Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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Orlando Consort.

British vocal ensemble. It was founded in 1989 by Robert Harre-Jones, Charles Daniels, Angus Smith and Donald Greig to specialize in the performance of medieval and early Renaissance polyphony. The Orlando Consort collaborates especially closely with leading musicologists in each of the repertories concerned. Its interpretations are characterized by sensitivity to matters of intonation and pronunciation; in this, and in its approach to texting and vocal delivery, the ensemble has been influenced by the work of Christopher Page (with whose group, Gothic Voices, some of its members have been associated). Areas of special interest have included the earliest polyphonic repertories (including the St Martial and Notre Dame schools), the late Ars Nova, and individual figures such as Dunstaple, Vitry, Machaut, Du Fay, Ockeghem, Busnoys, Compère, Josquin and Obrecht. In addition, the ensemble regularly commissions works from contemporary (mostly British) composers, and has participated in several crossover projects.



City in central France. The presence of the councils and synods of the Gallican church during the 6th century encouraged musical life, especially in the new Ste Croix Cathedral and in the collegiate church of St Aignan. The nearby Abbey of Fleury at Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire was also a centre of music and learning; in 794 Abbot Theodolphus was appointed Bishop of Orléans by Charlemagne, and founded a choir school there. King Robert the Pious (c970–1031), who studied with Gerbert d'Aurillac, cantor at the St Aignan choir school, composed hymns and responsories. In the 12th century the goliard poet Hugo Primas of Orléans, known as ‘Primas’, was cantor at Ste Croix and composed a prosa, Lauda crucis.

Mystery and miracle plays involving music were frequently performed at Fleury and Orléans from the 12th century (several early examples in Latin with musical notation are preserved in the MS O 231). Tinctoris, who was succentor at the cathedral around 1460–62 and master of the choirboys at the cathedral choirschool (probably in the late 1960s), matriculated at the university in 1463. The poet and composer Eloy d'Amerval was master of the choirboys at St Aignan in 1471 and at Ste Crotx in 1483. During the period of Protestant administration four-voice settings of the Huguenot psalter by Jean Servin were published by Louis Rabier (1565). These followed other settings by the pastor Hughes Sureau (1562) and by Richard Grassot (1564); the latter was maǐtre des enfants at the cathedral in 1572. J.-B. Morin was born at Orléans in 1677 and trained in the choir school at St Aignan. 17th-century cathedral musicians included Nicolaus Benoist and Guillaume Minoret, and among the 18th-century choirmasters were Nicolas Grogniard (1718–24), Louis Homet and François Giroust, who was later surintendant de la musique to Louis XVI. The renowned Lupot family of instrument makers was active in Orléans in the late 18th century and early 19th.

A music academy was founded in 1670, and in 1722 a similar group with 60 performers was still active. After the Revolution a new concert society was established under J.-S. Demar (a pupil of F.X. Richter and Haydn) and the violinist J.-F. Mazas. The Institut Musical, established in 1834 under the direction of the organist C.-F. Pollet, included a music school and a concert association directed by Felice Blangini. In the 1920s the institute was merged with a municipal music school (founded 1868), becoming the Ecole Nationale de Musique. The Société des Concerts Populaires flourished between 1884 and 1906 and was reorganized by Philippe Gaubert as the Société des Concerts Symphoniques in 1907. Arthur Honegger's Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher premiered at Orléans in 1939.


C. Cuissard: Etude sur la musique dans l'Orléanais (Orléans, 1886)

C. Cuissard: ‘Les chanoines et les dignitaires de la cathédrale d'Orléans d'après les nécrologes manuscrits de Ste.-Croix’, Mémoires de la Société archéologique de l'Orléanais, xxviii (1902), 59–257

J. Brosset: Silhouettes musicales orléanaises, J.-J. Vimieux (1798–1855) (Blois, 1921)

E. Jarry: ‘Orgues orléanaises du XVIe siècle: Saint-Croix, Saint-Paul’,Bulletin de la Société archéologique, historique orléanais, xxiii (1936), 119

R. Berthelot: Un demi-siècle de musique à Orléans (Orléans, 1971),



(fl second half of the 14th century). ?French composer. His only known composition, a three-part Credo in motet style (ed. in CMM, xxix, 1962, and PMFC, xxiii/B, 1989), belongs to the Avignon repertory. The cantus paraphrases Vatican Credo I, like the four-part Credo of Guayrinet, but Orles’s composition has extensive hocket sections concluding the three main parts of the work, and in the Amen.




