Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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(e) Turn.

The turn, although similar in shape to the old circolo – a type of division illustrated by Printz (I1689) and Janovka – is closely related to the trill and appoggiatura in its 18th-century German versions. It seems to have been primarily a keyboard ornament, poorly attested in sources for other media. Mattheson referred to it by the old terms groppo and circolo mezzo; J.S. Bach knew it by the French name cadence, and later it was termed the Doppelschlag. It differs from the older French double cadence of, for example, Chambonnières (1670), in beginning on the note above the main note rather than on the latter. Moreover, in slower tempos or on longer notes it might occupy only the beginning of the note's value, as Gottlieb Muffat's table suggests (ex.90). The sign is sometimes displaced to the right, in which case the ornament is delayed, as C.P.E. Bach shows (ex.91; typical here are the positioning of the accidental above the turn sign, the staccato note c'' in the realization of the ornament, and the shortening of the following d'' to half its original value). J.S. Bach and others frequently wrote the sign in upright form, but the spatial orientation of the symbol became significant only with later composers. Thus C.P.E. Bach inverted the usual symbol to indicate an inversion of the ornament, although he considered the latter a form of slide (Schleifer) (ex.92).

Ornaments, §8(v): German baroque: The later 17th and early 18th centuries

(f) Slide.

The slide, like the turn, resembles an earlier ornament, the intonazione. 18th-century slides were closely related to broken chords that incorporate passing notes (acciaccaturas or coulés), as is clear from the sign employed for this ornament by Gottlieb Muffat (ex.93; cf ex.96). For slides Kuhnau (1689) had already used the name Schleifer, which later became the usual German term; unlike his successors he recognized a descending as well as an ascending form. J.S. Bach adopted Kuhnau's sign for the ascending slide; unfortunately, in Bach's more hastily written manuscripts the sign appears virtually identical with a small note. The resulting copyist errors have been perpetuated in some editions, as in the B minor flute sonata (ex.94). C.P.E. Bach and other late writers are clear about placing the slide on the beat, but this was not always true of earlier forms of the ornament. Georg Muffat (1698) regarded the on-beat slide as a variety of esclamazione, illustrating it alongside a post-beat instance. Both forms of the slide occur as written-out figures in the music of J.S. Bach and his contemporaries.

Further variants of the slide are shown in the treatises of Agricola and C.P.E. Bach together with other varieties of compound appoggiatura. The most important of these is perhaps the double appoggiatura (Anschlag), which became a favourite in the mid-century Berlin style and must have derived from opera seria. It has no special sign but was indicated by small notes (ex.95).

Ornaments, §8(v): German baroque: The later 17th and early 18th centuries

(g) Other ornaments.

Although the repercussive trillo and trilletto of the earlier Baroque fell out of favour, vibrato was described as an ornament in the 18th century, occasionally under the term ‘tremolo’ (Mattheson, L. Mozart), more often as Bebung. It was probably confined to special contexts, such as the sustained chromatic notes over which J.S. Bach occasionally placed long wavy lines (see Neuman, 519–20). Quantz (14.10) and Agricola (pp.121–2) mentioned its use on certain long notes, implying its absence elsewhere.

German woodwind, string, lute and clavichord players evidently produced a type of Bebung analogous to the French flattement. Unlike the Tremulant of the organ, which produced an intensity vibrato on every note, this was a pitch vibrato produced by rocking the hand or finger, as in a trill, but without actually articulating the adjacent note. The lutenist Ernst Gottlieb Baron (I1727) employed signs for two distinct types of vibrato, used to emphasize certain accented notes. Keyboard music lacks a sign for it before the first (1753) volume of the treatise by C.P.E. Bach, who used it only rarely afterwards.

Among other ornaments arising out of idiomatic vocal and instrumental techniques, the various types of keyboard arpeggiation (Brechung or Harpeggio and the like in German sources) are among the most common. They appear to differ little from their French counterparts. They were apparently not recognized as ornaments until the late 17th century; Kuhnau and Georg Muffat made no mention of them. Inconsistent use of signs occasionally creates ambiguities. For example, a diagonal stroke between note heads sometimes indicates the incorporation of a passing note into an arpeggio, as in J.S. Bach's third English Suite (ex.96); Marpurg and Kirnberger (1771–9) referred to this variety of the French coulé as an accentuirte Brechung. But the same sign could also stand for the simple breaking of a chord, perhaps in measured rhythm as Walther showed in his 1708 treatise (ex.97).

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