M. Bononcini: Sonate da chiesa, op.6 (Venice, 1672/R)

F. Gasparini: L'armonico pratico al cimbalo (Venice, 1708/R; Eng. trans., 1963, as The Practical Harmonist at the Harpsichord)

G. Tartini : Traité des agréments de la musique (Paris, 1771); ed. E.R. Jacobi (Celle, 1961) [incl. Eng. and Ger. trans. and facs. of orig. It. MS, I-Vc]

W. Dean: ‘Vocal Embellishment in a Handel Aria’, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Music: a Tribute to Karl Geiringer, ed. H.C.R. Landon and R.E. Chapman (London, 1970), 151–9; repr. in W. Dean: Essays on Opera (Oxford, 1990), 22–9

R. Freeman: ‘Farinello and his Repertory’, Studies in Renaissance and Baroque Music in Honor of Arthur Mendel, ed. R.L. Marshall (Kassel and Hackensack, NJ, 1974), 301–30

W. Dean: ‘The Performance of Recitative in Late Baroque Opera’, ML, lviii (1977), 389–402

J.E. Smiles: ‘Directions for Improvised Ornamentation in Italian Method Books of the Late Eighteenth Century’, JAMS, xxxi (1978), 495–509

H.M. Brown: ‘Embellishing Eighteenth-Century Arias: on Cadenzas’, Opera & Vivaldi: Dallas 1980, 258–76

D.R. Fuller: ‘Ornamentation’, Companion to Baroque Music, ed. J.A. Sadie (London, 1990), 417–34

E. Gatti: ‘Nel solco della tradizione italiana: “Les adagios brodés” di Pietro Nardini’, Pietro Nardini: Livorno 1994, 53–84

N. Zaslaw: ‘Ornaments for Corelli's Violin Sonatas, op.5’, EMc, xxiv (1996), 95–118

Ornaments: Bibliography

g: english baroque

J. Playford : A Breefe Introduction to the Skill of Musick for Song and Violl (London, 1654, rev. 12/1694/R by H. Purcell)

C. Simpson: The Division-Violist, or An Introduction to Playing upon a Ground (London, 1659, 2/1667/R as Chelys: minuritionum artificio exornata/The Division-Viol, 3/1712)

The Burwell Lute Tutor (MS, c1660–72/R)

M. Locke: Melothesia, or Certain General Rules for Playing upon a Continued-Bass (London, 1673/R); ed. C. Hogwood (Oxford, 1987)

T. Mace: Musick's Monument (London, 1676/R)

P. Reggio: The Art of Singing, or A Treatise wherein is Shewn how to Sing Well Any Song Whatsoever, and also how to Apply the Best Graces, with a Collection of Cadences Plain, and then Graced (Oxford, 1677)

The Synopsis of Vocal Musick (London, 1680)

N. Matteis: Le false consonanse della musica (London, c1680; Eng. trans., 1682/R)

H. Salter: The General Companion: being Exact Directions for the Recorder (London, 1683)

R. Carr: The Delightful Companion, or Choice New Lessons for the Recorder or Flute (London, 1684, 2/1686)

A New and Easie Method to Learn to Sing by Book (London, 1686)

H. Purcell: A Choice Collection of Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinet (London, 1696, 3/1699); ed. H. Ferguson (London, 1964, 2/1968)

The Compleat Musick-Master (London, 1704, 3/1722)

The Bird Fancyer's Delight (London, 1717); ed. S. Godman (London, 1954)

The Harpsichord Master Improved (London, 1718)

P.F. Tosi: Opinioni de' cantori antichi e moderni (Bologna, 1723/R; Eng. trans., ed. J.E. Galliard, 1742, 2/1743/R as Observations on the Florid Song)