A wind instrument, possibly the Crumhorn.



See under Organ stop.

Orlov, Genrikh Aleksandrovich

(b Kiev, 29 Aug 1926). Russian musicologist. He studied the piano and composition at the Rimsky-Korsakov Music College at the Leningrad Conservatory (1945–6), and later musicology at the conservatory itself under Druskin (1946–51). He took the Kandidat degree at the Moscow Conservatory in 1957 with a dissertation on Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh, and in 1970 he was awarded the doctorate for his book Russkiy sovetskiy simfonizm, an analytical survey of the development of Soviet symphonic writing after the October Revolution. He became a member of the Union of Soviet Composers in 1955, and worked as a music administrator, conductor and pianist at the Baltic Fleet Theatre of Drama (1955–6) and as a research fellow and postgraduate supervisor at the Leningrad Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography (1957–76). In 1976 he moved to America, where he was visiting professor at Cornell University (1976–7), a humanities fellow at Harvard (1977–8), and professor at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut (1979–81). In 1983 he began writing and translating for the journal Israel Today; from 1986 he worked for the publishing company of Frager & Co., Washington, DC, and as a translator of books on philosophy and art. He retired in 1994.

During the 1950s, alongside his research into the music of Rimsky-Korsakov, Orlov was active as an advocate of Leningrad composers. His academic work took off in the 1960s, with the publication of his two major works, Simfonii Shostakovicha (1961) and Russkiy sovetskiy simfonizm (1966). He was the first Soviet musicologist to discuss the tragic fate of Shostakovich and his music in Simfonii Shostakovicha; in Russkiy sovetskiy simfonizm he was the first to include a large quantity of factual information on the music of the 1920s and 30s. During the 1970s, he concentrated on the aesthetics and philosophy of music. His theoretical studies concern musical thought, aesthetic values and semantics as the constituents of a cultural unity; his academic methodology touches on aspects of sociology, semantics, semiotics, the theory of perception in musical thought, and ethnomusicology. He was the first Soviet musicologist to formulate a modern theory of the functions of time and space in music; his book on the subject, Vremya i prostranstvo muzïki (‘The time and space of music’) was banned in the USSR. The culmination of his academic work is the book Drevo muzïki (1992), in which he draws together the many aspects of his earlier work and the teaching experience he acquired in America. Orlov's writings are distinguished by their clarity, concentration of thought and bold flights of scholarly fancy; they show his ability to reveal links between apparently unrelated facts in different areas of study. He belongs to the small number of musicologists who, during the years of the Iron Curtain, the Khrushchyov ‘thaw’ and the Brezhnev 'stagnation’, rigorously stayed abreast of advances in music and the arts, and in whose works the spirit of freedom and the opposition to dogmatic ideology was embodied.


Sovetskiy fortepiannïy kontsert [The Soviet piano concerto] (Leningrad, 1954)

‘Simfonicheskaya poėma A. Petrova’, ‘Lyutsian Prigozhin’, ‘Vladlen Chistyakov’, ‘Simfoniya I. Shvartsa’, Sovetskaya muzïka, ii, ed. M.A. Grinberg and others (Moscow, 1956), 258–61, 262–5, 270–73, 274–7

Tvorcheskaya ėvolyutsiya N.A. Rimskogo-Korsakova v 1890–1900 godakh i ‘Skazaniye o nevidimom grade Kitezhe i Deve Fevronii’ [The creative evolution of Rimsky-Korsakov in the 1890s–1900s and The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya] (Kandidat diss., Moscow Conservatory, 1957); partially pubd, Voprosï muzïkoznaniya, iii (1960), 499–538

Vladimir Shcherbachyov (Leningrad, 1959)

Simfonii Shostakovicha [The symphonies of Shostakovich] (Leningrad, 1961)

‘Psikhologicheskiye mekhanizmï muzïkal'nogo vospriyatiya’ [The psychological mechanism of musical perception], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, ii (1963), 181–215