W. Babell: XII Solos … with Proper Graces Adapted to Each Adagio (London, c1725)

P. Prelleur: The Modern Musick-Master, or The Universal Musician (London, 1731/R, 4/1738)

J. Grassineau: A Musical Dictionary (London, 1740/R, rev., enlarged 2/1796 by J. Robson, rev. 3/1784 by J.C. Heck)

F. Geminiani: A Treatise of Good Taste in the Art of Musick (London, 1749/R1969 with introduction by R. Donington)

F. Geminiani: The Art of Playing the Violin (London, 1751/R1952 with introduction by D.D. Boyden)

N. Pasquali: The Art of Fingering the Harpsichord (Edinburgh, ?1760)

C. Zuccari: The True Method of Playing an Adagio Made Easy by 12 Examples (London, c1760)

J. Hook: Guida di musica, Being a Complete Book of Instructions for Beginners on the Harpsichord or Piano Forte (London, c1785)

R. Beer: ‘Ornaments in Old Keyboard Music’, MR, xiii (1952), 3–13

V. Duckles: ‘Florid Embellishment in English Song of the Late 16th and Early 17th Centuries’, AnnM, v (1957), 329–45

M.V. Hall: ‘Handel's Graces’, HJb 1957, 25–43

J. Wilson, ed.: Roger North on Music (London, 1959)

T. Dart: ‘Ornament Signs in Jacobean Music for Lute and Viol’, GSJ, xiv (1961), 30–33

H. Ferguson: ‘Purcell's Harpsichord Music: Lecture-Recital’, PRMA, xci (1964–5), 1–9

J. Harley: ‘Ornaments in English Keyboard Music of the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries’, MR, xxxi (1970), 177–200

M. Cyr: ‘A Seventeenth-Century Source of Ornamentation for Voice and Viol: British Museum MS. Egerton 2971’, RMARC, no.9 (1971), 53–72

M. Tilmouth: ‘York Minster MS. M.16(s) and Captain Prendcourt’, ML, liv (1973), 302–7

B. Cooper: ‘New Light on John Stanley's Organ Music’, PRMA, ci (1974–5), 101–6

D.H. Till: English Vocal Ornamentation, 1600–1660 (diss., U. of Oxford, 1975)

P.L. Furnas: The Manchester Gamba Book: a Primary Source of Ornaments for the Lyra Viol (diss., Stanford U., 1978)

M. Boxall: ‘The Harpsichord Master of 1697 and its Relationship to Contemporary Instruction and Playing’, English Harpsichord Magazine, ii (1981), 178–83

G. Cox: Organ Music in Restoration England: a Study of Sources, Styles, and Influences (New York, 1989)

M. Chan and J.C. Kassler, eds.: Roger North: ‘The Musicall Grammarian’ (Cambridge, 1990)

H.D. Johnstone: ‘The English Beat’, Aspects of Keyboard Music: Essays in Honour of Susi Jeans, ed. R. Judd (Oxford, 1992), 34–44

I. Spink, ed.: The Blackwell History of Music in Britain, iii: The Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1992) [incl. I. Spink: ‘Vocal Music II: from 1660’, 175–96; B. Cooper: ‘Keyboard Music’, 341–66; M. Spring: ‘Solo Music for Tablature Instruments’, 367–405]

C. Price: ‘Newly Discovered Autograph Keyboard Music of Purcell and Draghi’, JRMA, cxx (1995), 77–111

H.D. Johnstone: ‘Ornamentation in the Keyboard Music of Henry Purcell and his Contemporaries’, Performing the Music of Henry Purcell, ed. M. Burden (Oxford, 1996), 82–104

M. Shepherd: ‘The Interpretation of Signs for Graces in English Lute Music’, The Lute, xxxvi (1996), 37–84

R. Spencer: ‘Singing Purcell's Songs: 17th Century Evidence, with Suggestions for Singers Today’, Singing (1996–7), 31–3

M. Cyr: ‘Ornamentation in English Lyra Viol Music, I: Slurs, Juts, Thumps, and Other “Graces” for the Bow’, JVdGSA, xxxiv (1997), 48–66

M. Cyr: ‘Ornamentation in English Lyra Viol Music, II: Shakes, Relishes, Falls, and Other “Graces” for the Left Hand’, JVdGSA, xxxv (1998), 16–34

Ornaments: Bibliography

h: french baroque



N. Vallet: Secretum musarum/Secret des muses (Amsterdam, 1615–16, 2/1618–19); ed. A Souris (Paris, 1970, 2/1989)

P. Trichet: Traité des instruments de musique (MS, 1630s, F-Psg 1070); ed. F. Lesure, AnnM, iii (1955), 283–387; iv (1956), 175–248; edn pubd. separately (Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1957/R; Eng. trans., 1973)

J. Denis: Traité de l'accord de l'espinette (Paris, 1643, 2/1650/R; Eng. trans., 1987)

J. Millet: La belle méthode, ou L'art de bien chanter (Lyons, 1666/R)

B. de Bacilly: Remarques curieuses sur l'art de bien chanter (Paris, 1668, 3/1679/R; Eng. trans., 1968)

J. de la Barre: Airs à deux parties avec les seconds couplets en diminution (Paris, 1669/R)

J. Rousseau: Méthode claire, certaine et facile, pour apprendre à chanter la musique (Paris, 1678, 5/c1710/R)

J. Le Gallois: Lettre de Mr Le Gallois à Mademoiselle Regnault de Solier touchant la musique (Paris, 1680); partial Eng. trans. in D. Fuller: ‘French Harpsichord Playing in the 17th Century: after Le Gallois’, EMc, iv (1976), 22–6

Danoville: L'art de toucher le dessus et basse de viole (Paris, 1687/R)

J. Rousseau: Traité de la viole (Paris, 1687/R)

A. Bauderon de Sénecé: Lettre de Clément Marot … à l'arrivée de J.-B. de Lully aux Champs-Elysées (Cologne, 1668); repr. in Echo musical (5 Feb, 5 March and 5 April 1913)

E.D. Delair: Traité d'accompagnement pour le théorbe et le clavessin (Paris, 1690, 2/1724)

M. L'Affilard: Principes très-faciles pour bien apprendre la musique (Paris, 1694, 5/1705/R)

C. Masson: Nouveau traité des règles pour la composition de la musique (Paris, 1694)

E. Loulié: Eléments ou principes de musique (Paris, 1696/R, 2/1698; Eng. trans., 1965)

S. de Brossard: Dictionaire des termes grecs, latins et italiens (Paris, 1701, enlarged 2/1703/R as Dictionaire de musique, 3/1705/R); Eng. trans., ed. A. Gruber (Henryville, PA, 1982)

M. de Saint Lambert: Les principes du clavecin (Paris, 1702/R); ed. R. Harris-Warrick with Eng. trans. (Cambridge, 1984)

J.L. Le Cerf de la Viéville: Comparaison de la musique italienne et de la musique françoise (Brussels, 1705–6/R)

J.M. Hotteterre: Principes de la flûte traversière, ou flûte d'Allemagne, de la flûte à bec, ou flûte douce, et du haut-bois, diviséz par traitéz (Paris, 1707/R, 7/1741; Eng. trans., 1968, 2/1983)

M. de Saint Lambert: Nouveau traité de l'accompagnement du clavecin, de l'orgue et des autres instruments (Paris, 1707/R; Eng. trans., 1991)

P. Bourdelot and P. Bonnet-Bourdelot: Histoire de la musique et de ses effets, ed. J. Bonnet (Paris, 1715/R, 7/1743)

F. Couperin: L'art de toucher le clavecin (Paris, 1716, 2/1717/R); ed. M. Halford with Eng. trans. (New York, 1974)

A. de Villeneuve: Nouvelle méthode … pour apprendre la musique et les agréments du chant (Paris, 1733)

M.P. de Montéclair: Principes de musique (Paris, 1736/R)

J.M. Hotteterre: Méthode pour la musette (Paris, 1737/R)

M. Corrette: Méthode pour apprendre aisément à jouer de la flûte traversière (Paris, c1740/R; Eng. trans., 1970, as Michel Corrette and Flute-Playing in the Eighteenth Century)