‘Upadok ili obnovleniye? K probleme sovremennoy simfonii’ [Decline or renovation? Towards the problem of the modern symphony], SovM (1963), no.4, pp.31–6

‘O shekspirovskom u Shostakovicha’ [On the Shakespearian element in Shostakovich's music], Shekspir i muzïka, ed. L.N. Raaben (Leningrad, 1964), 276–302

Dmitriy Shostakovich: biografiya (Leningrad, 1966)

Russkiy sovetskiy simfonizm [The Soviet Russian symphony] (diss., Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography, Leningrad, 1970; Leningrad, 1966)

‘Voyennïy rekviyem Brittena’ [Britten's War Requiem], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, v (1966), 65–99

‘V seredine puti: k 30-letiyu sozdaniya IV simfonii’ [In the middle of the journey: on the 30th anniversary of the Fourth Symphony], Dmitriy Shostakovich, ed. G.S. Ordzhonikidze (Moscow, 1967), 166–87

with A. Sokhor: ‘Tvorchestvo leningradskikh kompozitorov’ [The works of Leningrad composers], Muzïkal'naya kul'tura Leningrada za 50 let, ed. V.M. Bogdanov-Berezovsky (Leningrad, 1967), 52–172

‘Zarubezhnaya muzïka v sovetskom muzïkoznanii’ [Western music in Soviet musicology], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, vi–vii (1967), 115–46

Tonal'nost' v sovremennoy muzïke (Leningrad, 1968) [trans. of R. Réti: Tonality in Modern Music (New York, 1962)]

‘Khudozhestvennaya kul'tura i tekhnicheskiy progress’ [Art, culture and technical development], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, ix (1969), 18–40

‘O Betkhovenskoy programmnosti’ [On Beethoven's programme music], Lyudvig van Betkhoven: ėstetika, tvorcheskoye naslediye, ispolnitel'stvo, ed. A.A. Gozenpud, Yu.A. Kremlyov and L.N. Raaben (Leningrad, 1970), 65–81

‘Simfonizm Shostakovicha na perelome’ [The change in Shostakovich's symphonic work], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, x (1971), 3–31

‘Vremya i prostranstvo muzïki’ [Time and space of music], Problemï muzïkal'noy nauki, i (1972), 358–94

‘Semantika muzïki’ [The semantics of music], Problemï muzïkal'noy nauki, ii (1973), 434–79

‘Strukturnïye funktsii vremeni v muzïke’ [Structural functions of time in music], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, xiii (Leningrad, 1974), 32–57

‘Vremennïye kharakteristiki muzïkal'nogo opïta’, Problemï muzïkal'nogo mïshleniya, ed. M.G. Aranovskï (Moscow, 1974), 272–302; Eng. trans. as ‘The Temporal Dimensions of Musical Experience’, MQ, lxv (1979), 368–78

‘N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov na poroge XX veka: puti iskaniy’ [Rimsky-Korsakov on the threshold of the 20th century: avenues of investigation], Voprosï teorii i ėstetiki muzïki, xiv (1975), 3–30

‘Traditsionnïye i novïye podkhodï v izuchenii muzïki’ [Traditional and new approaches in music research], Metodologicheskiye problemï sovremennogo iskusstvoznaniya, i (1975), 111–26

with L. Kovnatskaya and I. Khlebarov: ‘Vernost' muzïke’ [Loyalty to music], SovM (1975), no.4, pp.63–7 [for M.S. Druskin's 70th birthday]

‘Towards a Semiotics of Music’, The Sign in Music and Literature, ed. W. Steiner (Austin, 1981), 131–7

‘Pri dvore torzhestvuyushchey lzhi: razmïshleniya nad biografiyey Shostakovicha’ [At the court of a truimphant lie: reflections on Shostakovich's biography], Strana i mir (1986), no.3, pp.62–75; repr. in D.D. Shostakovich: sbornik statey k 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya, ed. L. Kovnatskaya (St Petersburg, 1996), 8–28

Drevo muzïki [The tree of music] (Washington DC and St Petersburg, 1992) [incl. excerpts from Orlov’s Vremya i prostranstvo muzïki]


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