J.-A. Bérard: L'art du chant (Paris, 1755)

J. Blanchet: L'art ou les principes philosophiques du chant (Paris, 1756)

M. Corrette: Le parfait maître à chanter (Paris, 1758, enlarged 2/1782)

A. Mahaut: Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre en peu de tems à jouer de la flûte traversière (Paris, 1759/R; Eng. trans., 1989)

J.-J. Rousseau: Dictionnaire de musique (Paris, 1768/R; Eng. trans., 1771, 2/1779/R)

J.-B. Cartier: L'art du violon (Paris, 1798, enlarged 3/c1803/R)

J. Arger: ‘Le role expressif des agréments dans l'école vocale française de 1680 à 1760’, RdM, i (1917–19), 215–26

P. Brunold: Traité des signes et agréments employés par les clavecinistes français des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Lyons, 1925/R)

H. Prunières: ‘De l'interprétation des agréments du chant aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles’, ReM, nos.122–6 (1932), 329–44

F. Neumann: ‘Misconceptions about the French Trill in the 17th and 18th Centuries’, MQ, l (1964), 188–206

A. Caswell: ‘Remarques curieuses sur l'art de bien chanter’, JAMS, xx (1967), 116–20

L'interprétation de la musique française aux XVIIème et XVIIIème siècles: Paris 1969 [incl. A. Souris: ‘Apport du répertoire du luth à l'étude des problèmes d'interprétation’, 107–19; A. Geoffroy-Dechaume: ‘Du problème actuel de l'appoggiature ancienne’, 87–105; F. Cossart-Cotte: ‘Documents sonores de la fin du XVIIIe siècle: leurs enseignements pour l'interprétation’, 139–52; X. Darasse: ‘Les enseignements d'André Raison’, 182–95]

A. Cohen: ‘L'art de bien chanter (1666) of Jean Millet’, MQ, lv (1969), 170–79

F. Neumann: ‘Couperin and the Downbeat Doctrine for Appoggiaturas’, AcM, xli (1969), 71–85; repr. in Essays in Performance Practice (Ann Arbor, 1982), 227–41

B. Schwendowius: Die solistische Gambenmusik in Frankreich von 1650 bis 1740 (Regensburg, 1970)

K. Gilbert: Foreword to François Couperin: Pièces de clavecin (Paris, 1972)

M.B. Collins: ‘In Defense of the French Trill’, JAMS, xxvi (1973), 405–39

R.A. Green: ‘Jean Rousseau and Ornamentation in French Viol Music’, JVdGSA, xiv (1977), 4–41

C. Pond: ‘Ornamental Style and the Virtuoso: Solo Bass Viol Music in France c.1680–1740’, EMc, vi (1978), 512–18

W. Hancock: ‘The Frequency and Positioning of Ornaments in French Viol Music’, Chelys, viii (1978–9), 38–50

D. Fuller: ‘An Unknown French Ornament Table from 1699’, EMc, ix (1981), 55–61

C. Horrix: Studien zur französischen Lautenmusik im 17. Jahrhundert (diss., U. of Tübingen, 1981)

J. Hsu: A Handbook of French Viol Technique (New York, 1981)

N. McGegan and G. Spagnoli: ‘Singing Style at the Opéra in the Rameau Period’, Jean-Philippe Rameau: Dijon 1983, 209–26

B.B. Mather: ‘The Performance of Trills in French Baroque Dance Music’, Concerning the Flute, ed. R. De Reede (Amsterdam, 1984), 55–64

Zur vokalen und instrumentalen Ornamentik in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts: Blankenburg, Harz, 1986 [incl. F. Wesolowski: ‘Französische Vokalornamentik in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts’, 13–22; M. Rônez-Kubitschek: ‘Die französischen Manieren des 18. Jahrhunderts in den Quellen der Violinmusik’, 23–33]

E. Kooiman: ‘Verzierungen in der klassischen französischen Orgelmusik’, Zur Interpretation der französischen Orgelmusik, ed. H.J. Busch (Berlin, 1986), 65–77

B. Scheibert: Jean-Henry D'Anglebert and the Seventeenth-Century Clavecin School (Bloomington, IN, 1986)

J. Spitzer and N. Zaslaw: ‘Improvised Ornamentation in Eighteenth-Century Orchestras’, JAMS, xxxix (1986), 524–77

D. Ledbetter: Harpsichord and Lute Music in 17th-Century France (London, 1987)

J. Spitzer: ‘A Grammar of Improvised Ornamentation: Jean Rousseau's Viol Treatise of 1687’, JMT, xxxiii (1989), 299–332

P. le Huray: ‘Couperin's Huitième Ordre’, Authenticity in Performance: Eighteenth-Century Case Studies (Cambridge, 1990), 42–69

B. Scheibert: ‘New Information about Performing “Small Notes”’, The Harpsichord and its Repertoire: Utrecht 1990, 92–118

L.E. Peterman: ‘Michel Blavet's Breathing Marks: a Rare Source for Musical Phrasing in Eighteenth-Century France’, Performance Practice Review, iv (1991), 186–98

T. Christensen: Rameau and Musical Thought in the Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1993)

M. Seares: ‘Mersenne on Vocal Diminutions’, Performance Practice Review, vi (1993), 141–5

L. Sawkins: ‘Trembleurs and Cold People: How Should they Shiver?’, Performing the Music of Henry Purcell, ed. M. Burden (Oxford, 1996), 234–64

D. Tunley: The Eighteenth-Century French Cantata (Oxford, 2/1997)

K. and E. Ott: Handbuch der Verzierungskunst in der Musik (forthcoming)

Ornaments: Bibliography

i: german baroque

PraetoriusSM, iii


J.A. Herbst: Musica practica (Nuremberg, 1642, 2/1653 as Musica moderna prattica, 3/1658)

C. Bernhard: Von der Singe-Kunst oder Maniera (MS, c1649); ed. in J. Müller-Blattau: Die Kompositionslehre Heinrich Schützens in der Fassung seines Schülers Christoph Bernhard (Kassel, 1926, 2/1963); Eng. trans. in W. Hilse: ‘The Treatises of Christoph Bernhard’, Music Forum, iii (1973), 1–196, esp. 13–29

C. Bernhard: Tractatus compositionis augmentatus (MS, c1657); ed. in J. Müller-Blattau: Die Kompositionslehre Heinrich Schützens in der Fassung seines Schülers Christoph Bernhard (Kassel, 1926, 2/1963); Eng. trans. in W. Hilse: ‘The Treatises of Christoph Bernhard’, Music Forum, iii (1973), 1–196, esp. 31–196

W.C. Printz: Phrynis Mitilenaeus, oder Satyrischer Componist, i–ii (Quedlinburg, 1676–7, 2/1696); iii (Dresden and Leipzig, 1696)

W.M. Mylius: Rudimenta musices, das ist Eine kurtze und grund-richtige Anweisung zur Singe-Kunst (Mühlhausen, 1685)

J. Kuhnau: Neuer Clavier-Übung erster Theil (Leipzig, 1689); ed. in DDT, iv (1901/R)

W.C. Printz: Compendium musicae signatoriae et modulatoriae vocalis (Dresden, 1689/R, 2/1714)

G. Muffat: Apparatus musico-organisticus (Salzburg, 1690/R); ed. M. Radulescu (Vienna, 1982)

G. Muffat: Suavioris harmoniae instrumentalis hyporchematicae florilegium primum (Augsburg, 1695); ed. H. Rietsch, DTÖ, ii, Jg.i/2 (1894/R); Eng. trans. in StrunkSR1

F.E. Niedt: Musicalische Handleitung (Hamburg, 1700–17, 2/1721/R; Eng. trans., 1989)

T.B. Janovka: Clavis ad thesaurum magnae artis musicae (Prague, 1701/R, 2/1715/R as Clavis ad musicam)

J.G. Walther: Praecepta der musicalischen Composition (MS, 1708, D-WRtl); ed. P. Benary (Leipzig, 1955)

E.G. Baron: Historisch-theoretisch und practische Untersuchung des Instruments der Lauten (Nuremberg, 1727/R; Eng. trans., 1976, as Study of the Lute)

J.D. Heinichen: Der General-Bass in der Composition, oder Neue und gründliche Anweisung (Dresden, 1728)

J. Mattheson: Der vollkommene Capellmeister (Hamburg, 1739/R)

J.J. Quantz: Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen (Berlin, 1752/R, 3/1789/R; Eng. trans., 1966, 2/1985, as On Playing the Flute)

C.P.E. Bach: Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen, i (Berlin, 1753/R, 3/1787/R); ii (1762/R, 2/1797/R); Eng. trans. of pts i–ii (New York, 1949, 2/1951)

F.W. Marpurg: Anleitung zum Clavierspielen (Berlin, 1755, 2/1765/R)

L. Mozart: Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule (Augsburg, 1756/R, 3/1787/R; Eng. trans., 1948, as A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing)

J.F. Agricola: Anleitung zur Singekunst (Berlin, 1757/R) [trans., with addns, of P.F. Tosi: Opinioni de' cantori antichi e moderni, Bologna, 1723/R); Eng. trans., ed. J.C. Baird (Cambridge, 1995)

J.P. Kirnberger: Die Kunst des reinen Satzes (Berlin, 1771–9/R; partial Eng. trans., 1982, as The Art of Strict Musical Composition)

H. Schenker: Ein Beitrag zur Ornamentik als Einführung zu C.Ph.E. Bachs Klavierwerke (Vienna, 1908); Eng. trans. in H. Siegal: ‘A Contribution to the Study of Ornamentation’, Music Forum, iv (1976), 1–139

F. Salzer: ‘Über die Bedeutung der Ornamentik in Philipp Emanuel Bachs Klavierwerken’, ZMw, xii (1929–30), 398–418

W. Emery: Bach's Ornaments (London, 1953/R)

W. Kolneder: Georg Muffat zur Aufführungspraxis (Strasbourg, 1970)

F. Neumann: Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music, with Special Emphasis on J.S. Bach (Princeton, NJ, 1978, 3/1983)

N. Zaslaw: ‘Baroque Ornamentation Surveyed: Frederick Neumann's Major New Study’, EMc, ix (1981), 62–9

R. Hill, ed.: Keyboard Music from the Andreas Bach Book and the Möller Manuscript (Cambridge, MA, 1991)

J. Butt: Music Education and Art of Performance in the German Baroque (Cambridge, 1994)

Ornaments: Bibliography

j: after 1750

Grove1 (‘Shake’; F. Taylor)

SchillingE (‘Doppelschlag’; A.B. Marx)

G.S. Löhlein: Clavier-Schule (Leipzig and Züllichau, 1765–81, 9/1848 ed. F. Knorr)

G.S. Löhlein: Anweisung zum Violinspielen (Leipzig and Züllichau, 1774, enlarged 3/1797 by J.F. Reichardt)

J.F. Reichardt: Ueber die Pflichten des Ripien-Violinisten (Berlin and Leipzig, 1776)

J.A. Hiller: Anweisung zum musikalisch-zierlichen Gesang (Leipzig, 1780)

D.G. Türk: Clavierschule, oder Anweisung zum Clavierspielen für Lehrer und Lernende (Leipzig and Halle, 1789, enlarged 2/1802/R; Eng. trans., 1982)

D. Corri: A Select Collection of Choice Music (London and Edinburgh, c1790)

F. Galeazzi: Elementi teorico-pratici di musica (Rome, 1791–6, vol.i enlarged 2/1817); Eng. trans. of vol.i, ed. A. Franscarelli (DMA diss., U. of Rochester, NY, 1968)

J.P. Milchmeyer: Die wahre Art das Pianoforte zu spielen (Dresden, 1797)

M. Clementi: Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Piano Forte (London, 1801, 11/1826)

H.C. Koch: Musikalisches Lexikon (Frankfurt, 1802/R, rev. 3/1865 by A. von Dommer)

J.A. Amon : Recueil de vingt-six cadences ou points d'orgue faciles pour la flûte (Charenton, ?1804, 2/?1806)

G. Lanza: The Elements of Singing (London, 1809, abridged c1819)

D. Corri: The Singer's Preceptor (London, 1810)

P.A. Corri: L'anima di musica (London, 1810, many later edns)

F.J. Fröhlich: Vollständige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (Bonn, 1810–11)

B. Campagnoli: Nouvelle méthode de la mécanique progressive du jeu de violon … op.21 (Leipzig, 1824; Eng. trans., 1856)

J.N. Hummel: Ausführlich theoretisch-practische Anweisung zum Piano-Forte-Spiel (Vienna, 1828, 2/1838; Eng. trans., 1829)

L. Spohr: Violinschule (Vienna, 1832; Eng. trans., 1843)

P. Baillot: L'art du violon: nouvelle méthode (Paris, 1835)

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H.J. Wood: The Gentle Art of Singing (London, 1927–8, abridged 2/1930)

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H.-P. Schmitz: Die Kunst der Verzierung im 18. Jahrhundert (Kassel, 1955, 4/1983)

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R. Celletti: ‘Il vocalismo italiano da Rossini a Donizetti’, AnMc, v (1968), 267–94, 214–47

A.B. Caswell: ‘Mme Cinti-Damoreau and the Embellishment of Italian Opera in Paris, 1820–1845’, JAMS, xxviii (1975), 459–92

C. Tolstoy: ‘The Identification and Interpretation of Sign Ornaments in Haydn's Instrumental Music’, Haydn Studies: Washington DC 1975, 315–23

J.W. Dorenfeld: Ornamentation in Mozart's Concert Arias for Aloysia Weber: the Traditions of Singing and Embellishment (DMA diss., U. of British Columbia, 1976)

W. Crutchfield: ‘Vocal Ornamentation in Verdi: the Phonographic Evidence’, 19CM, vii (1983–4), 2–54

F. Neumann: Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart (Princeton, NJ, 1986)

C. Brown: ‘Bowing Styles, Vibrato and Portamento in Nineteenth-Century Violin Playing’, JRMA, cxiii (1988), 97–128

E. Kooiman: Inequality in Classical French Music: Ornamentation in Classical French Organ Music (Buckfastleigh, 1988)

S. Rosenblum: Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music (Bloomington, IN, 1988)

A.B. Caswell, ed.: Embellished Opera Arias, RRMNETC, vii–viii (1989)

W. Crutchfield: ‘The Prosodic Appoggiatura in the Music of Mozart and his Contemporaries’, JAMS, xlii (1989), 229–74

R.D. Levin: ‘Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas’, Performance Practice: Music after 1600, ed. H.M. Brown and S. Sadie (London and New York, 1989), 267–91

C. Brown: ‘Performing Practice’, Wagner in Performance, ed. B. Millington and S. Spencer (New Haven, CT, 1992), 99–119

M. Nastasi: ‘Thomas Lindsays Elements of Flute Playing … (1828): ein Dokument des klassisch/romantischen Flötenspiels wiederentdeckt’, Travers & Controvers: Festschrift Nikolaus Delius, ed. M. Nastasi (Celle, 1992), 152–75

C. Brown: ‘String Playing Practices in the Classical Orchestra’, Basler Jb für historische Musikpraxis, xvii (1993), 41–64

W. Goldhan: Musik-Ornamente von Ferdinand Eckhardt sen., Beethoven, Brahms, Bruckner, Rachmaninov, Wagner (Berlin, 1993)

J. Boss: ‘Schoenberg on Ornamentation and Structural Levels’, JMT, xxxviii (1994), 187–216

C. Brown: Classical and Romantic Performing Practice 1750–1900 (Oxford, 1999)
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